Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and is also considered to be one of the most relapsing and aggressive neoplasms. About 30% of patients will present with muscle invasive disease, which is associated with a higher risk for metastatic disease. The aim of this article is to review the state of art imaging in Radiology, while providing a complete guide to urologists, with case examples, for the rationale of the development of the Vesical Imaging Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS), a scoring system emphasizing a standardized approach to multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) acquisition, interpretation, and reporting for BCa. Also, we examine relevant external validation studies and the consolidated literature of mpMRI for bladder cancer. In addition, this article discusses some of the potential clinical implications of this scoring system for disease management and follow-up.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose The predictors of trifecta achievement in partial nephrectomy (PN) were poorly inquired and remained a controversial area of discovery. To evaluate predictive factors of trifecta achievement in patients undergoing PN. Materials and Methods A systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant articles. Only studies focusing on postoperative trifecta achievement and exploring its predictor with multivariable analyses were included. The trifecta achievement was defined as negative surgical margins, warm ischemia time <25 minutes, and no complications. Merged odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the predictive effect. Results Thirteen studies with 7066 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were included. The rate of trifecta achievement ranged from 43.3% to 78.6%. Merged results showed that preoperative eGFR (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.02, P=0.02), operative time (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.00, P=0.02), estimated blood loss (OR: 1.00, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.00, P <0.001), tumor size (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.84, P <0.001), medium (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.84, P=0.02) and high PADUA score (OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.64, P=0.005) were independently associated with trifecta achievement. A publication bias was identified for tumor size. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of result for tumor size. Conclusions Larger tumor size, medium and high PADUA score are associated with decreased probability of trifecta achievement. After verifying by further high-quality studies, these variables can be incorporated into tools to predict probability of trifecta achievement during clinical practice.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Background The purpose is to compare the efficacy and safety of mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) versus standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard-PCNL) in patients with renal stones >2cm. Materials and Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant studies before March 8, 2021. Stone-free rate (SFR), operation time, fever rate, hemoglobin drop, blood transfusion rate, and hospitalization time were used as outcomes to compare mini-PCNL and standard-PCNL. The meta-analysis was performed using the Review Manager version 5.4. Results Seven randomized controlled trials were included in our meta-analysis, involving 1407 mini-PCNL cases and 1436 standard-PCNL cases. Our results reveal that, for renal stones >2cm, mini-PCNL has a similar SFR (risk ratio (RR)=1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98 to 1.04, p=0.57) and fever rate (RR=1.22, 95% CI: 0.97-1.51, p=0.08). Standard-PCNL was associated with a significantly shorter operating time (weighted mean difference (WMD)=8.23, 95% CI: 3.44 to 13.01, p <0.01) and a longer hospitalization time (WMD=-20.05, 95% CI: -29.28 to -10.81, p <0.01) than mini-PCNL. Subgroup analysis showed hemoglobin drop and blood transfusion for 30F standard-PCNL were more common than mini-PCNL (WMD=-0.95, 95% CI: -1.40 to -0.50, p <0.01; RR=0.20, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.58, p <0.01). Conclusion In the treatment of >2cm renal stones, mini-PCNL should be considered an effective and reliable alternative to standard-PCNL (30F). It achieves a comparable SFR to standard-PCNL, but with less blood loss, lower transfusion rate, and shorter hospitalization. However, the mini-PCNL does not show a significant advantage over the 24F standard-PCNL. On the contrary, this procedure takes a longer operation time. Trial registration This meta-analysis was reported consistent with the PRISMA statement and was registered on PROSPERO, with registration number 2021CRD42021234893.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose This study examined and compared efficacy, safety, satisfaction, and complications of the retropubic Safyre™ sling and a retropubic hand-made synthetic sling (HMS) in a short-, mid- and long-term follow-up. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively maintained database of women who underwent Safyre™ or HMS between March 7ths 2005 and December 27ths, 2017. Patients had first assessment (7-10 days), second (40-45 days), and third (sixth month) postoperatively. Between September and December 2018, patients who completed at least one year of surgery, received a telephone call. Follow-up compared quartiles of follow-up time to determine complications (Clavien-Dindo), success rates (International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Short Form – ICIQ-UI SF), and patient satisfaction. Results Three hundred fifty-one patients underwent surgery and 221 (63%) were evaluated after a median of 78.47 (± 38.69) months, 125 (55%) in the HMS, and 96 (45%) in the Safyre™ group. Higher intraoperative bladder injury was observed with Safyre™ (0% vs. 4.2%, p=0.034), and a tendency for urinary retention, requiring indwelling urinary catheter over 24 hours (2.4% vs. 8.3%, p=0.061). Both HMS (p<0.001) and Safyre™ (p<0.001) presented improvements on ICIQ-UI SF. There were no differences in satisfaction, subjective cure rates, ICIQ-UI SF, or complications between groups. Conclusions Both HMS and Safyre™ have similar satisfaction and subjective cure rates, with marked ICIQ-UI SF score improvement. Higher rates of intraoperative bladder injury were seen in patients who received Safyre™ retropubic sling.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravaginal electrical stimulation (IVES) therapies with different treatment frequencies (two or five days in a week) added to bladder training (BT) on incontinence-related quality of life (QoL) and clinical parameters in women with refractory idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB). Material and Methods Fifty-two women with refractory idiopathic OAB were randomized into two groups as follows: Group 1 (n:26) received BT and IVES, two times in a week, for 10 weeks and Group 2 (n:26) received BT and IVES five times in a week, for 4 weeks. IVES was performed 20 minutes in a day, a total of 20 sessions for both groups. Women were evaluated for incontinence severity (24h pad test), pelvic floor muscles strength (perineometer), 3-day voiding diary (frequency of voiding, nocturia, incontinence episodes, and the number of pads), symptom severity (OAB-V8), quality of life (IIQ-7), treatment success (positive response rate), cure/improvement rate and treatment satisfaction (Likert scale). Results There was no statistically significant differences in all parameters between the two groups at the end of the treatment. It was found that the treatment satisfaction scores, cure/improvement and positive response rates were not significantly different between two groups (p>0.05). Conclusion We concluded that the application of IVES twice a week or 5 times a week added to BT were both effective on incontinence-related QoL and clinical parameters in women with refractory idiopathic OAB. These two IVES frequencies had similar clinical efficacy and patient satisfaction with a slight difference between them; 5 times per week IVES has a shorter treatment duration.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objectives High-risk bladder pattern can be defined by Urodynamic Evaluation (UE) as overactive bladder with detrusor leak point pressure higher than 40 cmH2O and/or higher filling pressures also above 40 cmH2O. We wanted to evaluate response to treatment in myelomeningocele patients operated in utero in this subgroup. Patients and Methods From our prospective cohort of in utero MMC we have identified patients in the high-risk group. Treatment consisted of anticholinergics (Oxybutynin 0.2 mg/Kg) 2 or 3 times daily in association with CIC. At every UE, patients were reclassified in high-risk or low-risk patterns. Patients not responding were proposed bladder reconstruction or diversion according to age. Results Between 2011 to 2020, we have been following 121 patients and 60 (49.6%) of them were initially categorized as high-risk. The initial UE was performed at a mean age of 7.9 months and detrusor overactivity was found in 83.3% (mean maximum pressure of 76.5cmH20). When evaluating patients with 2 or more UE, we identified 44 patients (follow-up: 36.8months). It was observed in the group of patients who underwent 2 to 5 UE, that response to treatment was validated by the finding of 40% of low-risk bladder patterns in the second UE and between 62% to 64% in the third to the fifth UE. The incidence of surgery was 13.3%. Conclusions Early urological treatment of high-risk bladder pattern was effective in approximately 60%. We reinforce the need to correctly treat every patient with myelomeningocele, in accordance with UE, whether undergoing in utero or postnatal treatment.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose To characterize the most common presentation and clinical risk factors for artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) cuff erosion to distinguish the relative frequency of symptoms that should trigger further evaluation in these patients. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed our tertiary center database to identify men who presented with AUS cuff erosion between 2007 – 2020. A similar cohort of men who underwent AUS placement without erosion were randomly selected from the same database for symptom comparison. Risk factors for cuff erosion – pelvic radiation, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), high-grade prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥ 8) – were recorded for each patient. Presenting signs and symptoms of cuff erosion were grouped into three categories: obstructive symptoms, worsening incontinence, and localized scrotal inflammation (SI). Results Of 893 men who underwent AUS placement during the study interval, 61 (6.8%) sustained cuff erosion. Most erosion patients (40/61, 66%) presented with scrotal inflammatory changes including tenderness, erythema, and swelling. Fewer men reported obstructive symptoms (26/61, 43%) and worsening incontinence (21/61, 34%). Men with SI or obstructive symptoms presented significantly earlier than those with worsening incontinence (SI 14 ± 18 vs. obstructive symptoms 15 ± 16 vs. incontinence 37 ± 48 months after AUS insertion, p<0.01). Relative to the non-erosion control group (n=61), men who suffered erosion had a higher prevalence of pelvic radiation (71 vs. 49%, p=0.02). Conclusion AUS cuff erosion most commonly presents as SI symptoms. Obstructive voiding symptoms and worsening incontinence are also common. Any of these symptoms should prompt further investigation of cuff erosion.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose Patients often take 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, 5-ARIs can decrease prostate specific antigen (PSA) by approximately half and therefore may lead to false negative PSA tests. We investigated false-screening rates in men on 5-ARIs undergoing PSA testing and whether ordering physicians noticed false negative findings. Materials and Methods A single institution, retrospective study was conducted on patients with a PSA value documented between 2014 and 2017. Patient demographics, PSA results, 5-ARI usage, and providing clinician characteristics were collected. Published normal PSA values were used to determine PSA test positivity; values for those on 5-ARIs were doubled. Results A total of 29,131 men were included. 1,654 (5.7%) were prescribed 5-ARIs at least 12 months prior to PSA evaluation. 118 men (7.1%) had a value that would be positive if corrected for 5-ARI usage, 33 (27.9%) of which had no indication that the provider had noted this. There was no effect on rates of false negative values if the PSA was ordered by a different provider than the one who prescribed the 5-ARI (p = 0.837). However, if the provider who ordered the PSA test was an urologist, the likelihood that a false negative value would be identified was lower (p=0.001). Conclusions More than a quarter of men with false negative tests were missed. This occurred more often when the ordering provider was not an urologist. An educational opportunity exists to improve the quality of PSA testing by preventing false negative tests.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Background The da Vinci SP robot consists of an innovative single port trocar that houses a flexible camera and three biarticulated arms, which minimizes the number of incisions to assess the surgical site, allowing a less invasive procedure. However, due to its recent release in the market, the current literature reporting SP-RARP is still restricted to a few centers. In this scenario, after performing a literature search with all available techniques of SP-RARP, our objective is to report a multicentric opinion of referral centers on different techniques to approach SP-RARP. Results The SP literature is provided by only a few centers due to the limited number of this new console in the market. Five different approaches are available: transperitoneal, extraperitoneal, Retzius-Sparing, transperineal and transvesical. None of the current studies describe long-term functional or oncological outcomes. However, all approaches had satisfactory operative performance with minimum complication rates. Conclusions Several techniques of SP-RARP have been reported in the literature. We performed a multicentric collaboration describing and illustrating the most challenging steps of this surgery. We believe that the details provided in this article are useful teaching material for new centers willing to adopt the SP technology.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Purpose Compartment Syndrome (CS) has been recognized as a potential factor that worsens testicular viability after detorsion, especially in borderline cases of prolonged ischemia. Fasciotomy of the testicular tunica albuginea to relieve the pressure associated with CS has been proposed to accommodate edema after detorsion, embracing the raw fasciotomy area with tunica vaginalis flap (TVF) or graft. Fashioning the TVF can be tedious in cases of severe scrotal edema. Herein we present a technique that facilitates and expedites the procedure, maintaining the fasciotomy area decompressed. Materials and Methods In testicular torsion, where the testis remains with dark coloration and questionable viability after detorsion a longitudinal releasing incision is made in the tunica albuginea (fasciotomy) to decrease compartmental pressure. If signs of parenchymal recovery (bleeding points, better color) are seen an orchio-septopexy is performed, suturing the incised albuginea’s edges to the septum with a running suture, avoiding CS as well as re-torsion. Results Orchio-septopexy was performed in 11 cases with a mean age of 11.9 years (3-17). All cases had clinic follow-up and testicular Doppler US with a mean of 9.5 months (6-24). 6/11 cases (54%) were salvaged, with good vascularity in the Doppler US and maintained more than 50% testicular volume compared to the contralateral side. Conclusion Orchio-septopexy after testicular fasciotomy is a simple and fast technique that can be utilized in cases of prolonged testicular ischemia and questionable viability. More than half of the testes recovered, encouraging us to propose its utilization as well as its validation by other surgeons.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction Clitoroplasty constitutes an important step in feminizing surgery for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) ( 1 ). In this video we present a technique that aims to preserve clitoral sensitivity and engorgement while minimizing the risk of neurovascular lesion. Materials and methods We present a video of a three-year-old girl with history of CAH classical form, PRADER-III, who underwent clitoroplasty. After an initial endoscopic evaluation of the urogenital sinus, the clitoris was degloved and a rectangular incision was made on the ventral corpora cavernosa 15mm above the corpora bifurcation and 0.5 mm below the coronal sulcus. The cavernous tissue was partially resected. The upper and lower borders of the rectangular gap were closed by a 5-0 PDS running suture similar to the Mikulicz technique. Next, the edge of the glans was deepithelialized to reduce its size. For improved clitoral positioning, the clitoris was sutured to the pubic fat. From that point onward the procedure followed that of a standard vaginoplasty using the en-bloc technique ( 2 - 4 ). Thus far we have performed this technique in 33 patients, with 31 of them being girls with CAH and 2 being women with clitoral hypertrophy. Conclusion Corporoplasty is a simplified technique for clitoroplasty, with the advantage being that is faster and safer than the technique that involves the dissection of the neurovascular bundle. In addition, corporoplasty has the possible benefit of preserving the cavernosal blood flow that permits the engorgement of the clitoris during sexual arousal.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction Several techniques of robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) using the da Vinci SP (SP) have been described since its clearance by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in 2018 ( 1 , 2 ). Even with the expanding literature about this robot, the SP technology has been restricted to a few centers in the US and Asia due to the recent release of this robot in the marked.3 In this scenario, we provided, in this video compilation, a consensus of SP referral centers describing the current approaches and techniques of da Vinci SP Radical prostatectomy (SP-RARP). Surgical Technique We have illustrated five different techniques, including transperitoneal, extraperitoneal, Retzius-sparing, transvesical, and transperineal ( 4 - 6 ). Each surgery demonstrated crucial steps from the trocar placement until anastomosis. All approaches follow anatomic concepts and landmarks to minimize positive surgical margins, optimize oncological outcomes and promote optimal functional recovery. The trocar placement and the use of an assistant port were selected according to the operative technique of each institution. None of these surgeries had intra- or postoperative complications, and the pain management until discharge was controlled without using narcotics. All patients were discharged in less than 16 hours of surgery. Conclusion Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy performed with the da Vinci SP is feasible and safe with optimal perioperative outcomes. Five different approaches were described in this video compilation, and we believe that the technical details provided by this multicentric collaboration are crucial for centers willing to initiate the SP approach to radical prostatectomy.