Revision of the spider genus Pycnothele (Araneae, Nemesiidae)

Revisão do gênero de aranhas Pycnothele (Araneae, Nemesiidae)

Victor Passanha Rafael P. Indicatti Antonio D. Brescovit Sylvia M. Lucas About the authors

Abstracts

The genus Pycnothele Chamberlin, 1917 is revised. The Brazilian species Pycnothele perdita Chamberlin, 1917, P. singularis (Mello-Leitão, 1934) and P. auronitens (Keyserling, 1891) are redescribed, diagnosed and illustrated. The females of P. auronitens and P. singularis are described for the first time and P. auripila (Mello-Leitão, 1946) from Uruguay, currently a junior synonym of P. auronitens, is revalidated. Pycnothele piracicabensis (Piza, 1938) is transferred to Rachias Simon, 1892, with which it shares the morphology of the sexual structures, restoring the original combination. Five new species are proposed for Brazil: Pycnothele rubra sp. nov., P. jatai sp. nov. and P. araraquara sp. nov., from state of São Paulo, P. arapongas sp. nov., from state of Paraná, and P. gauderio sp. nov., from state of Rio Grande do Sul. After this revision the genus includes ten Neotropical species. Maps with distribution of all species is presented for the first time and the occurrence of species of the genus is enhanced for the Brazilian state of Paraná.

Mygalomorphae; new species; Pycnothelinae; taxonomy


O gênero Pycnothele Chamberlin, 1917 é revisado. As espécies brasileiras Pycnothele perdita Chamberlin, 1917, P. singularis (Mello-Leitão, 1934) e P. auronitens (Keyserling, 1891) são redescritas, diagnosticadas e ilustradas. As fêmeas de P. auronitens e P. singularis são descritas pela primeira vez e P. auripila (Mello-Leitão, 1946) do Uruguai, atualmente um sinônimo júnior de P. auronitens, é revalidada. Pycnothele piracicabensis (Piza, 1938) é transferida para Rachias Simon, 1892, do qual compartilha a morfologia das estruturas sexuais, restaurando a combinação original. Cinco espécies novas são propostas para o Brasil: Pycnothele rubra sp. nov., P. jatai sp. nov. e P. araraquara sp. nov., do estado de São Paulo, P. arapongas sp. nov., do estado do Paraná, and P. gauderio sp. nov., do estado de Rio Grande do Sul. Após esta revisão, o gênero passa a constar com dez espécies neotropicais. Mapas com a distribuição de todas as espécies é apresentado pela primeira vez e a ocorrência de espécies do gênero é ampliada para o estado do Paraná.

Mygalomorphae; espécies novas; Pycnothelinae; taxonomia


Revision of the spider genus Pycnothele (Araneae, Nemesiidae)

Revisão do gênero de aranhas Pycnothele (Araneae, Nemesiidae)

Victor PassanhaI; Rafael P. IndicattiI; Antonio D. BrescovitI; Sylvia M. Lucas

ILaboratório Especial de Coleções Zoológicas, Instituto Butantan, Av. Vital Brazil, 1500, 05503-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil (victor_passanha@hotmail.com; indicatti@gmail.com; adbresc@terra.com.br; sylviamlucas@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT

The genus Pycnothele Chamberlin, 1917 is revised. The Brazilian species Pycnothele perdita Chamberlin, 1917, P. singularis (Mello-Leitão, 1934) and P. auronitens (Keyserling, 1891) are redescribed, diagnosed and illustrated. The females of P. auronitens and P. singularis are described for the first time and P. auripila (Mello-Leitão, 1946) from Uruguay, currently a junior synonym of P. auronitens, is revalidated. Pycnothele piracicabensis (Piza, 1938) is transferred to Rachias Simon, 1892, with which it shares the morphology of the sexual structures, restoring the original combination. Five new species are proposed for Brazil: Pycnothele rubra sp. nov., P. jatai sp. nov. and P. araraquara sp. nov., from state of São Paulo, P. arapongas sp. nov., from state of Paraná, and P. gauderio sp. nov., from state of Rio Grande do Sul. After this revision the genus includes ten Neotropical species. Maps with distribution of all species is presented for the first time and the occurrence of species of the genus is enhanced for the Brazilian state of Paraná.

Keywords. Mygalomorphae, new species, Pycnothelinae, taxonomy.

RESUMO

O gênero Pycnothele Chamberlin, 1917 é revisado. As espécies brasileiras Pycnothele perdita Chamberlin, 1917, P. singularis (Mello-Leitão, 1934) e P. auronitens (Keyserling, 1891) são redescritas, diagnosticadas e ilustradas. As fêmeas de P. auronitens e P. singularis são descritas pela primeira vez e P. auripila (Mello-Leitão, 1946) do Uruguai, atualmente um sinônimo júnior de P. auronitens, é revalidada. Pycnothele piracicabensis (Piza, 1938) é transferida para Rachias Simon, 1892, do qual compartilha a morfologia das estruturas sexuais, restaurando a combinação original. Cinco espécies novas são propostas para o Brasil: Pycnothele rubra sp. nov., P. jatai sp. nov. e P. araraquara sp. nov., do estado de São Paulo, P. arapongas sp. nov., do estado do Paraná, and P. gauderio sp. nov., do estado de Rio Grande do Sul. Após esta revisão, o gênero passa a constar com dez espécies neotropicais. Mapas com a distribuição de todas as espécies é apresentado pela primeira vez e a ocorrência de espécies do gênero é ampliada para o estado do Paraná.

Palavras-Chave: Mygalomorphae, espécies novas, Pycnothelinae, taxonomia.

Nemesiidae Simon, 1889 was elevated to the level of family by Raven (1985) from the tribe Nemesiae Simon, 1889, described in Ctenizinae Thorell, 1887 and considered a senior synonym of Pycnothelidae Chamberlin, 1917. To date the family comprises 366 species and 43 genera distributed in six subfamilies (Raven, 1985; Platnick, 2014). Three subfamilies includes genera with Brazilian species: Anaminae: Acanthogonatus Karsch, 1880, Longistylus Indicatti & Lucas, 2005 and Hermacha Simon, 1889; Diplothelopsinae: Chaco Tullgren, 1905 and Lycinus Thorell, 1894; and Pycnothelinae: Hermachura Mello-Leitão, 1923, Neostothis Vellard, 1925, Prorachias Mello-Leitão, 1924, Psalistopoides Mello-Leitão, 1934, Pselligmus Simon, 1892, Pycnothele Chamberlin, 1917, Rachias Simon, 1892 and Stenoterommata Holmberg, 1881 (Raven, 1985; Indicatti & Lucas, 2005; Lucas et al., 2005, 2008; Lucas & Indicatti, 2006, 2010; Indicatti et al., 2008a).

The genus Pycnothele Chamberlin, 1917 with type species P. perdita that was described from Mendes, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Chamberlin, 1917). The genus currently comprises four additional species: P. singularis (Mello-Leitão, 1934) and P. piracicabensis (Piza, 1938) from São Paulo, all from Brazil; P. auronitens (Keyserling, 1891) from Brazil and Uruguay; and P. modesta (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1942) from Argentina and Uruguay. Pérez-Miles & Capocasale (1988) revised the genus considering only three valid species (Pycnothele perdita, P. singularis and P. auronitens). Goloboff (1995) redescribed the genus, revised the species from Argentina and Uruguay and mentioned that "the genus concept is likely to change when species from Brazil are revised".

After the examination of type-material and specimens from several Brazilian and foreign collections, the diagnosis of Pycnothele is enlarged. Pycnothele perdita, P. singularis and P. auronitens are redescribed; the females of P. auronitens and P. singularis are described for the first time; P. auripila from Uruguay, considered a junior synonym of P. auronitens, is revalidated; Pycnothele piracicabensis is transferred back to Rachias and five new species are proposed for Brazil.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Specimens from the following institutions were examined (abbreviations and curators in parenthesis): Facultad de Ciencias, Montevideo (FCE-MY, M. Simó); Instituto Butantan, São Paulo (IBSP, A. D. Brescovit); Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (MZSP, R. Pinto da Rocha); Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (MCTP, A. A. Lise); Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (MCN, R. Ott); Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia, Buenos Aires (MACN, C. Scioscia); Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ, A. B. Kury); Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, Cambridge (MCZ, G. Giribet, L. Leibensperger); The Natural History Museum, London (BMNH, J. Beccaloni).

All measurements are in millimeters and were taken with a millimetric ocular lens. The length of leg segments were measured between joints in dorsal view. Length and width of carapace, eye tubercle, labium and sternum are maximum values obtained. Total body length without chelicerae and spinnerets. Terminology for general structures follows Goloboff (1995). Terminology for number and disposition of spines follows Petrunkevitch (1925). All drawings were made with a drawing tube (Leica MZ 12.5). Spermathecae were dissected and cleared with lactic acid or clove oil and illustrated in ventral view. Photos of sexual structure of males and females were taken with a Leica DFC500 digital attached to a Leica MZ16A stereoscopic microscope. The figures of the scopulae were taken with a NIKON SMZ-745T attached with a camera NIKON Digital Sight DS-Fi1. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) images were taken under high vacuum in a LEO 1450VP Scanning Electron Microscope in the Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica of Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará. All drawings were made with a drawing tube (Leica MZ 12.5). Abbreviations: AME, anterior median eyes; ALE, anterior lateral eyes; PLE, posterior lateral eyes; PME, posterior median eyes; PLS, posterior lateral spinnerets; STC, superior tarsal claw; d, dorsal; v, ventral; p, prolateral; r, retrolateral; ap, apical; b, basal; LK, lateral keel.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Pycnothele Chamberlin, 1917

Pycnothele Chamberlin, 1917:27, pl. 1, figs 1-4 (Type species by original designation, Pycnothele perditus Chamberlin, 1917); Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1967:53; Raven, 1985:100; Pérez-Miles & Capocasale, 1988; Platnick, 2014.


  • Heteromma Mello-Leitão, 1935:356, figs 2, 3 (Type species by original designation, Heteromma anomala Mello-Leitão, 1935). Pre-occupied name by Heteromma Karsch, 1888.

    Agersborgia Strand, 1936:167 (nom. nov. for Heteromma). First synomyzed by Lucas & Bücherl, 1973:241.

    Androthelopsis Mello-Leitão, 1934:402 (Type species by original designation, Androthelopsis singularis Mello-Leitão, 1934); Lucas & Bücherl, 1973:239; Pérez-Miles & Capocasale, 1988:287.

    Pycnothelopsis Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1942:319 (Type species by monotypy, Pycnothelopsis modesta Schiapelli & Gerschmann, 1942); Bücherl, 1957:408; Schiapelli & Gerschmann, 1967:59; Raven, 1985:101 (Syn. with Androthelopsis); Pérez-Miles & Capocasale, 1988:288.

    Diagnosis. Males of Pycnothele differ from those of Hermachura, Neostothis, Prorachias, Psalistopoides, Pselligmus, Rachias and Stenoterommata by the palpal bulb, with several high keels near the embolus base, and resting in a large and deep tibial excavation (Figs 3 , 8 ). Females resemble those of Neostothis by the dense scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi I-II, and presence of a sclerotized supraspermathecal chamber (see Lucas et al., 2008:474, fig. 2 E, F), but differ from this genus by the supraspermathecal chamber sclerotized in all extension (Figs 7, 12 ); receptacle bases three to four times narrower than in Neostothis (Figs 7, 12 ); presence of scopulae on anterior prolateral side of tibia I-II and scopulae on tarsi III and IV, divided by strong or thin setae (Figs 56-63, 64-71 ).


  • Description. Medium sized mygalomorph spiders, usually from 11.60 (male of P. auripila) to 35.50 (female of P. perdita) of body length. General color of carapace brown or reddish brown and lighter legs. Abdomen dark brown, transversal (e.g., P. perdita) or longitudinal stripes (e.g., P. auronitens) are sometimes visible in specimens in ethanol. Rastellum formed by stiff, long, thick attenuate setae. Cheliceral tumescence large. Clypeus wide. Ocular tubercle with two eyes rows, anterior procurved, posterior recurved. Labium wider than long with few to no cuspules (0-8), endites with numerous cuspules (13-85) on the inner angle (Fig. 19). Sternum oval, longer than wide, with three pairs of sigillae. PLS three segmented, the apical short, domed, with articulate spigots (Fig. 22) and some pumpkniform spigots, large and apex with short thick shafts. Legs with scopulae on tarsi I and II entire, III and IV divided by setae, with different aspects, sometimes with dense short setae, in other species longer and sparse (Figs 56-63, 64-71 ). Scopulae absent in metatarsus III-IV. STC with two rows of teeth (2-13), third claw absent on all legs. Megaspine absent in all male legs. Tarsal trichobothria in a single, zig-zag row, elevated with rounded opening (Fig. 20). Tarsal organ globose and sligthly elevated (Fig. 21). Male palpal bulb pyriform globose as in P. perdita (Figs 4-6 ; Fig. 13) or more slender like P. singularis (Figs 34-36) with several keels near embolus, on dorsal side. The keels sometimes very high (e.g., P. perdita, Figs 15, 16) others not so (e.g., P. auronitens, Fig. 50), sometimes straight (e.g., P. jatai sp. nov., Fig. 41) in other species sinuous (e.g., P. perdita, Figs 15, 16) and of different quantity (8-21). Embolus short in all species, much shorter than the length of the bulb (Fig. 13). Genitalia formed by one slender spermatheca on each side, with one receptacle dilated on apex, spiraled or sinuous duct (P. perdita, P. gauderio sp. nov., P. rubra sp. nov., P. auronitens, P. auripila, P. singularis, P. jatai sp. nov. and P. modesta) or without sinuosity (P. arapongas sp. nov.), apex globose (P. rubra sp. nov., P. arapongas sp. nov., P. singularis, P. jatai sp. nov., P. auronitens, and P. modesta) or elongated (P. perdita, P. gauderio sp. nov. and P. auripila), with a strongly sclerotized chamber situated above the spermathecae, surrounded by glandular tissue (most evident in P. perdita, P. gauderio sp. nov., P. rubra sp. nov. and P. arapongas sp. nov.), or with minimal glandular tissue (P. singularis, P. jatai sp. nov., P. auronitens, P. auripila and P. modesta).





    Species included (n=10): Pycnothele perdita Chamberlin, 1917, P. rubra sp. nov., P. gauderio sp. nov., P. arapongas sp. nov., P. auronitens (Keyserling, 1891), P. auripila (Mello-Leitão, 1946) sp. reval., P. singularis (Mello-Leitão, 1934), P. araraquara sp. nov., P. jatai sp. nov. and P. modesta (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1942).

    Distribution. The genus occurs in the south areas of South America: Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina (Figs 79, 80).


    Identification key of species of Pycnothele

    Males

    1. Short and compact bulb (Figs 4-6; 9-11 ) …............... 2 Long and narrow bulb (Figs 34-36; 39-41) ….…...... 8

    2. Keels weakly projected (Figs 25, 26; 30, 31) …........ 3 Keels strongly projected (Figs 5-6; 10-11 ) …...........…7


    3. Embolus short in prolateral view (Fig. 24) …............ 4 Embolus long in prolateral view (Figs 29; 48) …........ 5

    4. Palpal bulb with 14-16 keels: (Figs 25, 26) ..........................…........................................................ P. rubra sp. nov. Palpal bulb with 10-12 keels: (Fig. 75) ........................ …................................................................. P. modesta


    5. Spermatic duct with slight curvature (Figs 29, 30) ......…................................................ P. arapongas sp. nov.

    Spermatic duct with strong curvature (Figs 48, 49; 53, 54) ........................................………..........…………... 6

    6. Curvature of spermatic duct forming a turn as in (Fig. 49) and palpal bulb with 10-13 keels ............... P. auronitens Curvature of spermatic duct forming a turn as in (Fig. 54) and palpal bulb with 25-30 keels ........................ P. auripila

    7. Keel short and sinuous (Fig. 6 ) …...................... P. perdita Keel long and less sinuous (Fig. 11 ) .. P. gauderio sp. nov.

    8. Embolus short (Figs 34-36; 39-41) ................................. 9 Embolus long (Figs 44-46) ........... P. araraquara sp. nov.


    9. Lateral keel straight in retrolateral view (Fig. 34) ……......….............................................................. P. singularis Lateral keel rounded in retrolateral view (Fig. 39) …........….…......................................................... P. jatai sp. nov. Females (female of P. araraquara sp. nov., unknown)

    1. Supraspermathecal chamber elevated and strongly sclerotized (Figs 7, 12 , 27, 32) ............................................ 2 Supraspermathecal chamber not so high and weakly sclerotized (Figs 37, 42) ..................................................... 5

    2. Receptacle with globose apex (Figs 27, 32) ........…....… 3 Receptacle with elongate apex (Figs 7, 12 , 41................ 4

    3. Duct high and sinuous (Fig. 27) ….......... P. rubra sp. nov. Duct short and not sinuous (Fig. 32) ............................…............................................... P. arapongas sp. nov.

    4. Duct with median sinuosity (Fig. 7 ) .................. P. perdita Duct with basal sinuosity (Fig. 12 ) ..............................….................................................. P. gauderio sp. nov.

    5. Duct spiralled and inserted medially (Figs 51; 76) ......... 6 Duct spiralled and inserted laterally (Fig. 37; 42) …..… 8

    6. Receptacle with elongate apex; duct strongly spiraled in all extension …..................................................... P. auripila Receptacle short with globose apex (Fig. 76); or long with elongated apex (Fig. 51) …......................................... 7

    7. Duct short and slightly sinuous (Fig. 76) ......... P. modesta Duct long and spiralled apically (Fig. 51) ..... P. auronitens

    8. Receptacle long (Fig. 37) ……..................… P. singularis Receptacle short with torsion duct (Fig. 42) ..................................................................................... P. jatai sp. nov.

    Pycnothele perdita Chamberlin, 1917

    (Figs 1; 3-7; 13-22; 56-57; 79)

    Pycnothele perditus Chamberlin, 1917:27, pl. 1, figs 1-4 (male holotype and female paratype from Rio Paraíba, Mendes (23°31'34"S; 43°43'29"W), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, (MCZ), N. Thayer leg., examined by photos); Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1967:54.

    Heteromma anomala Mello-Leitão, 1935:356, figs 2-4 (male holotype from Rio Claro (22°07'S; 44°02'W), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, deposited in IBSP 3467, examined); Pérez-Miles & Capocasale, 1988:292.

    Agersborgia anomala: Strand, 1936: 167; Bücherl, 1957:388.

    Pycnothele perditum: Lucas & Bücherl, 1973:241.

    Pycnothele perdita: Bücherl, 1957:405; Raven, 1985:100; Pérez-Miles & Capocasale, 1988:290; Platnick, 2014.

    Additional material examined. BRAZIL, Rio de Janeiro: Volta Redonda, (22°51'S; 44°12'W, Floresta da Cicuta), ♂, ♀, III. 2004, E. F. Ramos et al. leg. (IBSP); Rio Claro (22°07'S; 44°02'W, Morro Azul), ♂, 20.VIII.1984, S. Silva leg. (IBSP 113424); Rio de Janeiro (23°03'39"S; 43°47'20"W, Restinga da Marambaia), 30.X.1986, R. L. C. Baptista leg., 1♀, (MNRJ); Mangaratiba (23°01'S; 43º09'W, Trilha da Gruta, Ilha da Marambaia), 2♂, VII.2007, E. Izecksohn leg. (IBSP 115375, 115376); 3♂, VII.2007, C. Esbérard et al. leg. (IBSP 114677-114679); 3♂, VIII.2007 (IBSP 114673-114675); ♂, IX.2007 (IBSP 114476); ♀, 21.XI.2007, C. Huffenbaecher, C. A. R. Souza & M. C. Silveira leg. (IBSP 150052).

    Diagnosis. Males of P. perdita resemble P. gauderio sp. nov., P. rubra sp. nov., P. arapongas sp. nov. P. auronitens, and P. auripila by the globose palpal bulb but differ from P. rubra sp. nov., P. arapongas sp. nov., P. auronitens and P. auripila by the more elevated keels (Fig. 6 ); from P. gauderio sp. nov. by shorter and more sinuous keels (Figs 5, 6). Females resemble P. rubra sp. nov. by the major concentration of setae on tarsal scopula of leg IV (Figs 57, 61), and the long receptacle, but differ by the less elevated supraspermathecal chamber and a triangular central region, by the elongated apex of receptacle and sinuous ducts (Fig. 7 ).

    Redescription. Male (IBSP 114673). Coloration in live specimen: dark reddish brown. In ethanol: abdomen dorsal dark brown with two transversal light yellow stripes: ventral dark brown. Total length, 23.90. Carapace 12.20 long, 10.90 wide. Fovea: 1.00. Clypeus: 0.80. Eyes: anterior row slightly procurved and posterior recurved. AME 0.47, ALE 0.52, PME 0.29, PLE 0.50. Basal segment of chelicerae with 11 teeth, with 25-27 basal smaller teeth. Labium 1.10 long, 1.70 wide, with six cuspules. Endites with 40 cuspules pointed and elongated. Sternum 5.20 long, 5.10 wide, slightly domed. Six sternal sigillae, four anterior marginal and two posterior submarginal, four times the size of anterior pair, distant from margin 0.25. Palp: femur 5.60/ patella 3.00/ tibia 3.60/ tarsus/ 1.60/ total 13.80; Leg I: femur 11.50/ patella 6.40/ tibia 9.40/ metatarsus 10.60/ tarsus 4.90/ total 42.70; II: 10.50/ 6.00/ 9.10/ 10.00/ 6.10/ 41.70; III: 10.00/ 5.20/ 7.70/ 11.50/ 5.70/ 40.20; IV: 12.90/ 5.70/ 10.90/ 18.10/ 6.50/ 54.10; Spination: Palp: femur p0-0-1r, patella p1-1-1, tibia p1-1-1-1, r0-0-1; Legs: I: femur d1-1-1-1-2-2, patella v0-1r-0, p0-0-1, tibia v1p-2r-0-2-1-1r-1p ap, p2-1-1-1, metatarsus d1p-1p, v1r-0-0, p1-0-1, r0-0-1; II: femur d1-1-2-1-1r-2p-3, patella p0-0-1, tibia v1p-2-0-2-1r-3ap, p1-1-0-1-0, metatarsus d0-1p-0-1p-0, v1p-1r-1r-0-1p ap, p1-0-1-0-1, r0-0-1; III: femur d1-1-2-1-2-2, patella p1-1-1, r1-0-0, tibia d2-0-0-1p, v2-2-3ap, p0-1-0-1-0, r0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus d2r-0-1p-0-1r1p-0-2, v1p-1r-1p-1r-1p-3ap, p1-1-1-0-1, r1-0-1-0-1; IV: femur d1-1-2-1-2-1-1p-1r-1, patella p1-1-1, r1-0-0, tibia d2-2-1-1, v2-0-1p-2-0-1p-3ap, p1-1-1-2, r1-1-1-1-2, metatarsus d2r-2-1p-1r-1r-1p-1r-2, v2-2-1-2-2ap, p1-1-0-1-1, r1-1-1-1-1-1-1. Metatarsus I slightly retrolaterally curved. Scopulae on tarsi I-III integral, symmetric, dense anterior and laterally projected; IV divided by one narrow and dense row of thick setae (Fig. 56). Scopulae on metatarsi I-II integral and symmetric. STC with 5-6 teeth on tarsus I, six on tarsus II e IV, 6-7 on tarsus III. PLS: basal, median and apical segments 1.20, 0.60, 0.40 long, respectively. Palpal bulb pyriform with eight strong and high keels, spermatic duct with a median curvature, short embolus with a slight curvature to ventral side (Figs 4-6 ). Palpal tibia with four strong spines in prolateral view (Fig. 3 ).

    Female (IBSP 150052). Coloration as in male (Fig. 1). In ethanol: as in male, except in abdomen that shows four light brown stripes, two small anterior circular lateral markings. Total length, 35.50. Carapace 14.10 long, 11.20 wide. Abdomen 15.40 long, 12.40 wide. Fovea: 2.00. Clypeus: 1.00. Eyes: AME 0.58, ALE 0.64, PME 0.58, PLE 0.36. Basal segment of chelicerae with 10 teeth, with 45-42 basal smaller teeth. Labium 1.30 long, 2.60 wide, with three cuspules. Endites around 51 and 54 cuspules. Sternum 6.00 long, 5.50 wide. Six sternal sigillae, four anterior marginal and two posterior submarginal, four times the size of the two anterior, distant from margin 0.25 Palp: femur 5.70/ patella 4.40/ tibia 4.20/ tarsus 3.30/ total 19.00; Leg I: femur 9.00/ patella 6.50/ tibia 5.50/ metatarsus 6.30/ tarsus 3.30/ total 30.60; II: 8.00/ 5.90/ 5.20/ 6.30/ 3.90/ 29.30; III: 8.40/ 5.80/ 5.20/ 7.60/ 4.10/ 31.10; IV: 11.00/ 6.50/ 8.00/ 12.40/ 4.70/ 42.60. Spination: palp: femur d0-0-1p, patella p1-0-0, tibia v0-1r-3ap, p0-2-0; Legs: I: femur d0-0-1p, patella p1-0-1, tibia v1r-0-1r-0-1r ap, metatarsus v2-0-1r-0-; II: femur d0-0-1p, tibia v1-0-1-0-1p ap, p0-1-0, metatarsus v2-1r-0-1p ap, p0-1-0-0; III: femur d0-0-1p, patella p1-1-1, r0-1-0, tibia d2-1r-0-1p, v2-0-1r-2-0-3ap, p0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus d2r-2-2r-1p-1r-2, v1r-1p-1r-1p-1-2-3ap, p1-0-1, r0-1-1; IV: femur d1-0-0-1r, patella p1-1-1, r0-1-0, tibia d2-2-1-2-1r-2-1r-1r-1r, v2-0-1r-1p-3ap, p1-1-1-1-1-1, metatarsus d2r-1r-1p-3-2-1p-1r-2, v2-1p-1r-1p-2-1-2-2-2-3ap, p1-1-1-1, r1-1-1-1. Palpal tarsal claw with six strong teeth. Scopula on tarsi I-IV integral. III-IV divided by a row of many thick setae (Fig. 57). Scopulae on metatarsi I-II integral and symmetric. STC with 3-5 teeth on tarsi I-II and 4-5 on tarsi III-IV. PLS: basal, median and apical segments 1.02, 1.20, 0.66 long. Spermathecae with elevated receptacle with strongly sinuous ducts on median dilated area and elongated on apical region, supraspermathecal chamber strongly sclerotized, less elevated in central region than on lateral (Fig. 7 ).

    Variation. Males (n=6): total length, 20.20-24.60; endites with 26-40, labium with 1-6 cuspules. Females (n=2): total length, 27.63-35.50; endites with 40-51 cuspules, labium with 3 cuspules.

    Distribution. Known only from the Atlantic Forest of southern state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Fig. 79).

    Pycnothele gauderio sp. nov.

    (Figs 8-12 ; 58-59; 79)

    Type material. Male holotype from Caçapava do Sul (30°30'44"S; 53°29'29"W), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 15.IX.2001. N. Nascimento leg., deposited in MCTP 12927. Paratypes: One female, Guaíba (30°07'06''S; 51°19'17''W), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 29.X.1994, A. A. Lise et al. leg., deposited in MCTP 5758; one female, Morro da Grota, Parque Estadual de Itapuã (30°16'15"S; 51°02'54"W), Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 31.I.1975, A. A. Lise et al. leg., deposited in MCN 17730.

    Etymology. The species epithet is a noun in apposition referring to the population born in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, which is also known as gaucho.

    Diagnosis. Males from P. gauderio sp. nov. resemble P. perdita and P. rubra sp. nov. by the aspect of palpal bulb, but differ from P. rubra sp. nov. by the elevated keels, P. perdita by the lateral keel in prolateral view more projected and rounded (Fig. 9 ), and by the longer and less sinuous keels (Figs 10, 11 ). Females resemble P. arapongas sp. nov., P. singularis and P. jatai sp. nov. by the supraspermathecal chamber slightly elevated and the short receptacle, but differ from P. singularis by the median insertion of receptacle, P. arapongas sp. nov. by the less sinuous ducts, and P. jatai sp. nov. by the presence of a sinuosbasal receptacule basis with median insertion (Fig. 12 ).

    Description. Male (holotype). Coloration in ethanol: carapace reddish dark brown, covered by many thin and short setae on dorsal region, legs reddish brown and abdomen dark brown. Total length, 19.00. Carapace 10.00 long, 8.10 wide. Abdomen 9.00 long, 5.40 wide. Fovea: 0.76. Clypeus: 0.60. Eyes: AME 0.38, ALE 0.18, PME 0.40 and PLE 0.36. Basal segment of chelicerae with 8-10 teeth, with ca. 17 smaller teeth. Labium 1.10 long, 1.60 wide, with five cuspules. Endites with 51-44 cuspules. Sternum ovate 4.70 long, 3.90 wide, slightly domed. Six sternal sigillae, anterior rounded and marginal, posterior ovate and marginal, two times the size of anterior. Palp: femur 4.70/ patella 2.30/ tibia 3.40/ tarsus 1.60/ total 12.00; Leg I: femur 4.30/ patella 5.60/ tibia 6.70/ metatarsus 7.10/ tarsus 4.60/ total 28.30; II: 8.40/ 4.30/ 5.90/ 6.50/ 4.60/ 29.70; III: 7.70/ 3.80/ 5.30/ 8.10/ 5.60/ 30.50; IV: 10.10/ 4.90/ 7.20/ 12.50/ 5.30/ 40.00. Spination: femur d0-0-1-2, patella p0-0-1, tibia p1-0-1-1, r0-0-1; Legs: I: femur d1-1-1r-1-3-2, patella v1r-0-0, p0-1-1, tibia v1p-1r-1r-0-1p-2r-0-2ap, p1-0-1, metatarsus v0-1p-1r-0, p1-0-1, r0-1-0; II: femur d1-1-2-2p-1r-1-2, patella p1-1-1, tibia v1p-1r-1r-1-0-1p-2r-0-2ap, p1-1-1, metatarsus v2-1p-0-1p-0-2, p1-1-1, r0-1-0; III: femur d1-1-1p-1r-1-2-2, patella p1-1-1, r0-1-0-0, tibia d2-0-1, v2-2-3ap, p1-0-1, r1-0-1, metatarsus d1-0-1p-1r-1p, v1r-1p-0-1p-1r-3ap, p1-0-1-0-1, r1-0-1; IV: femur d1r-1p-1p-1-1r-1p-2, v1p-1r-1p-2-3ap, p1-1-1-1-1, r1-0-1-1. Metatarsus I with a slight basal curvature. Scopulae on tarsi I-II integral and metatarsi I-II symmetric and more dense on anterior two thirds. Scopula on tarsi III divided by 1-2 rows of thin setae, scopula on tarsi IV divided by 2-4 rows of thick setae (Fig. 58). STC with 4-7 teeth on tarsi I, 6-8 on tarsi II, 5-9 on tarsi III and 4-7 on tarsi IV. PLS: basal, median and apical segments 1.45, 0.75, 0.35 long, respectively. Palpal bulb pyriform with eight high keels, spermatic duct with slight median curvature and without sinuosity until embolus tip, soft curvature on embolus: slightly curved on apex (Figs 9-11 ). Palpal tibia with three strong spines in prolateral view (Fig. 8 ).

    Female (paratype MCTP 5758). Coloration in ethanol: carapace and legs reddish brown, sternum, coxae and endites reddish dark brown, abdomen dark brown with square stain on anterior dorsal region. Total length, 37.80.Carapace 15.80 long, 15.30 wide. Abdomen 15.20 long, 10.70 wide. Fovea: 2.00. Clypeus: 1.20. Eyes: Anterior row strongly procurved and posterior strongly recurved. AME 0.31, ALE 0.46, PME 0.34 and PLE 0.53. Basal segment of chelicerae with nine teeth, with 13-20 smaller teeth. Labium 1.50 long, 2.30 wide, with four cuspules. Endites with 60-65 cuspules. Sternum rounded 7.00 long, 5.70 wide, slightly domed. Six sternal sigillae, anterior marginal and posterior (oval) submarginal, with the third pair half size of anterior pair. Palp: femur 6.90/ patella 4.00/ tibia 4.50/ tarsus 4.80/ total 20.20; Leg I: femur 10.50/ patella 7.70/ tibia 7.70/ metatarsus 7.10/ tarsus 5.00/ total 38.00; II: 10.20/ 6.70/ 6.20/ 6.80/ 4.50/ 34.40; III: 9.20/ 6.40/ 5.10/ 7.80/ 5.00/ 32.00; IV: 11.80/ 6.40/ 8.30/ 12.40/ 5.30/ 44.20. Spination: palp: patella p1-0-0, tibia v1r-0-2ap, p0-1-0, tarsus v1r-0-0; Legs: I: femur d0-0-1p, metatarsus v2-1r-0; II: femur d0-0-1p, patella p0-0-1, tibia v0-1-0-1pap, metatarsus v1r-1r-1p-1ap; III: femur d2-0-2, patella p0-1-1, r0-1-0, tibia d2-0-1, v1p-1p-4ap, p1-1-0, r1-0-0, metatarsus d2-1p-1r-1p-2, v1p-1r-1p-2-1r-1p-1p-6ap, p1-1-1-1, r0-0-1-0; IV: femur d1-0-1r-1r, patella p1-1-1, r0-1-0-0, tibia d2-0-0, v2-2-2p-2ap, p1-0-1, r1-0-2, metatarsus d1r-0-2-1p-1r-1p-1r-2, v1p-1r-2-2-1rap, p1-2-1-2-1, r1-1-1-1. Metatarsus I with a light basal curvature. Palpal tarsal claw with five strong teeth. Scopulae on tarsi I-II and metatarsi I symmetric and metatarsi II asymmetric. Slightly divided by long, thin and sparse setae on tarsi III and strongly divided by 2-4 rows thick and long setae on tarsi IV (Fig. 59). STC with 4-5 teeth on tarsi I, 4-7 on tarsi II, seven on tarsi III and 5-7 on tarsi IV. PLS: basal, median and apical segments 1.70, 1.00, 0.50 long, respectively. Spermathecae formed by short receptacle with slight basal sinuosity, median insertion of ducts, enlarged on apex, supraspermathecal chamber slightly robust with strongly degree of sclerotization, apex of receptacle elongated (Fig. 12 ).

    Distribution. State of Rio Grande do Sul, occurring in remnant of a seasonal semideciduous forest that belongs to the Atlantic Forest Domain and in the Brazilian Pampa (Fig. 79).

    Pycnothele rubra sp. nov.

    (Figs 2; 23-27; 60, 61; 79)

    Type material. Male holotype from Ibiúna (23°08'S; 47°01'W), São Paulo, Brazil, 12.IX.2006, A. P. Liaw leg., deposited in IBSP 112933. Paratype. One female, same locality of holotype, 12.III.1991, T. P. Santos leg., deposited in IBSP 113181; one male, São Paulo (23°07'S; 46°07' W, Bairro Caxingui), São Paulo, Brazil, IX.1977, T. Murray leg. deposited in IBSP 113043; one female, São Paulo (23°07'S; 46°07'W, Itaquera), São Paulo, Brazil, 18.VI.1950, S. Gabriel leg., deposited in IBSP 102280A; two females and one male, from Cotia (Caucaia do Alto, 23°73'S; 47°05'W), São Paulo, Brazil, XII.2002, without leg., deposited in MZSP 22008 and 22011; one male, Cotia (Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande, 23°36''09'S; 46°55''53'W), São Paulo, Brazil, VII.2006, C. Bragagnolo leg., deposited in MZSP 28839); one male, Embu (23°07'S; 46°09'W), X.1971, S. Eul leg., deposited in MCTP 36777; one female, Tapiraí (23°09'S; 47°01'W), 27.I.1992, R. Andi leg. deposited in MCTP 36778; one male, Itapecerica da Serra (23°07'S; 46°09'W, Sítio Oropá), IX.1975, L. Canova leg., deposited in MCN 49391.

    Additional material examined. BRAZIL, São Paulo: Piracaia (23°01'S; 46°03'W), ♂, 19.IX.1996, Prefeitura Municipal de Piracaia leg. (IBSP 118215); ♂, São Paulo (23°07'S; 46°07'W), IX.1977; no data, Demetrie leg. (IBSP 113568); ♂, 20.II.1960, J. Goldenberg leg. (IBSP 113523); (Parque Estadual do Jaraguá), ♂, VII.2013, R. P. Indicatti leg. (IBSP 113042); Cotia (23°06'S; 46°09'W), ♀, 26.XI.2004, M. P. M. Povoni leg. (IBSP 111586); ♂, IX.1982, S. Graniero leg. (IBSP 114491-B); ♂, 04.XI.1996, Prefeitura Municipal de Cotia leg. (IBSP 118220); (Caucaia do Alto, 23°73'S; 47°05'W), ♂, X.1982, R. Seckler leg. (IBSP 113039); ♂, 20.X.1978, R. Seckler leg. (IBSP 113023); 3♂, 2♀, XII.2002, without leg. (MZSP 22013, 22012); (Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande, 23°36''09'S; 46°55''53'W), 7♂, VII.2006, C. Bragagnolo leg. (MZSP 28838, 28840, 28841); 3♂ (IBSP 128462); Itapecerica da Serra (23°07'S; 46°09'W), ♀, 15.VI.1992, A. A. Massetti leg. (IBSP 113180); 2♂, IX.1975, L. Canova leg. (IBSP 113040, 113041); 4♂, ♀, IV.1970, L. Canova leg. (IBSP 11114); Embu (23°07'S; 46°09'W), ♂, X.1983, S. Graniero leg. (IBSP 113055); ♂, IX.2005, F. M. Paulino leg. (IBSP 112265); Ibiúna (23°08'S; 47°01'W), ♂, XI.2006, J. Yamada leg. (IBSP 113062); ♂, VIII.1983, N. R. de Barros leg. (IBSP 114577); 1♀, 26.VI.1997, Y. A. Afonso leg. (IBSP 118199); ♂, 24.VIII.2004, D. Peccinini leg. (IBSP 115367); São Lourenço da Serra (23°09'S; 43°09'W), 2♂, 30.IX.2004, R. P. de Camargo leg. (IBSP 111042); 3♂, 02.X.1979, E. Tribukait leg. (IBSP 114491-A); ♂, X.1989, S. Fernandes leg. (IBSP 113020); ♀, 20.IV.1990, S. de Sá Fernandes leg. (IBSP 113182); Piedade (23°07'S; 47°04'W), ♀, 10.VI.2002, W. J. Brazil leg. (IBSP 110646); Tapiraí (23°09'S; 47°01'W), ♂, VII.1999, D. F. Candiani leg. (IBSP 18524); ♂, VI.1980, V. A. Santinho leg. (IBSP 114491-C); ♀, 27.I.1992, R. Andi leg. (IBSP 113179); ♀, 11.V.1987, Prefeitura Municipal de Tapiraí leg. (IBSP 113178); Between Piedade and Tapiraí (24°00'S; 47°05'W), 2♂, 12-22.XII.2006, R. Recoder & M. Teixeira Jr. leg. 4♀, 1j (IBSP 113254, 113255); Embu-Guaçu (23°09'S; 46°09'W), ♀, 07.XI.1991, O. A. de Oliveira leg. (IBSP 113183); ♂, 05.X.2001, O. J. Gumiero leg. (IBSP 119445); ♂, 26.X.1970, J. Casoy leg. (IBSP 114083); ♂, XI.1980, P. P. Sales leg. (IBSP 113054); Juquitiba (24°00'S; 47°01'W), ♀, 09.I.2001, M. Rossini leg. (IBSP 118706); ♂, VII.1997, V. Ribeiro leg. (IBSP 113024); ♂, 29.X.1979, A. Scheider leg. (IBSP 114496); ♂, 08.IX.1998, C. Ruelli leg. (IBSP 118278); ♀, 1j, no date or leg. (IBSP 14176-B); Juquiá (24°19'S; 47°37'W), ♂, XII.1980, Paisagismo Lux leg. (IBSP 104598); Guapiara (24°02'S; 48°06'W), Fazenda Intervales, Mirante, ♂, XI.1997, P. Gerhard leg. (IBSP 118287).

    Etymology. The species epithet is an apposition referring to the red coloration of the carapace in the living specimen (Fig. 2).

    Diagnosis. Males of P. rubra sp. nov. resemble P. perdita, P. gauderio sp. nov. and P. arapongas sp. nov. by the aspect of the palpal bulb very large, but differ from P. perdita and P. gauderio sp. nov. by the keels being more numerous and less elevated, and from P. arapongas sp. nov. by the lateral keel projected laterally in prolateral view (Figs 24-26). Females resemble P. perdita by the similar division on tarsal scopula of leg IV, but in P. rubra sp. nov. the division is thicker with sparser setae (Fig. 61), while in P. perdita are thick and grouped (Fig. 57), but differ by the less elevated supraspermathecal chamber, with the central region oval and the apex of the high receptacle globose, and from P. arapongas sp. nov. by the high supraspermathecal chamber, but differ by the lightly sinuous duct (Fig. 27).

    Description. Male (holotype). Coloration in ethanol: Carapace reddish. Abdomen dorsal and ventral sides and legs brown. Total length, 19.00. Carapace 10.50 long, 8.75 wide. Abdomen 8.50 long, 5.80 wide. Fovea 0.75. Clypeus 0.70. Eyes: Anterior row slightly procurved and posterior recurved. AME 0.46, ALE 0.42, PME 0.30 and PLE 0.30. Basal segment of chelicerae with 12 teeth, with 31-35 smaller teeth. Labium 0.87 long, 1.75 wide, with eight cuspules. Endites with 46-50 cuspules. Sternum rounded 4.62 long, 4.37 wide, slightly domed. Six sternal sigillae, four anterior marginal and two posterior submarginal, three times the size of the two anterior, distant from margin half the size of posterior sigillae. Palp: femur 5.00/ patella 2.37/ tibia 2.87/ tarsus 1.62/ total 11.86; Leg I: femur 8.62/ patella 5.25/ tibia 6.75/ metatarsus 7.87/ tarsus 4.37/ total 32.86; II: 8.25/ 4.62/ 6.25/ 7.37/ 4.50/ 30.99; III: 8.00/ 4.12/ 6.12/ 8.87/ 4.50/ 31.73; IV: 10.12/ 4.50/ 8.25/ 12.62/ 4.75/ 40.23. Spination: palp: femur d0-0-2-1, patella p1-1-1, tibia p0-2-1-1-1, r0-0-1; Legs: I: femur d1-1-1r-1-3-2, patella v0-1r-0, p0-1-1, tibia v1p-1p-2r-1-1r-1r-1p ap, p1-1-1-1, metatarsus v2-1r-1p ap, p1-0-1, r0-0-1-0; II: femur d0-1-1r-2p-2r-1p-1-2, patella v0-1r-1ap, p0-1-1, tibia v1p-2r-0-1r-1r-3ap, p1-0-1, metatarsus d0-0-1p-0, v2-0-1r-0-2ap, p1-0-1-0-1, r0-0-1-0; III: femur d1-1-2-1-3-2, patella d0-0-1, p1-1-1-1, r0-1-0, tibia d1-0-1, v2-0-2-1p-0-3ap, p1-0-0, r1-0-1, metatarsus d1r-1p-1r-1p-2, v2-1p-2-3ap, p1-1-1, r0-1-0-1-0-0; IV: femur d1-1-1p-2r-3-3, patella d0-0-1, p1-1-1, r1-0-0, tibia d1-1p-1-1-0, v2-2-0-3ap, p1-1-1, r1-1-1-1-1, metatarsus d2r-1r-1r-1p-1p-1r-2ap, v1r-2p-1r-2-1r-1p-3ap, p1-0-1-0-1-1-1-1, r1-1-1-1-1-1-1. Metatarsus I slightly curved at the base. Scopulae on tarsi I-II integral, symmetrically dense and laterally projected; III divided by a sparse zig-zag row of very thin setae, IV divided by 2-4 rows of thin setae (Fig. 60). Scopulae on metatarsi I-II integral and symmetric. Metatarsus I with a slight retrolateral basal curvature. STC with 6-7 teeth on tarsi I, seven on tarsi II, 7-8 on tarsi III-IV. PLS: basal, median and apical segments 1.25, 0.62, 0.25 long, respectively. Palpal bulb pyriform with strong keels slightly elevated (14-16), spermatic duct with a median curvature, without sinuosity until the embolus tip, which is short with a mild ventral curvature (Figs 24-26). Palpal tibia with six strong spines in prolateral view (Fig. 23).

    Female (paratype, IBSP 113181). Coloration in live specimen: Carapace reddish. abdomen dark brown, with an anterior light brown marking and seven transverse stripes, formed by small round markings; ventral side of abdomen and legs brown (Fig. 2). Total length, 28.70. Carapace 11.30 long, 10.00 wide. Abdomen 13.00 long, 8.80 wide. Fovea 1.75. Clypeus 0.80. Eyes: AME 0.62, ALE 0.54, PME 0.28 and PLE 0.42. Basal segment of chelicerae with 11-10 teeth, with 28-30 smaller teeth. Labium 2.30 long, 1.10 wide, with four cuspules. Endites with 66 cuspules. Sternum ovate 5.12 long, 5.13 wide, slightly domed. Six oval sternal sigillae, four anterior marginal and two posterior submarginal, four times the size of the two anterior, distant from margin 1/5 the size of posterior sigillae. Palp: femur 5.37/ patella 1.87/ tibia 3.62/ tarsus 3.25/ total 14.11; Leg I: femur 7.50/ patella 5.11/ tibia 5.36/ metatarsus 4.36/ tarsus 3.00/ total 25.33; II: 6.61/ 4.36/ 4.61/ 4.86/ 3.11/ 23.55; III: 6.50/ 4.11/ 4.11/ 6.75/ 3.61/ 20.97; IV: 9.11/ 4.86/ 7.00/ 10.86/ 3.86/ 35.69; Spination: palp: femur d0-0-1r, tibia v0-1p-0-3ap, p0-2-0, tarsus v1r-0-0; Legs: I: femur d0-0-1p, metatarsus v1r-0-1r-0; II: femur d0-0-1p, tibia v0-0-1-0, metatarsus v0-1r-0-01ap; III: femur d0-0-1p-1p-1r, patella d0-1-0-0-1-1ap, p0-1-0, r0-1-1-1-1, tibia d2-0-1, v1r-0-2-0-2ap, p1-1-1, r0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus d1-1p-2-1p-1r-0-2, v1r-1p-1-3ap, p1-1-1-1-1, r1-1-1-1; IV: femur d0-0-1p-1p, patella d0-0-1p-1, p0-1-0, r1-1-1, tibia d2-1-1r-1p-1r-1p-1r, v2-1r-1p-3ap, p1-1-0-1-1-1, r1-1-1-1-1, metatarsus d2p-2p-1-1p-3-1p-1p-2-2-2-2-3ap, v1-1r-1p-1r-1p-1r-1p-1r-1p-3ap, p1-1-1-1-1-1, r1-1-1-1. Palpal tarsal claw with four strong teeth. Scopulae on tarsi I-II and metatarsi I symmetric and metatarsi II asymmetric; tarsal scopula III slightly divided by a long row of few thick setae, IV strongly divided by thick setae (Fig. 61). STC with 4-5 teeth on tarsi I, five on tarsi II-III, 5-6 on tarsi IV. PLS: basal, median and apical segments 1.36, 0.75, 0.36 long, respectively. Spermathecae formed by elevated receptacle with a soft sinuosity on median region and enlarged on apex, supraspermathecal chamber elevated with strong degree of sclerotization, apex of receptacle globose (Fig. 27).

    Variation. Males (n=12): total length, 12.10-22.10; endites with 68-85 cuspules, labium with 3-8 cuspules. Females (n=5): total length, 19.10-24.40; endites with 78-90 cuspules, labium with 1-5 cuspules.

    Distribution. Known only from Atlantic Forest of the state of São Paulo (Fig. 79) (see Indicatti et al., 2008b, fig. 6A, B ).

    Pycnothele arapongas sp. nov.

    (Figs 28-32; 62, 63; 79)

    Pycnothele sp.: Migliorini et al., 2011:130 (examined).

    Type material. Male holotype from Arapongas (23°22'S; 51°27'W), 18.XI.1961, Paraná, Brazil, deposited in IBSP 103571. Paratypes: one female, same data of holotype deposited in IBSP 103571; two males from Parque Estadual de Vila Velha (22°15'S; 50°00'W), Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil, 08.X.2008, G. Migliorini leg. deposited in IBSP 149219; 149221; one female from Parque Estadual de Guartelá, Tibagi (24°30'06"S; 50°24'57"W), 20-27.I.2008, I. Cizauskas leg. deposited in IBSP 115435; 1 male, Parque Estadual de Vila Velha (22°15'S; 50°00'W), 08.X.2008, G. Migliorini leg., Ponta Grossa, Paraná deposited in MZSP 42545.

    Additional material examined. BRAZIL, Paraná: Ponta Grossa (25°04'60"S; 50°08'60"W), 5♀, no date or leg. (IBSP 113570; 113572; 113599); Jaguariaíva (24°10'S; 49°39'W), Parque Estadual do Cerrado, ♀, 23.I.2000, Braga & Becker leg. (IBSP 113143).

    Etymology. The species epithet is a noun in apposition taken from type locality.

    Diagnosis. Males from P. arapongas sp. nov. resemble P. perdita, P. gauderio sp. nov. and P. rubra sp. nov. by the aspect of the palpal bulb and by the basal curvature of the spermatic duct, but differ from P. perdita and P. rubra sp. nov. by the spermatic duct, on the apical part without sinuosity; P. gauderio sp. nov. also resemble P. arapongas sp. nov. by the soft curvature on embolus and a light curvature on apex, but differ by the shorter keels (Figs 29-31). Females resemble P. gauderio sp. nov. and P. jatai sp. nov. by the shorter duct; though differ by the absence of sinuosity from P. jatai sp. nov., and from P. gauderio sp. nov. by the absence of curvature on receptacle and more globose on apical region (Fig. 32).

    Description. Male (holotype). Coloration in ethanol: carapace reddish brown, legs orange brown and abdomen light brown. Total length, 20.49. Carapace 10.12 long, 7.70 wide. Abdomen 10.37 long, 6.37 wide. Fovea 0.62. Clypeus 0.75. Eyes: AME 0.26, ALE 0.10, PME 0.24 and PLE 0.24. Basal segment of chelicerae with eight teeth, with 18 smaller teeth. Labium 0.62 long, 1.25 wide, with four cuspules. Endites with 38/44 cuspules. Sternum ovate 4.62 long, 3.75 wide, slightly domed. Six sternal sigillae, anterior and posterior rounded and marginal, with the third pair been half size of anterior pair. Palp: femur 4.12/ patella 2.25/ tibia 2.50/ tarsus 1.25/ total 10.12; Leg I: femur 7.50/ patella 4.62/ tibia 5.37/ metatarsus 6.12/ tarsus 3.75/ total 27.36; II: 7.25/ 3.87/ 4.75/ 5.62/ 3.87/ 25.36; III: 6.62/ 3.50/ 4.50/ 6.37/ 4.50/ 25.49; IV absent. Spination: palp: femur d1-1-1-1r-1p, p0-0-1, patella p1-1-1, tibia v1-0-0, p1-1-1, r0-0-1; Legs: I: femur d1-1-1-1-1-1r-1p-1r, patella v0-1-0-2ap, p1-1-1, tibia v2-1p-1r-1r-2ap, p2-1-1-1-1-1, r1-1-1, metatarsus v2-0-1r-0, p1-1-1, r0-0-1-0; II: femur d1-1p-1-1r-1-1-1p-1r-1-1p-1r, patella v0-0-1ap, p1-1-1, tibia v3-3-2ap, p1-0-1, metatarsus d0-1-0-1-0, v1-1-0-0, p0-1-0-0, r0-0-1-0; III: femur d1-1-1r-1-1-p-1r-1-1p-1r-1-1p, patella p1-0-1, r1-0-1-0-1, tibia d2-0-1, v2-0-1p-0-2ap, p0-1-0-1, r10-0-1-0, metatarsus d1-0-1-0-1r, v2-0-2-0-3ap, p0-1-0-1-0-0, r1-0-1-0-1-0. Scopulae on tarsi I-II and metatarsi I symmetric and metatarsi II asymmetric. Scopula of IV leg divided by two or three rows of long thin setae (Fig. 62). STC with seven teeth on tarsi I, 8-9 on tarsi II, 9-11 on tarsi III. PLS: basal, median and apical segments 1.62, 1.12, 0.50 long. Palpal bulb pyriform with strong but slightly elevated keels (12-14), spermatic duct with a soft medial curvature without sinuosity until embolus, soft curvature on embolus slightly curved on apex (Figs 29-31). Palpal tibia with six strong spines in prolateral view (Fig. 28).

    Female (paratype IBSP 103571). Coloration in ethanol: carapace and legs orange, abdomen brown. Total length, 16.62. Carapace 8.37 long, 6.25 wide. Abdomen 8.25 long, 7.87 wide. Fovea 0.70. Clypeus 0.75. AME 0.25, ALE 0.30, PME 0.34 and PLE 0.20. Basal segment of chelicerae with nine teeth, with 15-18 smaller teeth. Labium 0.62 long, 1.25 wide, with four cuspules. Endites with 50-53 cuspules. Sternum rounded 3.75 long, 3.62 wide, slightly domed. Six sternal sigillae, anterior and posterior rounded and marginal, two times the size of anterior. Palp: femur 4.25/ patella 2.37/ tibia 2.75/ tarsus 2.25/ total 11.62; Leg I: femur 5.75/ patella 3.87/ tibia 3.50/ metatarsus 3.37/ tarsus 2.62/ total 19.11; II: 5.37/ 3.50/ 3.50/ 3.50/ 2.75/ 18.62; III: 4.75/ 3.00/ 3.12/ 4.50/ 3.12/ 18.49; IV: 7.50/ 3.37/ 4.62/ 7.25/ 3.50/ 26.24. Spination: palp: patella p0-1-0, tibia v1-1r-1p-0-3ap, p0-0-1-0, tarsus v1r-0-0; Legs: I: femur d0-0-1p-0, tibia v0-0-1ap, metatarsus v1-0-0; II: femur d0-0-1p-0, patella p0-1-0, tibia v0-0-1ap, p0-0-1-0, metatarsus v2-1-0; III: femur d0-0-1p, patella p0-0-1, r1-1-1, tibia d1-0-1-0, v1-0-2-0-2ap, p1-0-1, r1-0-0-1, metatarsus d0-1-0-2-0-1, v2-0-2-0-1-3ap, p1-1-1, r1-1-1; IV: femur d0-0-1p, patella p0-1-1-0, r1-1-1, tibia d2-0-0, v0-1-0-3ap, p1-1-0, r1-0-0-1-0, metatarsus d1-1p-1-1r-1p-1r-1p-1, v1p-1r-1-1-1r-1p-3ap, p1-1-1, r1-1-1-0-1-0. Metatarsus I slightly curved basally. Palpal tarsal claw with four strong teeth. Scopulae on tarsi I-II and metatarsi I symmetric and metatarsi II asymmetric. Slightly divided by thin setae on tarsi III and strongly divided by thick setae on tarsi IV (Fig. 63). STC with six teeth on tarsi I, 6/8 on tarsi II, 5/8 on tarsi III and 7/8 on tarsi IV. PLS: basal, median and apical segments 0.87, 0.62, 0.25 long, respectively. Spermathecae with short and straight receptacle, enlarged on apex, supraspermathecal chamber elevated and strongly sclerotized, apex of receptacle globose (Fig. 32).

    Variation. Males (n=5): total length, 11.70-19.40; endites with 37-42 cuspules, labium with 2-6 cuspules. Female (n=6): total length, 14.60-22.10; endites with 45-58 cuspules, labium with 3-6 cuspules.

    Distribution. Known from the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná (Fig. 79).

    Pycnothele singularis (Mello-Leitão, 1934)

    (Figs 33-37; 64-65 ; 80)

    Androthelopsis singularis Mello-Leitão, 1934:402, figs 1-2 [male holotype from Serrana (21°02'S; 47°06'W), Vila Bonfim, São Paulo, Brazil, deposited in IBSP 103442, examined]; Lucas & Bücherl, 1973:238; Raven, 1985:101.

    Pycnothele singularis: Pérez-Miles & Capocasale, 1988:291; Platnick, 2014.

    Additional material examined. BRAZIL, São Paulo: Itirapina (Estação Ecológica de Itirapina, 22°15'S; 47°49'W), 4♂, 2001-2002, G. Machado & C. Bertim leg. (IBSP 113141, 113142, 113144, 112803); ♂, 12.X.1999, M. E. Oliveira leg. (IBSP 118799); 2♂, XI.1985, E. Moraes leg. (IBSP 113028); ♂, 12.X.2000, M. E. Oliveira leg. (IBSP 118795); Serrana (21°02'S; 47°06'W), ♂, 05.X.1981, I. A. Souza leg. (IBSP 117928); Brotas (22°03'S; 48°01'W), ♂, XII.1975, C. Madresan leg. (IBSP 114173); Vargem Grande do Sul (22°03'S; 48°01'W), ♀, X.1980, T. S. Viola leg. (IBSP 104569).

    Diagnosis. Males of P. singularis resemble P. jatai sp. nov. and P. araraquara sp. nov. by the long and narrow palpal bulb, by the retrolateral spines of metatarsi I with elevated base; but differ from P. araraquara sp. nov. by the slightly shorter embolus and division of the scopula on tarsi IV with more distant thicker and longer setae (Fig. 64 ); differ from P. jatai sp. nov. by the lateral keel on bulb in prolateral view being straight (Fig. 34), while in P. jatai sp. nov. it is rounded and the duct more sinuous (Fig. 39). Females of P. singularis resemble P. jatai sp. nov. by the lower supraspermathecal chamber and by the globose receptacle but differ by the ducts being less spiralled and more elevated receptacle (Fig. 37).

    Redescription. Male (IBSP 113028). Coloration in ethanol: Carapace orange brown, leg and abdomen light brown, abdomen with dense hair. Total length, 17.36. Carapace 8.75 long, 7.36 wide. Fovea 0.75. Clypeus 0.50. AME 0.21, ALE 0.32, PME 0.20, PLE 0.25. Basal segment of chelicerae with 9 teeth, with 10-12 basal smaller teeth. Labium 0.75 long, 1.25 wide, with two cuspules. Endites with 15-18 cuspules. Sternum 4.25 long, 3.25 wide, slightly domed. Six sternal sigillae, four anterior marginal and two posterior submarginal, twice the size of anterior pair, distant from margin 0.31. Palp: femur 4.00/ patella 3.50/ tibia 2.50/ tarsus 1.63/ total 11.63; Leg I: femur 7.36/ patella 3.61/ tibia 5.50/ metatarsus 6.60/ tarsus 4.11/ total 27.18; II: 6.86/ 3.62/ 4.75/ 6.60/ 4.11/ 25.93; III: 6.60/ 2.86/ 4.61/ 7.50/ 4.61/ 26.18; IV: 8.50/ 4.00/ 6.00/ 4.60/ 5.36/ 28.46. Spination: palp: femur d0-1-0, p0-0-1-0, r0-0-1-0, patella p1-0-1, tibia p0-2-0-1, r0-0-1; Legs: I: femur d1-1-1-1-1, p0-0-1-1, patella v0-1r-0, p1-1-1, tibia v1-1-1r-1-1-1r-1ap, p1-1-1-1, r1-1-0-0, metatarsus d0-1-1-0, v0-1r-1-1r-0, p1-1-0-1; II: femur d1-1-1-1-0, p0-1-1-1-1, r1-1-1-1, patella v0-1r-0, p1-1-1, tibia v1-1-1r-1-1-1r-4ap, metatarsus d0-0-1p-1r-2ap, v2-1r-1p-1ap, p0-0-1-0-1ap, r1-1-1; III: femur d1-1-1-1, p0-1-1-1, r1-1-1, patella r1-11, tibia d1-1-0-1-0, v3-1r-1p-3ap, p0-1-0-1-0, r0-1-0-2-0, metatarsus d1-1r-1p-1r-1-1p-1r-1ap, v1r-1p-0-1r-1p-2ap, p0, r2-1-1-1-1; IV: femur d1-1-1-1, p0-1-1-1, r0-1-1-1, patella p0-1-0, r1-1-1, tibia d1p-1-1, v1-1r-0-1r-1p-0-3ap, p0-1-0-1-0, r1-1-1, metatarsus d1-1-1-1r-1, v1r-1p-1r-1p-1r-3ap, p1-1-1, r1-1-1. Metatarsus I with a light basal curvature. Scopulae on tarsi I-II and metatarsi I symmetric and metatarsi II asymmetric, tarsi III-IV divided by long and dark setae (Fig. 64 ). STC with 8-9 teeth on tarsi I, 9-10 on tarsi II, 9-12 on tarsi III and 11-12 on tarsi IV. PLS: basal, median and apical segments 1.61, 0.75, 0.25 long, respectively. Palpal bulb with strong keels (15-17), spermatic duct slightly sinuous, embolus short slightly curved ventrally (Figs 34-36). Palpal tibia with three strong spines in prolateral view (Fig. 33).

    Female (IBSP 104569). Coloration in ethanol: Carapace reddish brown with radial symmetric dark stripes, the two stripes closest to the ocular region are wide, covered with short thin golden setae, abdomen light brown, with one longitudinal dark brown stripe, with many similarly coloured spotted markings. Ventral side of coxae, sternum and endites dark brown, legs brown with longitudinal dark brown stripes. Spinnerets dark brown. Total length, 26.00. Carapace 9.60 long, 8.00 wide. Abdomen 11.80 long, 8.80 wide. Fovea 0.50. Clypeus 0.60. Eyes: Anterior row strongly procurved and posterior slightly recurved. AME 0.25, ALE 0.45, PME 0.23, PLE 0.38. Basal segment of chelicerae with 10-11 teeth, with ca. 10 basal smaller teeth. Labium 0.80 long, 1.40 wide, with four cuspules. Endites with 35 cuspules. Sternum ovate 4.40 long, 4.00 wide, slightly domed. Six sternal sigillae, four anterior marginal and two posterior sub marginal, twice the size of anterior pair. Palp: femur 4.20/ patella 2.80/ tibia 2.90/ tarsus 2.70/ total 12.60. Leg I: femur 6.90/ patella 4.20/ tibia 4.50/ metatarsus 4.30/ tarsus 2.60/ total 22.50; II: 6.20/ 3.20/ 4.10/ 4.40/ 2.80/ 20.70; III: 5.90/ 3.20/ 3.60/ 5.40/ 3.30/ 21.40; IV: 6.80/ 3.90/ 5.30/ 7.90/ 3.80/ 27.70. Spination: palp: femur d1p-0-0, patella p1-0-1, tibia v1r-2-4ap, p0-1-0. Legs: I: femur d0-0-1p, tibia v1-1-1pap, p0-1-0, metatarsus v1r-0-0; II: femur d1-0-1p, patella p0-0-1, tibia v1-1-1p ap, p1-0-0, metatarsus v1r-1r-1pap; III: femur d1-0-2, patella p1-1-1, r0-1-0-0, tibia d1-0-1, v1p-1r-3ap, p1-1-0, r0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus d0-1p-0-2, v2-0-2-0-3ap, p1-1-1, r0-1-0; IV: femur d1-0-1r, patella p1-1-1, r0-1-0, tibia v3ap, p0-1-0-1-0, r0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus d0-1p-0-2, v2-1p-2-3ap, p1-1-1, r1-0-1-0. Palpal tarsal claw with five strong teeth. Scopulae on tarsi I-II and metatarsi I symmetric and metatarsi II asymmetric. Tarsal scopula III slightly divided by one or two rows of thin setae, tarsal scopula IV divided by two or four thick setae (Fig. 65 ). STC with 6-7 teeth on tarsi I, 7-8 on tarsi II-III and 4-8 on tarsi IV. PLS: basal, median and apical segments 1.32, 0.84, 0.54 long, respectively. Spermathecae with short receptacle strongly sinuous and dilated on apex, supraspermathecal chamber short and slightly sclerotized, apex of receptacle globose (Fig. 37).

    Variation. Males (n=5): total length, 16.50-17.36; endites with 15-19 cuspules, labium with 1-2 cuspules.

    Distribution. Known from Cerrado (Brazilian savanna), northern state of São Paulo, Brazil (Fig. 80).

    Pycnothele jatai sp. nov.

    (Figs 38-42; 66,67 ; 80)

    Type material. Male holotype from Estação Ecológica do Jataí, Luís Antônio (21°30'S; 47°50'W), São Paulo, Brazil, 03.X-07.X.2009, A. G. Cristovão leg., deposited in IBSP 161759. Paratypes: one female and five males, same data of holotype deposited in IBSP 161760-161764.

    Additional material examined. BRAZIL, São Paulo: Luís Antônio, 16♂, same data of type material (IBSP 161765-161776).

    Etymology. The species epithet is a noun in apposition taken from type locality.

    Diagnosis. Males of P. jatai sp. nov. resemble P. singularis and P. araraquara sp. nov. by the long narrow palpal bulb, by the retrolateral spines of metatarsi I elevated at the base and by the curvature of spermatic duct in ventral view; but differ from P. araraquara sp. nov. by the shorter embolus (Figs 39-41). Pycnothele jatai sp. nov. is similar to P. singularis by the short embolus, but differ by the rounded lateral keel of the bulb in prolateral view (Fig. 39). Females of P. jatai sp. nov. resemble P. singularis by the less developed supraspermathecal chamber, but differ by the torsions of the ducts and by the shorter receptacle (Fig. 42).

    Description. Male (holotype). Coloration in ethanol: carapace orange covered by short setae, brown legs, abdomen light brown with a narrow dark dorsal stripe, with few lateral stripes on posterior region, ventral side brown. Total length, 15.63. Carapace 7.88 long, 6.25 wide. Abdomen 7.75 long, 4.13 wide. Fovea 0.48. Clypeus 0.50. Eyes: Anterior row procurved and posterior slightly recurved. AME 0.25, ALE 0.32, PME 0.19 and PLE 0.22. Basal segment of chelicerae with 9-8 teeth, with 9-15 smaller teeth. Labium 0.50 long, 2.38 wide, with two cuspules. Endites with 22-24 cuspules. Sternum ovate 3.00 long, 3.25 wide, slightly domed. Six sternal sigillae, four rounded anterior marginal and two ovate posterior submarginal, twice the size of the anterior pair. Palp: femur 2.88/ patella 1.75/ tibia 2.50/ tarsus 0.38/ total 7.51; Leg I: femur 5.25/ patella 2.75/ tibia 5.00/ metatarsus 4.25/ tarsus 2.63/ total 19.88; II: 5.75/ 3.00/ 4.00/ 4.63/ 2.88/ 20.26; III: 5.75/ 2.38/ 4.13/ 6.38/ 3.75/ 22.39; IV: 6.50/ 2.38/ 5.13/ 7.50/ 4.25/ 25.76; Spination: palp: femur d0-1-0, p0-1-0, r0-0-1, patella p1-1-1, tibia p1-1-1-1-1ap, r0-1-1; Legs: I: femur d1-1-1-1-1-1, p0-0-1-1, r0-1-0-1-0, patella v0-1r-0, p1-1-1-, tibia v1-1-1r-1-1-1-1ap, p1-1-1, r2-0-1, metatarsus d0-1p1r-0, v1p-0-2-0, p1-1-0-1, r1-1-1; II: femur d1-1-1-1-1, p1-1-1-1, r1-1-1-1, patella v0-1r-0, p1-1-1, tibia v1-1-1-1-3ap, p0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus d0-1p-1r-0, v1p-1r-1r-1p1ap, p1-1-1-1, r0-1-0; III: femur d1-1-1, p1-1-1-1, r1-1-1, patella p0-1-0, r1-1-1, tibia d1-1-1, v2-1r-1p-3ap, p1-1-1-1, r1-0-2, metatarsus d1-1r-1-1-2, v1r-1p-1r-1p-3ap, p1-1-1-1, r1-1-1-1-1; IV: femur d1-1-1-0, p0-1-1-1, r1-1-1, patella p0-1-0, r1-1-1, tibia d1-1-1, v2-1-1-3ap, p1-1, r1-1-1-1-1, metatarsus d1-1p-1r-1r-1p-1r-1p-1r, v1-1-1-2-3ap, p1-1-1-1, r1-1-1. Scopulae on tarsi I-II and metatarsi I symmetric and metatarsi II asymmetric. Scopulae divided by thin and sparse setae on tarsi III and strongly divided by 2-4 rows of thin setae on tarsi IV (Fig. 66 ). STC with 7-9 teeth on tarsi I, 8-10 on tarsi II, 11-12 on tarsi III and 11-13 on tarsi IV. PLS: basal, median and apical segments 1.15, 0.75, 0.35 long, respectively. Palpal bulb narrow with few elevated keels (11-16), spermatic duct slightly sinuous, short embolus with a slight ventral curvature, lateral keel in prolateral view rounded (Figs 39-41). Palpal tibia with four strong spines in prolateral view (Fig. 38).

    Female (paratype IBSP 161760). Coloration in ethanol: carapace light brown with many short setae, legs light brown, sternum, coxae and endites dark brown, abdomen yellowish with dorsal longitudinal stripe and a faint chevron stripe, with many markings, venter dark brown. Total length, 19.88. Carapace 8.50 long, 6.50 wide. Abdomen 11.38 long, 7.50 wide. Fovea 0.66. Clypeus 0.55. Eyes: anterior row strongly procurved and posterior strongly recurved. AME 0.25, ALE 1.62, PME 0.22 and PLE 0.32. Basal segment of chelicerae with 8-9 teeth, with 8-14 smaller teeth. Labium 0.63 long, 1.25 wide, with two cuspules. Endites with 26-30 cuspules. Sternum rounded 3.88 long, 3.13 wide, slightly domed. Six sternal sigillae, four anterior marginal and two ovate posterior submarginal, twice the size of the anterior pair. Palp: femur 3.50/ patella 2.00/ tibia 2.38/ tarsus 2.25/ total 10.13; Leg I: femur 5.38/ patella 3.38/ tibia 3.75/ metatarsus 3.25/ tarsus 2.38/ total 18.14; II: 5.00/ 3.13/ 3.25/ 3.38/ 2.50/ 17.26; III: 4.88/ 2.75/ 3.00/ 4.75/ 2.88/ 18.26; IV: 6.00/ 3.25/ 4.50/ 6.63/ 3.38/ 23.76. Spination: palp: femur d0-0-1-0-1p-0, patella p1-0-1, tibia v1-1-1r-3ap, p1-1ap; legs: I: femur d1-1-1-1-1-1p, tibia v0-1-0-1ap, p0-0-1-0, metatarsus v1r-0-0; II: femur d1-1-1r, patella p1-0-1-0, tibia v0-1-0-1ap, p0-1-1-0, metatarsus v1p-1r-1-1ap; III: femur d1, p0-1-1, r0-1-1-1, patella p0-1-0, r1-1-1, tibia d1-1p-0-1-1, v0-1-0-3ap, p0-1-0-0, r1-0-0, metatarsus d1p-1p-1r-2, v1-1r-1r-3ap, p1-1-1, r1-1-1; IV: femur d1-0-1p, p0-0-1, patella p1-0-0, r1-1-1, tibia v0-1-0-3ap, p0-1-0-1-0, r0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus d1p-1p-1r-1p, v1r-1p-1r-2-3ap, p1-1-1, r1-1-1. Metatarsus I with a light basal curvature. Palpal tarsal claw with four strong teeth. Scopulae on tarsi I-II and metatarsi I symmetric and metatarsi II asymmetric. Scopula on tibia I 6/7, dense. Scopulae slightly divided by thick and short setae on tarsi III, basally by sparse rows with 1-2 setae, apical region more concentrated with 1-2 setae. Tarsi IV divided by thick and long setae, rows with 3-4 setae, concentrated on apex (Fig. 67 ). STC with 6-8 teeth on tarsi I, 7-9 on tarsi II-IV. PLS: basal, median and apical segments 1.50, 0.90, 0.50 long, respectively. Spermathecae with the receptacle short and spiralled, enlarged on apex, supraspermathecal chamber short with reduced sclerotization with light degree of quitinization, apex of receptacle globose (Fig. 42).

    Variation. Males (n=19): total length, 14.62-19.25; endites with 19-31 cuspules, labium with 1-5 cuspules.

    Distribution. Known from Cerrado (Brazilian savanna), north of the state of São Paulo (Fig. 80).

    Pycnothele araraquara sp. nov.

    (Figs 43-46; 68 ; 80)

    Type material. Male holotype from Araraquara (21°08'S; 48°01'W), São Paulo, Brazil, XI.2005, C. S. Pinto leg., deposited in IBSP 112323. Paratypes: two males, same locality as holotype, 24.XI.1987, Prefeitura Municipal de Araraquara leg., deposited in IBSP 113021, 161779.

    Additional material examined. BRAZIL, São Paulo: Araraquara (21°08'S; 48°01'W), ♂, 27.IX.2013, Gerência de controle de vetores leg. (IBSP 165023).

    Etymology. The species epithet is a noun in apposition taken from type locality.

    Diagnosis. Males of P. araraquara sp. nov. resemble P. singularis and P. jatai sp. nov. by the long and narrow palpal bulb, with short keels and by the retrolateral spines of metatarsi I with elevated base, but differ from P. singularis and P. jatai sp. nov. by the longer embolus (Figs 44-46) and the aspect of the scopula division on tarsi IV having longer and thinner sparsely spaced setae (Fig. 68 ).

    Description. Male (holotype). Coloration in ethanol: Carapace reddish brown, orange legs and brown abdomen. Total length, 16.38. Carapace 8.00 long, 6.70 wide. Abdomen 8.38 long, 4.50 wide. Fovea 1.00. Clypeus 0.50. Eyes: AME 0.26, ALE 0.31, PME 0.23 and PLE 0.28. Basal segment of chelicerae with 8/11 teeth, with ca. 18 smaller teeth. Labium 0.50 long, 1.25 wide, with three cuspules. Endites with 22/24 cuspules. Sternum ovate 4.00 long, 3.50 wide, slightly domed. Six sternal sigillae, four anterior marginal and two posterior submarginal, two times the size of anterior, distant from margin half size of posterior sigillae. Palp: femur 4.87/ patella 2.00/ tibia 2.62/ tarsus 1.12/ total 10.61; Leg I: femur 6.62/ patella 4.12/ tibia 4.87/ metatarsus 5.62/ tarsus 3.37/ total 24.60; II: 6.37/ 3.62/ 4.62/ 5.50/ 3.62/ 23.73; III: 6.25/ 3.12/ 4.50/ 7.12/ 4.37/ 25.36; IV: 7.37/ 3.62/ 6.25/ 8.25/ 4.50/ 29.99. Spination: palp: femur d0-1p-1-0, patella p1-0-1, tibia p1-1-1; Legs: I: femur d1-1r-1-1r-1r-1p, patella d1p-0-1ap, p1-1-1, tibia v1-1r-1-1p-1-1r-1ap, p0-1-0-1-0, r0-1-0, metatarsus d0-0-1p-1r-0, v1p-1p-1r-1r-1p, p1-1-1-1ap, r0-0-2; II: femur d1-1r-1-1r-1-1r-1r-1p, p0-0-1ap, patella p1-1-1, tibia v1p-1-1r-2-1r-3ap, p0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus d0-1p-0-1r-0, v1p-1r-1-1ap, p1-1-0-1, r0-1-0-1; III: femur d1-1-1r-1p-1-1r-1p-1r-1p-1ap, r0-0-1; patella p1-1-1, r1-1-1, tibia d1-1-1p-1p-1, v2-2-3ap, p1-0-0, r1-0-1-0, metatarsus d1-1p-1r-1r-1p-1r-1p, v1-1p-2-3ap, r1-1-1; IV: femur d1-1-1p-1-1-1p-1r-1p-1r; patella p1-0-0, r1-1-1, tibia d1-1-1, v2-1-1p-3ap, p1-0-1, r1-0-1, metatarsus d1-1p-1r-2-1, v1-1p-1-1p-1-3ap, p1, r1-1-1. Metatarsus I with light basal curvature. Scopulae on tarsi I-IV and metatarsi I symmetric and metatarsi II asymmetric. Tarsi IV slightly divided by thick and short setae (Fig. 68 ). STC with 8-10 on tarsi I, 9-11 on tarsi II, 9-12 on tarsi III-IV. PLS: basal, median and apical segments 1.25, 0.62, 0.25 long, respectively. Palpal bulb narrow with strong keels slightly elevated (12-14), spermatic duct slightly sinuous, long embolus with soft ventral curvature (Figs 44-46). Palpal tibia with four strong spines in prolateral view (Fig. 43).

    Female. Unknown.

    Variation. Males (n=3): total length, 15.1-18.5; endites with 19-28 cuspules, labium with 2-3 cuspules.

    Distribution. Known from Cerrado (Brazilian savanna), in the state of São Paulo, Brazil (Fig. 80).

    Pycnothele auronitens (Keyserling, 1891)

    (Figs 47-51; 69-70 ; 80)

    Trechona auronitens Keyserling, 1891:18, pl. 1, fig. 3 (male holotype from Taquara (29°38'60"S-50°46'60"W), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 07.I.1890, deposited in BMNH, Ihering leg., examined by photos).

    Metriopelma auronitens: Pocock, 1903:114; Mello-Leitão, 1923:173.

    Crypsidromus auronitens: Simon, 1903:931.

    Pycnothelopsis auronitens: Pérez-Miles & Capocasale, 1983.

    Pycnothele auronitens: Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1970:61; Raven, 1985:100; Platnick, 2014.

    Additional material examined. BRAZIL, Rio Grande do Sul: Porto Alegre (29°10'30"S; 51°05'00"W), ♂, II.1962, F. Siberbauer leg. (IBSP 13022); Cidreira (30°11'00"S; 50°13'00"W), 20♂, 17.IV.2003 (MCTP 22185-22188; 22190-22193), 8♂, 10.VIII.2003 (MCTP 22221-22224; 22227), 1j, 20.II.2004 (MCTP 22258), 14♂, 29.XI.2003 (MCTP 22249-22252; 22255; 22256), 2♂ (IBSP 113179; 144806), 8♂, 06.IX.2003 (MCTP 22228-22234), 5♂, 1♀, 1j, 04.X.2003 (MCTP 22237-22239), ♂ (MZSP 42544), 18♂, 01.XI.2003 (MCTP 22240-22245; 22247; 22248), 2♂, 17.V.2003 (MCTP 22196, 22201), ♂ (MCN 49392), 3♂, 14.VI.2003 (MCTP 22210; 22211), all collected by J. A. M. Pinto; Capão do Leão (31°46'00"S-52°30'00"W), 5♂, 21.XI.2002 (MCTP 14752-14755), 2♂, 30.X.2002 (MCTP 14759; 14760) all collected by E.N.L. Rodrigues.

    Diagnosis. Males of P. auronitens resemble P. auripila by the smaller body (11.60-14.10), and by the curvature of the spermatic duct which is strongly sinuous, but differ by the shorter and thicker embolus, in ventral view (Figs 48-50) and palpal bulb with 10-13 keels. Females resemble P. singularis, P. jatai sp. nov. and P. auripila and by the less elevated supraspermathecal chamber, but differ from P. auripila by the globose apex of the receptacle, from P. singularis by the shorter duct and from P. jatai sp. nov. by the less spiralled duct (Fig. 51).

    Redescription. Male (MCTP 22238). Coloration in ethanol: carapace and legs yellowish light-brown with golden dense pubescence. Abdomen light brown with brown chevron in dorsal view and covered with few setae. Total length, 13.50. Carapace, 7.38 long, 5.12 wide. Abdomen 6.20 long, 3.75 wide. Fovea 0.63. Clypeus 0.45. Eyes: AME 0.25, ALE 0.27, PME 0.15 and PLE 0.24. Basal segment of chelicerae with eight teeth, with 12-13 basal smaller teeth. Labium 0.36 long, 0.75 wide, with five cuspules. Endites with 27-28 cuspules. Sternum ovate 3.13 long, 2.50 wide, slightly domed. Six sternal sigillae, four anterior marginal and two posterior submarginal, two times the size of anterior. Palp: femur 2.86/ patella 1.50/ tibia 1.75/ tarsus 0.75/ total 6.86; Leg I: femur 4.75/ patella 3.00/ tibia 3.50/ metatarsus 3.36/ tarsus 2.50/ total 17.11; II: 4.63/ 2.63/ 3.13/ 3.00/ 2.50/ 15.86; III: 4.75/ 2.13/ 2.86/ 4.75/ 2.86/ 17.35; IV: 5.63/ 2.25/ 4.63/ 6.50/ 3.36/ 22.37. Spination: palp: femur d1-1-2p-1, patella p1-0-1, tibia p1-1-1, r0-0-1; Legs: I: femur d1-1-1-1r-1-1r-1p, patella p0-0-1, tibia v2-3-1p-1ap, p0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus v2-0-2-0, p1-1-1, r0-1-0; II: femur d1-1-1-1-1r-1p-1p-1r, patella p0-0-1, tibia v1-2-2ap, p0-1-0-1-0, metatarsus v2-1r-1ap, p1-1-1, r0-1-0; III: femur d1-1r-1p-1-1r-1p-1-1p-1r; patella p1-0-0, r1-1-1, tibia d2-0-0-1, v2-2-2ap, p0-1-0-1, r1-0-1-0, metatarsus d2-1r-2, v2-2-3ap, p1-1-1ap, r1-1-1; IV: femur d1-1-1-1-1p-1p-1r; patella p1-0-0, r1-1-1, tibia d2-0-0, v1-1-2-3ap, p0-1-0-1-0, r1-1-1, metatarsus d1p-1r-1p-1r-2, v1r-1p-1r-1p-1r-3ap, p1-1-1, r1-1-1. Metatarsus I with a light basal curvature. Scopulae on tarsi I-II and metatarsi I symmetric and metatarsi II asymmetric. Scopulae slightly divided by thin setae on tarsi III and IV (Fig. 69 ). STC with 6-8 teeth on tarsi I-II, 8-10 on tarsi III and 9-11 on tarsi IV. PLS: basal, median and apical segments 0.86, 0.36, 0.13 long, respectively. Palpal bulb pyriform with 11 strong keels, spermatic duct strongly sinuous, embolus short (Figs 48-50). Palpal tibia with three strong spines in prolateral view (Fig. 47).

    Female (MCTP 22238). Coloration as in male, less pubescence. Total length, 17.63. Carapace 7.75 long, 5.62 wide. Abdomen 9.88 long, 5.75 wide. Fovea 0.88. Clypeus 0.55. Eyes: AME 0.24, ALE 0.32, PME 0.15 and PLE 0.25. Basal segment of chelicerae with eight teeth, with 12-13 basal smaller teeth. Labium 0.50 long, 1.20 wide, with four cuspules. Endites with 22-24 cuspules. Sternum ovate 3.40 long, 3.00 wide, slightly domed. Six sternal sigillae, four anterior marginal and two posterior submarginal, two times the size of anterior. Palp: femur 3.50/ patella 1.90/ tibia 2.10/ tarsus 2.10/ total 9.60; Leg I: femur 4.30/ patella 3.40/ tibia 3.00/ metatarsus 2.70/ tarsus 1.80/ total 15.20; II: 4.10/ 2.80/ 3.00/ 2.80/ 2.10/ 14.80; III: 4.20/ 2.50/ 2.80/ 3.90/ 2.60/ 16.00; IV: 5.50/ 3.00/ 4.30/ 5.50/ 2.70/ 21.00. Spination: palp: femur p1, patella p1-0-0, tibia v2-1r-1p-3ap, p0-1-0, tarsus v1-0-0; Legs: I: femur d1-0-0-1p, tibia v1-1-1ap, metatarsus v1r-0-1r-0; II: femur d1-0-1p, patella p0-0-1, tibia d0-0-1p-0, v1-1-1-1ap, metatarsus v2-1r-2ap; III: femur d1-0-1p, patella p1-0-0, r1-1-1, tibia d2-0-10, v0-2-0-2ap, p0-1-0-1, r1-0-1, metatarsus d1p-1r-1p-1r-1-2, v2-1r-2-3ap, r1-1-1; IV: femur d1-0-0-1p, patella p1-0-0, r1-1-1, tibia v1r-2-2ap, p1-1-1, r1-0-1-0, metatarsus d1p-1r-1p-1r-2, v2-1r-2-3ap, p1-1-1-1, r1-1-1. Metatarsus I with a light basal curvature. Palpal tarsal claw with five strong teeth. Scopulae on tarsi I-II and metatarsi I symmetric and metatarsi II asymmetric. Scopulae slightly divided by thin setae on tarsi III and strongly divided by thick setae on tarsi IV (Fig. 70 ). STC with five teeth on tarsi I, 6-7 on tarsi II-III and 7-8 on tarsi IV. PLS three segmented: basal, median and apical segments 0.70, 0.50, 0.20 long. Spermathecae formed by receptacles, a short lightly sclerotized supraspermathecal chamber, with elevated and spiralled ducts, elongated apex (Fig. 51).

    Variation. Males (n=27): total length, 11.60-14.10; endites with 21-32 cuspules, labium with 3-6 cuspules.

    Distribution. Known from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Fig. 80), occurring in Atlantic Forest, in mixed ombrophilous forest (known as Brazilian Pine Forests or "Floresta de Araucária") with savannas at higher altitudes, and dense ombrophilous forests (Atlantic Rainforest) at lower altitude slopes, more informations see Indicatti et al. (2008a:531; 2008b:31).

    Pycnothele auripila (Mello-Leitão, 1946) sp. reval.

    (Figs 52-55; 71 ; 80)

    Psalistops auripilus Mello-Leitão, 1946:8, fig. 12; Bücherl, 1957:388 (male holotype from Florida, Uruguay, deposited in FCE-MY 559, examined).

    Pycnothelopsis modesta Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1971:61 (transf. from Psalistops, syn. with P. modesta, rejected by Capocasale & Pérez-Miles, 1979).

    Pycnothelopsis auripilus: Capocasale & Pérez-Miles, 1979:3 (male removed from synonymy; described female = Acanthogonatus tacuarensis); Pérez-Miles & Capocasale, 1982:6.

    Pycnothelopsis auronitens: Pérez-Miles & Capocasale, 1983:2.

    Androthelopsis auripilus: Raven, 1985:102 (removed from syn. of Pycnothele auronitens).

    Pycnothele auronitens: Pérez-Miles & Capocasale, 1988:284, 289 (Syn.); Goloboff, 1995:133, Platnick, 2014.

    Additional material examined. URUGUAY, Maldonado: Lavallella, Sierra de las Animas (34°36'S, 55°17'W), ♂, 09.VII.1967, L. Zolezzi leg. (MACN 6343); Camiño Penitente (34°20'S, 55°07'W), ♂, 09.VIII.1997, C. Toscano leg. (FCE-MY 0389).

    Note. The revalidation of Pycnothele auripila is here proposed after examination of the type material, and more two males from Uruguay and several males and one female from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The female of P. auronitens described by Goloboff (1995) is in fact a female of P. auripila therefore providing here the first description of the female of P. auronitens. The diagnostic features corroborate to the revalidation of P. auripila (see diagnosis below).

    Diagnosis. Males of P. auripila resemble P. auronitens by the smaller body size (14.00-15.70), and by the strongly sinuous curvature of the spermatic duct, but differ by the apical region of the embolus long and narrower (Figs 53 vs 48); embolus curvate to opposite side (Figs 55 vs 50); greater number of keels (25-30 vs 10-13); smaller spacing between the keels (Figs 55 vs 50); keels lower (Figs 55 vs 50); apical part of the duct more strongly curved (Figs 54 vs 49), basal part of the duct distant from subtegulum, hence the keels are shorter (Figs 55 vs 50); LK longer (Figs 48, 50 vs 53, 55); general colour brown. Females resemble P. singularis and P. auronitens by the smaller body size and the less developed supraspermathecal chamber, but differ by the less spiraled ducts (see Goloboff, 1995:134, fig. 116A).

    Description. See Goloboff (1995:133).

    Variation. Males (n=3): total length, 14.00-15.70; endites with 20-37 cuspules, labium with 4-5 cuspules.

    Distribution. Known only from Uruguay (Fig. 80).

    Pycnothele modesta (Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1942)

    (Figs 72-79)

    Pycnothelopsis modestus Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1942:320, figs 4-6 (male holotype from Argentina, Colonia Dora, Santiago del Estero, deposited in MACN 756, examined); Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1967:59.

    Pycnothelopsis modesta: Bücherl, 1957:405.

    Androthelopsis modestus: Raven, 1985:101.

    Pycnothele singularis: Pérez-Miles & Capocasale, 1988:284, 291.

    Pycnothele modesta: Goloboff, 1995:130; Platnick, 2014.

    Additional material examined. ARGENTINA: Salta: Orán (23°08'S, 64°20'W), ♀, 17.XII.1945, Preratti leg. (MACN); Entre Ríos: Paraná (31°45'S, 60°30'W), ♂, IV. 1962, L. Japón leg. (MACN 5835).

    Diagnosis. Males of P. modesta resemble P. perdita, P. gauderio sp. nov. and P. rubra sp. nov. by the large palpal bulb, differing from P. rubra by the projected keels, but similar to P. perdita and P. gauderio sp. nov. by the projected keels, differing from both these species by having more keels (10-12) (Figs 73-75). Females resemble P. singularis, P. auronitens, P. auripila and P. jatai sp. nov. by the less developed supraspermathecal chamber, but differing from this species by the ducts without spirals. Females are similar to P. gauderio sp. nov. by having a short and non spiraled ducts, but differ in a less developed supraspermathecal chamber and the globose apex of receptacle (Fig. 76).

    Description. See Goloboff (1995, 114A-D, 115A-I).

    Distribution. Known from Argentina and Uruguay (Fig. 79).

    Misplaced species

    Rachias piracicabensis Piza, 1938 comb. restored

    Rachias piracicabensis Piza, 1938:21 (female holotype from Piracicaba, São Paulo, deposited in IBSP 138189, examined); Lucas et al., 1986:6, figs 4-6 .

    Rachias intermedia Soares, 1944:160, figs 5-6 (male holotype from Monte Alegre, Amparo, São Paulo, Brazil, deposited in MZSP, not examined); Lucas et al., 1986:6 (Syn.).

    Androthelopsis intermedia: Raven, 1985:106.

    Androthelopsis piracicabensis: Platnick, 1989:84.

    Pycnothele piracicabensis: Platnick, 2014.

    Remarks. After the examination of the female holotype and several specimens from IBSP, Pycnothele piracicabensis is transferred to Rachias, restoring the original combination. This transfer is confirmed by the cladistic analysis performed by Goloboff (1995, fig. 63 , node 141), and by the presence of the following synapomorphies of Rachias: males with scopula on tarsi IV narrow, confined to the ventral surface, and laterally delimited by spines; females have the labium almost square, with short endites, posteriorly produced, and with 20 cuspules; presence of two spines on the ventral female palpal tarsus, in the apical third (Goloboff, 1995). Additional features also confirmed the position of the species in Rachias: absence of deep ventral excavation on male palpal tibia; LK absent on male palpal bulb; carapace with light pubescence in males and females; absence of supraspermathecal chamber and by the presence of basal dome below receptacle in females (see Lucas et al., 1986, figs 4-6 ).

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    We wish to thank to curators for the loan of examined specimens; José P.L. Guadanucci and Flávio U. Yamamoto who kindly took and sent us photos of the type specimens of P. perdita and P. auronitens, respectively. André M. Giroti, Jimmy C. Garcia and Fernando C. Jacinavicius for the help in the elaboration of the photos of the morphological structures. To David F. Candiani, Hilton T. Costi and Rolf J. F. Silva for helping with SEM photographs. To Dr. Ray Gabriel with comments in the text and English review. This work was supported by Programa de Aprimoramento Profissional (PAP/IBSP, VP), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP 2011/50689-0, 2012/18287-1) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq 141062/2007-0, RPI in the UFRRJ; 301776/2004-0, ADB, and PIBIC Program, VP).

    Received 2 April 2014

    Accepted 26 June 2014

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    Publication Dates

    • Publication in this collection
      27 Aug 2014
    • Date of issue
      June 2014

    History

    • Received
      02 Apr 2014
    • Accepted
      26 June 2014
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