Check-list of the Tachinidae (Diptera) of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Check-list de Tachinidae (Diptera) do estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

Silvio Shigueo Nihei André César Lopes Rodrigo de Vilhena Perez Dios Filipe Macedo Gudin About the authors

Abstract

In the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, which is composed by four macroregions, Cerrado, Chaco, Atlantic Forest and Pantanal, there are 39 species and 24 genera of Tachinidae based on the literature. The subfamily Tachininae, with 15 species occurring in the State, has the highest representativeness, while the other subfamilies, Exoristinae, Phasiinae, and Dexiinae, with respectively 14, 7 and 3 species.

Keywords
Brazil; diversity; Neotropical region; Biota-MS Program

Resumo

No estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, que é composto por quatro macrorregiões, Cerrado, Chaco, Mata Atlântica e Pantanal, foram encontrados 39 espécies e 24 gêneros de Tachinidae, baseado na literatura. A subfamília Tachininae, com 15 espécies ocorrendo no estado, teve maior representatividade, enquanto as outras subfamílias, Exoristinae, Phasiinae e Dexiinae, obtiveram respectivamente 14, 7 e 3 espécies.

Palavras-chave
Brasil; diversidade; região Neotropical; Programa Biota-MS

Tachinidae is one of the largest families of Diptera, with about 10,000 species worldwide distributed, inhabiting all regions except for Antarctic ( Stireman et al., 2006Stireman, J. O.; O’Hara, J. E. & Wood, D. M. 2006. Tachinidae: Evolution, Behavior, and Ecology. Annual of Review Entomology 51:525-530. ). The Neotropical region presents the highest diversity with 2,864 species ( Guimarães, 1971Guimarães, J. H. 1971. 104. Family Tachinidae (Larvaevoridae). In: Papavero, N. ed. A catalog of the Diptera of the Americas South of the United States. São Paulo, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, p.1-333.). This number is certainly down-estimated and after 40 years the number of species should be over the order of 3,000. In Brazil, about 720 species has been considered ( Carvalho et al., 2012Carvalho, C. J. B. de; Rafael, J. A.; Couri, M. S. & Silva, V. C. 2012. Diptera. In: Rafael, J. A.; Melo, G. A. R.; Carvalho, C. J. B. de; Casari S. A. & Constantino, R. eds. Insetos do Brasil, Diversidade e Taxonomia. Ribeirão Preto, Holos, p.701-743. , following Guimarães, 1971Guimarães, J. H. 1971. 104. Family Tachinidae (Larvaevoridae). In: Papavero, N. ed. A catalog of the Diptera of the Americas South of the United States. São Paulo, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, p.1-333.). The actual size of the family is probably much larger because some regions (Neotropical, Afrotropical, Oriental and Australasian) contain a large number of undescribed species ( O’Hara, 2011O’Hara, J. E. 2011. World Genera of the Tachinidae (Diptera) and their Regional Occurence. p.1-71 Disponível em: < Disponível em: http://www.nadsdiptera.org/Tach/Genera/Gentach_ver6.pdf >. Acessado em: 24.08.2012.
http://www.nadsdiptera.org/Tach/Genera/G...
). Add to that the out-of-date catalogues and the reduced number of experts in those regions and we could get much higher numbers into the actual account.

The family exhibits a huge diversity of morphological patterns, although there is a characteristic shared by all its species (whose larval development are known), the endoparasitoid habit on arthropods, mainly insects ( Stireman, 2006Stireman, J. O.; O’Hara, J. E. & Wood, D. M. 2006. Tachinidae: Evolution, Behavior, and Ecology. Annual of Review Entomology 51:525-530. ; Wood & Zumbado, 2010Wood, M. & Zumbado, M. A. 2010. 113: Tachinidae. In: Brown, B.V.; Borkent, A.; Cumming, J. M.; Wood, D. M.; Woodley, N. E. & Zumbado, M. A. eds. Manual of Central American Diptera. Ottawa, NRC Research Press. Vol. 2, p.1343-1417.). As parasitoids, they have great importance regulating herbivorous populations and structuring ecological communities naturally. Over 100 tachinid species have been employed in the biological control of several insects in different continents ( Stireman et al., 2006Stireman, J. O.; O’Hara, J. E. & Wood, D. M. 2006. Tachinidae: Evolution, Behavior, and Ecology. Annual of Review Entomology 51:525-530. ).

We provide in this paper a check-list of the species of Tachinidae occurring in Brazil, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. All the four subfamilies of Tachinidae, Dexiinae, Exoristinae, Phasiinae and Tachininae ( O’Hara & Wood, 2004O’Hara, J. E. & Wood, D. M. 2004. Catalogue of the Tachinidae (Diptera) of America north of Mexico. Memoirs on Entomology International 18:1-410. ), are represented in the Brazilian fauna and in the state.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The Neotropical genera and species covered in our bibliographical review were mainly based on the catalogue of Guimarães (1971Guimarães, J. H. 1971. 104. Family Tachinidae (Larvaevoridae). In: Papavero, N. ed. A catalog of the Diptera of the Americas South of the United States. São Paulo, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, p.1-333.) and the world genera check-list of O’Hara (2011O’Hara, J. E. 2011. World Genera of the Tachinidae (Diptera) and their Regional Occurence. p.1-71 Disponível em: < Disponível em: http://www.nadsdiptera.org/Tach/Genera/Gentach_ver6.pdf >. Acessado em: 24.08.2012.
http://www.nadsdiptera.org/Tach/Genera/G...
). The searching databases used for the bibliographical review were the Zoological Records ( http://apps.webofknowledge.com), Web of Knowledge ( http://apps.webofknowledge.com), and Google Scholar ( http://scholar.google.com). To check the taxonomic validity of each name, we also consulted the Systema Dipterorum ( http://www.diptera.org/NomenclatorSearch.php). Subfamily and tribe arrangements were based mainly on Herting & Dely-Draskovits (1993Herting, B. & Dely-Draskovits, A. 1993. Family Tachinidae. In: Soós, A. & Papp, L. eds. Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Anthomyiidae-Tachinidae. Hungarian, Natural History Museum. vol. 13, p.118-458.) and O’Hara & Wood (2004)O’Hara, J. E. & Wood, D. M. 2004. Catalogue of the Tachinidae (Diptera) of America north of Mexico. Memoirs on Entomology International 18:1-410. . In our search, we only considered data from published articles, without considering neither Master dissertations and PhD theses, nor specimens’ labels from collections.

RESULTS

Check-list of the species of Mato Grosso do Sul State. We found 39 species and 24 genera of Tachinidae recorded to the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, belonging to the following subfamilies: Phasiinae (7 species), Dexiinae (3 species), Tachininae (15 species) and Exoristinae (14 species).

PHASIINAE

CYLINDROMYIINI

Cylindromyia atra (Roeder, 1885)

Type-locality: “Puerto Rico”. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju and Três Lagoas ( Guimarães, 1976Guimarães, J. H. 1976. A revision of the genus Cylindromyia Meigen in the Americas south of the United States (Diptera, Tachinidae). Arquivos de Zoologia 27:1-50.).

Cylindromyia brasiliana (Townsend, 1927)

Type-locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Itaquecetuba. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Três Lagoas ( Guimarães, 1976Guimarães, J. H. 1976. A revision of the genus Cylindromyia Meigen in the Americas south of the United States (Diptera, Tachinidae). Arquivos de Zoologia 27:1-50.).

PARERIGONINI

Neobrachelia grandis ( Townsend, 1940Townsend, C. H. T. 1940. New Oestroid flies from Brazil. Revista de Entomologia 11:889-894.)

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso , Maracaju. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Townsend, 1940Townsend, C. H. T. 1940. New Oestroid flies from Brazil. Revista de Entomologia 11:889-894.).

Neobrachelia mirabilis ( Townsend, 1940Townsend, C. H. T. 1940. New Oestroid flies from Brazil. Revista de Entomologia 11:889-894.)

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso , Maracaju. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Townsend, 1940Townsend, C. H. T. 1940. New Oestroid flies from Brazil. Revista de Entomologia 11:889-894.).

PHASIINI

Phasia chilensis (Macquart, 1851)

Type-locality: “Chile”. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Sun & Marshall, 2003Sun, X. & Marshall, S. A. 2003. Systematics of PhasiaLatreille (Diptera: Tachinidae). Zootaxa 276:1-320. ).

Phasia transita ( Townsend, 1939Townsend, C. H. T. 1939. Seven new genera of Brazilian Oestromuscarian flies. Revista de Entomologia 10:446-452. )

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso , Maracaju. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Townsend, 1939Townsend, C. H. T. 1939. Seven new genera of Brazilian Oestromuscarian flies. Revista de Entomologia 10:446-452. ).

TRICHOPODINI

Trichopoda giacomellii Blanchard, 1966

Type-locality: Argentina, La Rioja. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: ( Corrêa-Ferreira et al., 2008Corrêa-Ferreira, B. S.; Gómez, S. A.; Avila, C. J.; Oliveira, L. J. & Oliveira, M. C. N. de. 2008. Aspectos bioecológicos da interação de percevejos pentatomídeos no sistema de produção de soja. In: Saraiva, O. F. & Leite, R. M. V. B. de C., eds. Resultados de pesquisa da Embrapa Soja 2005. Londrina, Embrapa Soja, p.85-90. ).

DEXIINAE

DEXIINI

Billaea argentaurea ( Townsend, 1939Townsend, C. H. T. 1939. Seven new genera of Brazilian Oestromuscarian flies. Revista de Entomologia 10:446-452. )

Type-locality: Mato Grosso , Maracaju. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Guimarães, 1977Guimarães, J. H. 1977. A revision of the genus Paratheresia Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae, Theresiini). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 30:267-288.).

Billaea claripalpis (Wulp, 1896)

Type-locality: Mexico, Guerrero, Chilpancingo. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Três Lagoas , Maracaju and Bodoquena ; Miranda ( Guimarães, 1977Guimarães, J. H. 1977. A revision of the genus Paratheresia Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae, Theresiini). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 30:267-288.).

Billaea shannoni ( Guimarães, 1977Guimarães, J. H. 1977. A revision of the genus Paratheresia Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae, Theresiini). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 30:267-288.)

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso, Maracaju ( Guimarães, 1977Guimarães, J. H. 1977. A revision of the genus Paratheresia Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae, Theresiini). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 30:267-288.). Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju (Guimarães, 1977).

TACHININAE

GERMARIINI

Trochilochaeta transcendens Townsend, 1940Townsend, C. H. T. 1940. New Oestroid flies from Brazil. Revista de Entomologia 11:889-894.

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso , Maracaju ( Townsend, 1940Townsend, C. H. T. 1940. New Oestroid flies from Brazil. Revista de Entomologia 11:889-894.). Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Townsend, 1940Townsend, C. H. T. 1940. New Oestroid flies from Brazil. Revista de Entomologia 11:889-894.).

LESKIINI

Genea australis (Townsend, 1929)

Type-locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Itaquaquecetuba. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Três Lagoas ( Guimarães, 1975Guimarães, J. H. 1975. Three new records of Tachinidae (Diptera) attacking Diatraea ssp. (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) in Brazil, with description on a new species. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 19:127-132.; Nunez & Couri, 2011Nunez, E. & Couri, M. S. 2011. Revision of neotropical Genea Rondani (Diptera, Tachinidae, Tachininae, Leskiini). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 51:481-497.).

Genea jaynesi (Aldrich, 1932)

Type-locality: Argentina, Tucuman. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Nunez & Couri, 2011Nunez, E. & Couri, M. S. 2011. Revision of neotropical Genea Rondani (Diptera, Tachinidae, Tachininae, Leskiini). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 51:481-497.).

ORMIINI

Ormia depleta (Wiedemann, 1830)

Type-locality: “Brazil”. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Sabrosky, 1953Sabrosky, C. W. 1953. Taxonomy and host relations of the tribe Ormiini in the Western Hemisphere (Diptera, Larvaevoridae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 55:167-183. ).

POLIDEINI

Chrysotachina braueri Townsend, 1931

Type-locality: “Brazil”. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Nunez et al., 2002Nunez, E.; Couri, M. S. & Guimarães, J. H. 2002. Redescription of seven species of Chrysotachina Brauer & Bergenstamm (Diptera, Tachinidae) of South America. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 19:1-18.).

Chrysotachina panamensis Curran, 1939

Type-locality: Panama, Canal Zone, Barro Colorado. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju and Corumbá ( Nunez et al., 2002Nunez, E.; Couri, M. S. & Guimarães, J. H. 2002. Redescription of seven species of Chrysotachina Brauer & Bergenstamm (Diptera, Tachinidae) of South America. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 19:1-18.).

Chrysotachina tropicalis Nunez, Couri & Guimarães, 2002Nunez, E.; Couri, M. S. & Guimarães, J. H. 2002. Redescription of seven species of Chrysotachina Brauer & Bergenstamm (Diptera, Tachinidae) of South America. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 19:1-18.

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Maracaju. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Nunez et al., 2002Nunez, E.; Couri, M. S. & Guimarães, J. H. 2002. Redescription of seven species of Chrysotachina Brauer & Bergenstamm (Diptera, Tachinidae) of South America. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 19:1-18.).

TACHININI

Archytas arnaudi Guimarães, 1963

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso , Fazenda Murtinho . Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Porto Murtinho ( Guimarães, 1963bGuimarães, J. H. 1963b. Quarta contribuição ao conhecimento do gênero Archytas Jaennicke, 1867 (Diptera, Tachinidae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 61:153-164.).

Archytas divisus (Walker, 1852)

Type-locality: Brazil, Pará. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Bodoquena ( Guimarães, 1961Guimarães, J. H. 1961. Terceira contribuição ao conhecimento do gênero Archytas Jaennicke, 1867 (Diptera, Tachinidae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 59:355-395.).

Archytas lopesi Guimarães, 1961Guimarães, J. H. 1961. Terceira contribuição ao conhecimento do gênero Archytas Jaennicke, 1867 (Diptera, Tachinidae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 59:355-395.

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso , Bodoquena. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Bodoquena ( Guimarães, 1961Guimarães, J. H. 1961. Terceira contribuição ao conhecimento do gênero Archytas Jaennicke, 1867 (Diptera, Tachinidae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 59:355-395.).

Archytas shannoni Guimarães, 1960Guimarães, J. H. 1960. Contribuição ao conhecimento do gênero Archytas Jaennicke, 1867 (Diptera, Tachinidae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 58:115-124.

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso , Maracaju. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Guimarães, 1960Guimarães, J. H. 1960. Contribuição ao conhecimento do gênero Archytas Jaennicke, 1867 (Diptera, Tachinidae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 58:115-124.).

Archytas thompsoni Guimarães, 1973Guimarães, J. H. 1973. Two new neotropical Tachinidae Dejeaniini (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 17:121-125.

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Corumbá, Porto Esperança. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá and Porto Esperança ( Guimarães, 1973Guimarães, J. H. 1973. Two new neotropical Tachinidae Dejeaniini (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 17:121-125.).

Adejeania andina Townsend, 1939Townsend, C. H. T. 1939. Seven new genera of Brazilian Oestromuscarian flies. Revista de Entomologia 10:446-452.

Type-locality: Peru, Ollachea, Canyon of San Gabán River. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Guimarães, 1966Guimarães, J. H. 1966. Revisão parcial do gênero Adejeania Townsend, 1913 (Diptera, Tachinidae), com especial referência às espécies brasileiras. Arquivos de Zoologia 14:155-196.).

Copecrypta nitens (Wiedemann, 1830)

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso, Chapada . Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Guimarães, 1963aGuimarães, J. H. 1963a. Primeira contribuição ao conhecimento da tribu Cuphoceratini (Diptera, Tachinidae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 61:41-72.).

Neocuphocera nepos Townsend, 1927

Type-locality: Brazil, São Paulo, (Itaquaquecetuba). Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Bodoquena ( Guimarães, 1963aGuimarães, J. H. 1963a. Primeira contribuição ao conhecimento da tribu Cuphoceratini (Diptera, Tachinidae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 61:41-72.).

EXORISTINAE

BLONDELIINI

Calodexia mattoensis ( Townsend, 1939Townsend, C. H. T. 1939. Seven new genera of Brazilian Oestromuscarian flies. Revista de Entomologia 10:446-452. )

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso , Maracaju. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Townsend, 1939Townsend, C. H. T. 1939. Seven new genera of Brazilian Oestromuscarian flies. Revista de Entomologia 10:446-452. ).

Eucelatoria aurescens Townsend, 1917Townsend, C. H. T. 1917. Second paper on Brazilian Muscoidea collected by Herbert H. Smith. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 37:221-233.

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso, Chapada (dos Guimarães) and Corumbá. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá ( Townsend, 1917Townsend, C. H. T. 1917. Second paper on Brazilian Muscoidea collected by Herbert H. Smith. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 37:221-233. ).

Miamimyiops mattoensis Townsend, 1939Townsend, C. H. T. 1939. Seven new genera of Brazilian Oestromuscarian flies. Revista de Entomologia 10:446-452.

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso , Maracaju ( Townsend, 1939Townsend, C. H. T. 1939. Seven new genera of Brazilian Oestromuscarian flies. Revista de Entomologia 10:446-452. ). Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Townsend, 1939Townsend, C. H. T. 1939. Seven new genera of Brazilian Oestromuscarian flies. Revista de Entomologia 10:446-452. ).

Phyllophilopsisanomala ( Townsend, 1939Townsend, C. H. T. 1939. Seven new genera of Brazilian Oestromuscarian flies. Revista de Entomologia 10:446-452. )

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso , Maracaju. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Townsend, 1939Townsend, C. H. T. 1939. Seven new genera of Brazilian Oestromuscarian flies. Revista de Entomologia 10:446-452. ).

Phyllophilopsis caudata (Townsend, 1927)

Type-locality: Brazil, São Paulo, Itaquaquecetuba. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Townsend, 1939Townsend, C. H. T. 1939. Seven new genera of Brazilian Oestromuscarian flies. Revista de Entomologia 10:446-452. ).

ERYCIINI

Lespesia brasiliensis ( Townsend, 1917Townsend, C. H. T. 1917. Second paper on Brazilian Muscoidea collected by Herbert H. Smith. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 37:221-233. )

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso , Corumbá. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá ( Townsend, 1917Townsend, C. H. T. 1917. Second paper on Brazilian Muscoidea collected by Herbert H. Smith. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 37:221-233. ).

GONIINI

Atacta argentifrons Aldrich, 1925Aldrich, J. M. 1925. New Diptera or two-winged flies in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of The United States National Museum Washington 66:1-36.

Type-locality: Brazil. Mato Grosso , Corumbá. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá ( Aldrich, 1925Aldrich, J. M. 1925. New Diptera or two-winged flies in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of The United States National Museum Washington 66:1-36.).

Leschenaultia bigoti Toma & Guimarães, 2002Toma, R. & Guimarães, J. H. 2002. Taxonomic study of Leschenaultia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tachinidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 46:33-70.

Type-locality: Peru, Huanuco, Tingo Maria. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Toma & Guimarães, 2002Toma, R. & Guimarães, J. H. 2002. Taxonomic study of Leschenaultia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tachinidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 46:33-70.).

Leschenaultia braueri Toma & Guimarães, 2002Toma, R. & Guimarães, J. H. 2002. Taxonomic study of Leschenaultia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tachinidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 46:33-70.

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso, Chapada . Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Maracaju ( Toma & Guimarães, 2002Toma, R. & Guimarães, J. H. 2002. Taxonomic study of Leschenaultia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tachinidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 46:33-70.).

Leschenaultialeucophrys Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830

Type-locality: “Surinam”. . Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá and Maracaju ( Toma & Guimarães, 2002Toma, R. & Guimarães, J. H. 2002. Taxonomic study of Leschenaultia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tachinidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 46:33-70.).

Thysanopsis albicauda Townsend, 1917Townsend, C. H. T. 1917. Second paper on Brazilian Muscoidea collected by Herbert H. Smith. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 37:221-233.

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso, Chapada . Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Miranda and Três Lagoas ( Toma, 2001Toma, R. 2001. Description of a new species of Thysanopsis (Diptera, Tachinidae). Iheringia, Série Zoologia 91:37-40.).

WINTHEMIINI

Avibrissosturmia avida Townsend, 1927

Type-locality: Peru, nr. Tabalosas. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Bodoquena ( Guimarães, 1983Guimarães, J. H. 1983. Contribution to the knowledge of the South American Winthemiini (Diptera, Tachinidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 27:225-242.).

Hemisturmia brasiliensis Guimarães, 1983Guimarães, J. H. 1983. Contribution to the knowledge of the South American Winthemiini (Diptera, Tachinidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 27:225-242.

Type-locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Três Lagoas. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Três Lagoas ( Guimarães, 1983Guimarães, J. H. 1983. Contribution to the knowledge of the South American Winthemiini (Diptera, Tachinidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 27:225-242.).

Winthemia angusta Coelho, Carvalho & Guimarães, 1989Coelho, S. M. P.; Carvalho, C. J. B. de & Guimarães, J. H. 1989. Chave e sinonímias para as espécies sul-americanas de Winthemia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tachinidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 6:271-296.

Type-locality: Brazil, Paraná, Foz do Iguaçu. Distribution in Mato Grosso do Sul: Três Lagoas ( Coelho et al.,1989Coelho, S. M. P.; Carvalho, C. J. B. de & Guimarães, J. H. 1989. Chave e sinonímias para as espécies sul-americanas de Winthemia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tachinidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 6:271-296. ).

Main research groups on Tachinidae in Brazil. The information below was mainly based on the Directory of South American Dipterists ( http://zoo.bio.ufpr.br/diptera/south/index.html).

Dr. Silvio Shigueo Nihei coordinates the Laboratory of Systematics and Biogeography of Diptera, Department of Zoology, Institute of Biosciences, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo. Main interests in Diptera: Tachinidae, Rhinophoridae, Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Muscidae, and Anthomyiidae.

Dr. Ronaldo Toma is currently professor at the University of Carabobo, Valencia, Venezuela, but he had successfully applied for a position at the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Campo Grande, and will soon assume that new position and come back to Brazil. Main interests in Diptera: Tachinidae and Calliphoridae.

Dr. Enio Nunez at the University Severino Sombra, Vassouras, Brazil. Main interest in Diptera: Tachinidae.

Dr. Claudio José Barros de Carvalho at the Department of Zoology, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba. Main interests in Diptera: Muscidae, Fanniidae, Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, and Tachinidae.

Main Tachinidae holdings in Brazil. The largest Tachinidae collection in Brazil is at the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo (MZSP), with 32,554 pinned adult specimens ( Carvalho et al., 2002Carvalho, C. J. B. de; Couri, M. S.; Toma, R.; Rafael, J. A.; Harada, A. Y.; Bonatto, S. R.; Henriques, A. L. & Gastal, H. A. O. 2002. Principais coleções brasileiras de Diptera: histórico e situação atual. In: Costa, C.; Vanin, S. A.; Lobo J. M. & Melic, A. eds. Proyecto de Red Iberoamericana de Biogeografía y Entomología Sistemática PrIBES 2002. Zaragoza, SEA & CYTED, p.37-52. ). It has 847 type-specimens, representing 263 nominal species of Tachinidae ( Toma & Nihei, 2006Toma, R. & Nihei, S. S. 2006. Catálogo do material-tipo de Tachinidae (Diptera) depositado no Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 50:240-256.). Other important Tachinidae collections are housed at the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ) with 9,397 specimens; Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belém, Pará (MPEG) with 4,990 specimens; Coleção de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure, Curitiba, Paraná (DZUP) with 4,871 specimens; and Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Amazônicas, Manaus, Amazonas (INPA), with 3,849 specimens ( Carvalho et al., 2002Carvalho, C. J. B. de; Couri, M. S.; Toma, R.; Rafael, J. A.; Harada, A. Y.; Bonatto, S. R.; Henriques, A. L. & Gastal, H. A. O. 2002. Principais coleções brasileiras de Diptera: histórico e situação atual. In: Costa, C.; Vanin, S. A.; Lobo J. M. & Melic, A. eds. Proyecto de Red Iberoamericana de Biogeografía y Entomología Sistemática PrIBES 2002. Zaragoza, SEA & CYTED, p.37-52. ).

Main knowledge gaps in the study of Brazilian Tachinidae. If anyone asks for one real example of taxonomic impediment we would say quickly and without thinking: “the Neotropical Tachinidae”. There are many reasons supporting our statement. We do not have a number of experts publishing on Brazilian (and Neotropical) Tachinidae, we do not have identification keys to tribes or genera, we do not have up-to-date catalogues, and we do not have a sufficient number of research groups working on Brazilian (and Neotropical) Tachinidae. According to the Neotropical catalogue ( Guimarães, 1971Guimarães, J. H. 1971. 104. Family Tachinidae (Larvaevoridae). In: Papavero, N. ed. A catalog of the Diptera of the Americas South of the United States. São Paulo, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, p.1-333.), there are 2,864 species in 944 genera in the region. Most of these genera are monotypic, and the vast majority of them was described by Charles H. T. Townsend. During a 61-year period (1884 to 1944) of intense and prolific activity, he was able to describe 1,491 genera and 1,555 species in Diptera ( Arnaud, 1958Arnaud , P. H. Jr. 1958. The entomological publication of Charles Henry Tyler Townsend (1863-1944); with lists of his new generic and specific names. Microentomology 23:1-63. ), most of them in the family Tachinidae, Townsend’s favorite group, and most of them in the Neotropical region, his home in the last decades of his life. This all means that revising tribes or genera is the same as revising all the species of those groupings.

On the other hand, José Henrique Guimarães, between the 1960s and 1980, instead of describing more and more species and genera, spent his time mainly on revisionary works of Tachinidae grouping (tribes and large genera). He was not able to produce a generic key to the Neotropical Tachinidae, but his studies reflected a great contribution for the understanding of a number of tribes ( e.g., Tachinini, Sophiini, Winthemiini, Cylindromyiini) and genera ( e.g., Archytas, Adejeania, Peleteria, Lespesia, Billaea).

Eventually, some efforts have come from non-Brazilian authors: Charles H. Curran, John M. Aldrich, Reinhard, Curtis W. Sabrosky, and more recently, James O’Hara and D. Monty Wood. However, as they were or have been occupied with his own regional tachinid fauna, these foreign efforts added to the homemade ones, have not been enough to describe the Brazilian (and Neotropical) Tachinidae and to order its generic and suprageneric classification. The major concern here is that we should urgently train a number of young experts in Tachinidae in Brazil. It is NOT a matter of time to have a good and useful identification key and to have an up-to-date catalogue to Neotropical Tachinidae, it is indeed a matter of the number of local experts studying and publishing on Tachinidae.

Systematics of Tachinidae: a ten-year perspective. In the past 10 years, the number of postgraduate students in Brazil working on systematics of Tachinidae in their Master or PhD was only one, Enio Nunez finished his PhD in 2005 supervised by Marcia Couri, a muscoid expert at the Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro), and co-supervised by José Henrique Guimarães. Some years before, in 1999, Ronaldo Toma completed his PhD directly supervised by Guimarães and co-supervised by Claudio Carvalho at Universidade Federal do Paraná (Curitiba), and then he conducted his postdoc research with Guimarães in 1999 in São Paulo. Enio and Ronaldo were the last two researchers (among a total of three) who worked under the supervision of Guimarães on systematics of Tachinidae.

For the next 10 years, the perspectives are much better. In São Paulo, Silvio Nihei has been conducting active research on systematics of Tachinidae and is now supervising two PhDs and three Masters on the family. The planning is that in the next decade we have at least five or six young systematists working on the Neotropical Tachinidae. In fact, this is not much (with regard to the high diversity of Tachinidae in the region) but it is a better scenario than we have now. In Rio de Janeiro and Curitiba, Marcia Couri and Claudio Carvalho, respectively, have traditionally trained and formed young systematists in a number of families, mainly on Muscoidea, but also on Oestroidea, including Tachinidae. With the addition of these new young systematists, the efforts to elaborate reasonable and useful identification keys to the Neotropical genera and species will be multiplied, some of the more complicate tribes and genera could be finally studied and understood, and, therefore, the study of Neotropical groupings could finally, and actually, contribute to a better resolution in the classification of the world Tachinidae.

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Fundação de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento do Ensino, Ciências e Tecnologia do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul (Fundect) and Superintendência de Ciências e Tecnologia do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul (Sucitec/MS) for the invitation to participate in this special issue of Iheringia, Série Zoologia and financial support for publication; research grants from CNPq (Proc. No. 563256/2010-9) and FAPESP (FAPESP) (Proc. No. 2010/52314-0), and the scholarships for ACL (CNPq Proc. No. 141033/2012-6), RVPD (CNPq Proc. No. 130204/2012-9) and FMG (CNPq Proc. No. 134257/2012-0).

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    2017

History

  • Received
    21 Nov 2016
  • Accepted
    06 Feb 2017
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