Abstract in English:A taxonomic revision of the genus Appula Thomson, 1864 is presented. Three new species are described: from Brazil, A. diamantinensis (Pará, Mato Grosso) and A. santarensis (Pará); from Peru and Brazil (Mato Grosso, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul), A. eduardae. Seven species are redescribed. Illustrations and key to the species are added. Male and female genitalia are studied for the first time for the Appula species.
Abstract in English:New species described: Callia marginata from Peru, C. punctata from Colombia, C. annulata from Ecuador, C. tristis from Bolivia, C. paraguaya from Paraguay; from Brazil: C. divisa and C. tomentosa (Mato Grosso), and C. lissonota (Rondônia). A key to the species of Callia is added.
Abstract in English:Two new species of the Neotropical genus Pseudevoplitus Ruckes,1958 are described, P. amazonicus Grazia & Greve, sp. nov. and P. roraimensis Grazia & Greve, sp. nov. both from the Brazilian Amazonia, with emphasis on genital characters. Additions to the generic description and a new key to the species are presented.
Abstract in English:Using conventional staining with acetic orcein and C-banding techniques it was investigated constitutive heterochromatin chromosomal polymorphisms and the mitotic and the meiotic behavior of male and female chromosomes of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887). Some differences were detected in the population of southern Brazil as compared to the data of other authors for populations in other latitudes. The differences being mainly concerned with the distribution of constitutive centromeric heterochromatin and variation in the length of heterochromatic blocks in the pericentromeric regions of some chromosome pairs.
Abstract in English:The genus Pteracantha Newman, 1838 is revised and P. agrestis sp. nov. is described from Brazil (Minas Gerais).
Abstract in English:Metamysidopsis elongata atlantica (Bacescu, 1968) was reared in the laboratory for 45 days at 20±1°C and salinity of 30ppt. Growth curves (von Bertalanffy model) were calculated for both sexes and for each sex. The daily rate of carapace growth was significantly different between females and males (F test, p <0.05). Before the sexual maturity (14 days), the growth rate of females was higher than that of males (females, 0.0457 mm day-1; males, 0.0448 mm day-1). After the maturity (15 to 45 days), these rates decreased similarly for both sexes (females, 0.0203 mm day-1; males, 0.0174mm day-1). The average growth rate was 0.0207mm day-1 over the 45 days. Twelve molts were observed in a period of 60 days. The first five molts occurred up to 14 days old (age of the sexual differentiation), with a mean intermolt period of 2.9 days. From the 6th molt it increased to 5.6 days. The results suggest that the use of the carapace length is a good measure to calculate the growth and longevity of the organisms.
Abstract in English:In May 1987, a female of Bothrops jararaca (Wied, 1824), from Carazinho, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, was placed in the same vivarium with a male of Bothrops neuwiedi Wagler, 1824 coming from Guaíba, RS. There, they stayed for aproximately ten months. In March 1988, it was observed a delivery of five live and two still born, among them six presented morphologic characteristics of B. neuwiedi and one of B. jararaca. After the female died, in April 1988, through necropsy, two fetusus were found, one near the cloaca and, both identified as B. neuwiedi. The morphologic analysis and the origin of the progenitors suggest the hypothesis that the litter was resulted of cross-breeding.
Abstract in English:The male of Hypognatha belem Levi, 1996 is described and illustrated for the first time. New records expand the distribution range of the species to northeastern and southeastern Brazil.
Abstract in English:The effect of intraspecific competition for food on larvae and of food deprivation for 24 h on 2nd and 4th instars of Ascia monuste orseis (Godart, 1819) was investigated. Intraspecific competition for food during the immature phase leads to long pupation time, high larval mortality, reduced adult weight, and reduced number of eggs per female. In food deprivation experiments, the major differences in A. monuste orseis performance were long pupation time in the group that was deprived during the 2nd instar; and a negative effect on reproduction in the group that was deprived during the 4th instar, with reduced adult weight. Both food deprived periods tested are critical, and deprivation during the 2nd instar seems to have an effect as drastic as during the 4th instar because it directly affects larvae survival. Immatures can resist food deprivation for 24 h during the 2nd and 4th instars (low mortality), have a compensatory behaviour (high ingestion and biomass gain) during the 5th instar, and do not demonstrate cannibalistic behaviour during food deprivation.
Abstract in English:The schooling behavior of Hyla semilineata Spix, 1824 tadpoles is described. Experiments were carried out both in the natural environment and under controlled conditions to quantify the constant movement of these tadpoles. Bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802), similar in size to the H. semilineata larvae, were used as controls in the experiments. Hyla semilineata tadpoles remained stationary for one sixth of the time that the bullfrog tadpoles did and the number of individuals of H. semilineata moving at any given moment was about seven times greater. The schooling behavior and constant swimming behavior of these tadpoles may enhance the effect of their warning coloration.
Abstract in English:A change in bird density within a captive flock of Sicalis flaveola pelzeni (Sclater, 1872) affected the decision to join a group. Ruling out inter-individual differences and maintaining constant the size of a food patch, birds were found to fly more often to the food source and spend a longer time in its environs when kept in greater groups.