Abstract in English:Bone diseases and tooth alterations in 47 specimens of Otaria byronia (Blainville, 1820), from southern Brazilian coast, were analized. Tooth wear and the associated bone pathologies were determined, as well as their percentuals. The main infection was osteomyelitis associated with tooth alterations, such as fractures and attrition, both of them exposing the pulp chamber. Tooth attrition increases with age, favoring fractures and their complications, including osteomyelitis, causing a high frequency of them in specimens presenting more pronounced tooth wear. In one specimen tuberculosis was found in the maxilla, perhaps primarily pulmonary. The high frequency of enamel hypoplasia might reflect cyclic food deficit. Infections and tooth fractures might be related to behaviour, such as fishermen interaction, territorial fighting, and accidents during food capture.
Abstract in English:The new species Trybliophorus amazonicus, T. nigrus, T. rubricerus, T. olivaceus and T. paraensis from Amazonian region are described. Illustrations of male and female genitalia, as well as a map showing the geographical distribution of the species are included.
Abstract in English:The new genus Neoachryson and its type-species, N. castaneum sp. nov., are described from Argentina (Mendoza).
Abstract in English:Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral sites for breeding and larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, the larvae begin dispersing to search for sites to pupate or for additional food source, process referred as postfeeding larval dispersal. Some aspects of this process were investigated in Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830), utilizing a circular arena to permit the radial dispersion of larvae from the food source in the center. To determine the localization of each pupa, the arena was split into 72 equal sectors from the center. For each pupa, distance from the center of arena, weight and depth were determined. Statistical tests were performed to verify the relation among weight, depth and distance of burying for pupation. It was verified that the larvae that disperse farthest are those with lowest weights. The majority of individuals reached the depth of burying for pupation between 7 and 18 cm. The study of this process of dispersion can be utilized in the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) for human corpses in medico-criminal investigations.
Abstract in English:The reproductive capacity of females of Apanteles galleriae (Wilkinson, 1932) was evaluated in fifth instar caterpillars of Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758) and Achroia grisella (Fabricius, 1754) fed on standard diet and diets enriched with protein. The reproductive capacity of parasitoid females on fifth instar caterpillars of G. mellonella and A. grisella with variable weight was also evaluated. The host weight interfered in the sex ratio of the obtained parasitoids. In heavier caterpillars, the investment in female descendants was greater than in males, and in lighter caterpillars the inverse occurred.
Abstract in English:Three species of Halichondrida, Dragmacidon reticulatus (Ridley & Dendy, 1886) (Axinellidae), Myrmekioderma rea (Laubenfels, 1934) (Desmoxyidae) and Topsentia ophiraphidites (Laubenfels, 1934) (Halichondriidae), collected from 30 to 184 m depths, were recorded for the first time from State of Maranhão, north-northeast coast of Brazilian shelf.
Abstract in English:The relationship between body size and geographic range was analyzed for 70 species of terrestrial Carnivora ("fissipeds") of the New World, after the control of phylogenetic patterns in the data using phylogenetic eigenvector regression. The analysis from EcoSim software showed that the variables are related as a triangular envelope. Phylogenetic patterns in data were detected by means of phylogenetic correlograms, and 200 simulations of the phenotypic evolution were also performed over the phylogeny. For body size, the simulations suggested a non-linear relationship for the evolution of this character along the phylogeny. For geographic range size, the correlogram showed no phylogenetic patterns. A phylogenetic eigenvector regression was performed on original data and on data simulated under Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Since both characters did not evolve under a simple Brownian motion process, the Type I errors should be around 10%, compatible with other methods to analyze correlated evolution. The significant correlation of the original data (r = 0.38; P < 0.05), as well as the triangular envelope, then indicate ecological and adaptive processes connecting the two variables, such as those proposed in minimum viable population models.
Abstract in English:The abundance of soil microarthropods from seven fragments of Araucaria Forest, Muitos Capões, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, was compared. The size of the fragments ranged from 0.25 ha to 35 ha, the two largest fragments are situated within the Aracuri Ecological Station and the remaining five are situated in a cattle ranching farm. In June 2000, three plots (10 m x 10 m) were established in the central area of each patch, and three soil cores (7 cm diameter x 6 cm deep) were taken per plot. The abundance of microarthropods in the upper six centimeters (soil + litter) varied between 63209 and 102704 ind.m-2, with oribatid mites (Acari, Cryptostigmata) being dominant in all fragments (between 46.9 % and 61.3 % of total individuals). Most microarthropod groups presented a decrease in abundance with decreasing fragment area, with a statistically significant difference between smaller and larger fragments. The proportion of oribatids also decreased with decreasing fragment area. The results suggest that the growing fragmentation process of Araucaria forests in southern Brazil, associated to a tendency for reducing the size of remnant fragments, can affect the abundance of soil microarthropods, and therefore, the quality and health of this ecosystem.
Abstract in English:The influence of four host fruits, orange (Citrus sinensis L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.) and apple (Malus domestica Borkh) on oviposition behavior of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) was evaluated. Experiments were carried out on two C. capitata laboratory-reared populations: one with artificial diet for 10 years with periodic introduction of wild flies and other reared with artificial diet for 20 years without wild flies introduction. In acceptance experiments two pieces of a single fruit type were exposed to a group of 10 females; after 48 hours, these were changed by two new pieces of the same fruit type, and, in the end of the fourth day, the experiments were concluded. In preference experiments, two pieces of different fruits were offered to the females. These experiments were driven under the same conditions of the acceptance ones. Acceptance and preference experiments for both populations showed the following choice hierarchy: papaya > mango > orange > apple. The acceptance experiments showed no differences in the number of eggs/female/day laid in the first 48 hours and in the last 48 hours of the experiments. The amount of eggs in the two pieces of fruits offered to the females was similar. In spite of the two populations present similar behavior in relation to host hierarchy, the number of laid eggs was different, being larger for the population reared without wild flies introduction.
Abstract in English:The thermal requeriments of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) and the number of generations in the year are determined. The colony to obtain eggs, larvae, pupae and adults was established under laboratory conditions. Every stage was maintained at constant temperature (15, 20, 25 and 30ºC), in cameras, with relative humidity of 80% ± 5 and photophase of 12 hours, to settle down the thermal inferior limit and the thermal constant by the method of the hiperbole. The thermal inferior limit to phase of egg, larvae and pupa were respectively 10.0, 9.1 and 10.2ºC, and 10.2ºC to all the aquatic cycle, with a thermal constant of 207.2 degree-day, with the mean of 15.5 generations per year in Pelotas, State of Rio Grande do Sul.
Abstract in English:Differences in the phoresy of the mites Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (Scopoli, 1972) (Macrochelidae) and Uroseius sp. (Polyaspidae) on the house fly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) and the similarities in their phoretic dispersal and parasitism are discussed, altogether with the effects on predator-prey interactions. The prevalence and intensity of phoresy in the mite species were significantly related to the attachment site on the hosts. The phoresy of Uroseius sp. was correlated with temperature but not with rainfall and relative humidity. Selective pressure in the environment resulted in displacement and the emergence of local and regional populations. These results suggest that in each habitat the populations will use different resources and will show several relationships with other species, as well as a selection for morphological and behavioral types.
Abstract in English:Seven new species of Anomiopus Westwood, 1842 are added to smaragdinus group: from Brazil, A. caputipilus (Goiás), A. impartectus (São Paulo), A. paraensis (Pará), A. preissae (Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro), A. quadridentatus (Bahia) and A. soledari (Goiás e Distrito Federal); from Argentina, A. similis (Misiones). A key and illustrations of the species are added.
Abstract in English:In order to investigate the population fluctuation of Diptera in a poultry house in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, six collection methods were utilized: 1 (0 to 7 day-old feces from chickens), 2 (7 to 14 day-old feces), 3 (14 to 21 day-old feces), 4 (0 to 21 day-old feces), 5 (accumulated feces) and 6 (tube trap). Analyses of polynomial regression were accomplished independent of the collection method. The survey was conducted from August 1998 to July 1999 in chicken houses at the Conjunto Agrotécnico Visconde da Graça. A total of 28,720 Diptera were collected, including the following species: Coproica sp. and Telomerina flavipes (Meigen, 1830) (15,640); Drosophila repleta Wollaston, 1858 (9,229); Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot, 1857) (2,539); Ischiolepta scabricula (Haliday, 1833) (544); Lestodiplosis sp. (320); Muscina stabulans (Fallen, 1817) (159); Musca domestica L., 1758 (143); Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (95); Telmatoscopus albipunctatus Williston, 1893 (21); Rhegmoclema sp. (14); Fannia canicularis (L., 1761) (7); Stomoxys calcitrans (L., 1758) (2); and unidentified species of Psychodidae (6) and Muscidae (1). The greatest number of species occurred in October, November and December and the fewest in August, September and April. The greatest abundance of Diptera was recorded in October (9,092), while the lowest index of capture was noted in April (658). The population fluctuation was estimated for Coproica sp. and T. flavipes, D. repleta, D. cornuta, I. scabricula and Lestodiplosis sp.
Abstract in English:Aspects related to the longevity and oviposition of Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, 1985 are studied. Males had a mean lifespan longer than females (40.24 vs. 33.15 days, respectively), while still possessing qualitative advantages during this period. Females O. albuquerquei were fed on powdered milk, fish flour, refined sugar and water, and provided fish flour and moistened sawdust for oviposition. The length of the oviposition period for females was 46.75 days, and most of the deposition of the eggs occurred in the first days of the colony. Females completed 50% of their egg deposition by Day 16, seven days before the large last mortality peak and about 12 days after the first oviposition in the colony. Females deposited an average of 184 eggs per individual. Mortality of males, unlike females, was low until the 28th day, and increased thereafter. It was demonstrated that it is possible to maintain colonies of this species under laboratory conditions for at least 28 days with high fertility and low cost.
Abstract in English:Species composition, relative abundance, seasonal changes in the species abundance and scent association of male Euglossini collected in a semi-deciduous forest fragment in the north of the State of Paraná, southern Brazil, were recorded. Euglossine males were collected twice a month, for twelve months, from 8:00 am to 3:00 pm. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol, vanillin, methyl salicylate and benzyl acetate were used as baits. A total of 434 males distributed among 3 genera and 9 species were attracted to the chemical baits. Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840) (49.8%), Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 (23.0%) and Euglossa pleosticta Dressler, 1982 (13.8%) were dominant in number of individuals. Among the non-dominant species, Euglossa fimbriata Rebêlo & Moure, 1995 was more common (9.0%), followed by E. cordata (L., 1758) (1.8%), E. truncata Rebêlo & Moure, 1995 (1.4%), E. melanotricha Moure, 1967 (0.7%), E. townsendi Cockerell, 1904 (0.23%) and Eufriesea auriceps Friese, 1899 (0.23%). In general, bees were more abundant in warm-wet season (September-March). Eufriesea violacea was the most seasonal species, showing activity through the warm-wet season, from October to February. Eucalyptol was the most attractive fragrance, which was responsible for 92.6% of all visits by euglossine bees.