Abstract in English:Glass ionomer based materials are clinically popular in several areas of restorative dentistry, but restoration of cervical lesions has proven particularly successful. Various etiologies, conformations, locations and structural characteristics make non-carious cervical lesions more challenging to adhesive restorative procedures and marginal seal in the long run. Due to their characteristics, glass ionomer cements (GICs) have precise indication for these cases. Moreover, the use of a GIC base underneath composite resin, the so-called "sandwich" or mixed technique, allows associating the good characteristics of composite resins and GICs, and has been considered quite useful in the restoration of non-carious cervical defects. The aim of this paper is to critically review the literature and discuss peculiar features of GICs regarding their role in the restoration of non-carious cervical lesions.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of Enterococcus faecalis in primary endodontic infections and failed endodontic treatments using real-time PCR and to determine the statistical importance of the presence of E. faecalis in a Turkish population with endodontic infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: E. faecalis was investigated from 79 microbial samples collected from patients who were treated at the Endodontic Clinic of the Dental School of Atatürk University (Erzurum, Turkey). Microbial samples were taken from 43 patients (Group 1) with failed endodontic treatments and 36 patients (Group 2) with chronic apical periodontitis (primary endodontic infections). DNA was extracted from the samples by using a QIAamp® DNA mini-kit and analyzed with real-time PCR SYBR Green. RESULTS: E. faecalis was detected in 41 out of 79 patients, suggesting that it exists in not less than 61% of all endodontic infections when the proportion test (z= -1.645, <x= 0.05) was applied. Real-time PCR SYBR Green allowed for the detection of E. faecalis in 32 out of 43 (74.4%) in Group 1, and in 9 out of 36 (25%) in Group 2. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that E. faecalis is a frequent isolate for endodontic infections in Turkish patients, and is more often associated with failed endodontic treatments than primary endodontic infections.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to correlate the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Xanthomonadaceae on the posterior dorsum of the human tongue with the presence of tongue coating, gender, age, smoking habit and denture use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bacteria were isolated from the posterior tongue dorsum of 100 individuals in MacConkey agar medium and were identified by the API 20E system (Biolab-Mérieux). RESULTS: 43% of the individuals, presented the target microorganisms on the tongue dorsum, with greater prevalence among individuals between 40 and 50 years of age (p = 0.001) and non-smokers (p=0.0485). CONCLUSIONS: A higher prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae was observed on the tongue dorsum of the individuals evaluated. There was no correlation between these species and the presence and thickness of tongue coating, gender and presence of dentures.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to establish parameters in panoramic radiography for interpretation of unilocular radiolucent lesions, and to compare the accuracy of diagnoses given by examiners before and after using these parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In Part I, 12 specialists analyzed 24 images and the diagnostic criteria used by each examiner to make correct diagnoses were used to build a list of basic radiographic parameters for each pathology (ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, dentigerous cyst, and idiopathic bone cavity). In Part II, this list was used by 6 undergraduate students (Un), 8 recently graduated dentists (D), 3 oral pathologists, 3 stomatologists, 3 oral radiologists, and 3 oral surgeons to diagnose the corresponding pathologies in the other set of 24 panoramic radiographs (T2). The same analysis occurred without using this list (T1). The method of generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used in order to estimate the probability of making a correct diagnosis depending on the specialty of the examiner, type of lesion, and moment of the evaluation, T1 or T2 (before or after they had access to the list of parameters, respectively). RESULTS: Higher values were obtained for the probability (GEE) of making a correct diagnosis on T2; the group Un presented the highest improvement (14.6 %); no differences between the probabilities were observed either between Un and D, or among the different groups of specialists. CONCLUSIONS: The use of panoramic radiographic parameters did allow improving the diagnostic accuracy for all groups of examiners.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the color stability of a nanofill composite resin (Filtek Z350) in different immersion media. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve resin-based composite specimens were prepared using a silicon cylindrical mold measuring ≅1mm of thickness and ≅ 10mm of diameter. Specimens were light-cured for 40 s from both sides using a LED Radii at 1400 mW/cm² and were randomized into 4 groups (n= 3) according to immersion media: coffee, yerba mate, grape juice or water (control solution). A digital spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the color changes at baseline and at 1-week after immersion in each solution. Specimens were stored in the different staining media for 4 h/day during 1 week. The color differences (DE) were analyzed by paired t-test and one-way ANOVA with complementary Tukey test (p<0.05). RESULTS: After 1-week of immersion, a perceptive color change for the group stored in the grape juice compared to baseline (p=0.008) was observed. Coffee and yerba mate did not show any color changes visible for the human eyes or significantly different from the control group (p>0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study suggest that the tested nanofill resin-based composite was susceptible to staining by substances present in the grape juice.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze dental caries experience of adults living in the southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil, according to some socio-demographic conditions of this population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 1,159 school teachers and workers (35 to 44 years old) from 29 cities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: 92.3% were dentate and the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) was 21.0 and the mean number of decayed teeth was 1.1, with no significant difference among adults from regions with and without fluoridation. Male subjects presented the highest mean values of "D" (decayed teeth) and "M" (missing teeth) components. The percentage of caries-free subjects was higher among white subjects, as well as the mean number of teeth present in the mouth. The mean values of the "F" component (filled teeth) [9.81] and present teeth [19.3] were higher for adults from fluoridated water regions. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the worse condition observed was the early tooth loss in all groups. In addition, people with worse socio-demographic conditions had worse oral health conditions. It is expected that oral health programs targeted to this population could be established with the goal of improving the oral health conditions of this population and hence the maintenance of the teeth for a longer period in function.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the validity and reliability of the Family Impact Scale (FIS) applied in Brazilian parents after translations and cultural adaptations to Brazilian Portuguese language and to evaluate the nature and extent to which the family functioning is compromised by the child oral conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Parents were recruited from general populations for pre-testing (n=20), validity (n=210) and test-retest reliability (n=20) studies. The children were examined for dental caries, gingivitis, fluorosis and malocclusion. RESULTS: The FIS discriminated among the categories of malocclusion and showed good construct validity. The Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.87 and 0.90, respectively. Almost 20% of the informants reported some family impact `sometimes' or `often/everyday' from the child's oral condition. Impact on FIS domains of this frequency ranged from 13.8% for financial difficulties to 24.4% for parental or family activities. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian Portuguese version of FIS is valid and reliable. The results suggest that child oral conditions have a negative impact on the family. Further research is required, as these findings were based on cross-sectional study and convenience samples.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The antiplaque and antigingivitis effect of Lippia Sidoides (LS) was evaluated in this in vivo investigation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three subjects participated in a cross-over, double-blind clinical study, using 21-day partial-mouth experimental model of gingivitis. A toothshield was constructed for each volunteer, avoiding the brushing of the 4 experimental posterior teeth in the lower left quadrant. The subjects were randomly assigned initially to use either the placebo gel (control group) or the test gel, containing 10% LS (test group). RESULTS: The clinical results showed statistically significant differences for plaque index (PLI) (p<0.01) between days 0 and 21 in both groups, however only the control group showed statistically significant difference (p<0.01) for the bleeding (IB) and gingival (GI) index within the experimental period of 21 days. On day 21, the test group presented significantly better results than the control group with regard to the GI (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The test gel containing 10% LS was effective in the control of gingivitis.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of the barriers to the practice of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) as perceived by dental practitioners working in pilot dental clinics, and determine the influence of these barriers on the practice of ART. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A validated and tested questionnaire on barriers that may hinder the practice of ART was administered to 20 practitioners working in 13 pilot clinics. Factor analysis was performed to generate barrier factors. These were patient load, management support, cost sharing, ART skills and operator opinion. The pilot clinics kept records of teeth extracted; teeth restored by conventional approach and teeth restored by ART approach. These treatment records were used to compute the percentage of ART restorations to total teeth treated, percentage of ART restorations to total teeth restored and percentage of total restorations to total teeth treated. The mean barrier scores were generated and compared to independent variables, using the t-test. The influence of barriers to ART-related dependent variables was determined using Pearson correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Mean barrier values were low, indicating low influence on ART practice. Female practitioners had higher scores on patient load than male practitioners (p = 0.003). Assistant Dental Officers had higher scores on cost sharing than Dental Therapists (p = 0.024). Practitioners working in urban clinics had higher mean scores on patient load than those who worked in rural clinics (p = 0.0008). All barrier factors were negatively correlated with ART practice indices but all had insignificant association with ART practice indices. CONCLUSION: The barriers studied were of low magnitude, with no significant impact on practice of ART in dental clinics in the pilot area.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the pain levels on opposite sides of the maxilla at needle insertion during delivery of local anesthetic solution and tooth preparation for both conventional and anterior middle superior alveolar (AMSA) technique with the Wand computer-controlled local anesthesia application. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pain scores of 16 patients were evaluated with a 5-point verbal rating scale (VRS) and data were analyzed nonparametrically. Pain differences at needle insertion, during delivery of local anesthetic, and at tooth preparation, for conventional versus the Wand technique, were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test (p=0.01). RESULTS: The Wand technique had a lower pain level compared to conventional injection for needle insertion (p<0.01). In the anesthetic delivery phase, pain level for the Wand technique was lower (p<0.01). However, there was no difference between the Wand and conventional technique for pain level during tooth preparation (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The AMSA technique using the Wand is recommended for prosthodontic treatment because it reduces pain during needle insertion and during delivery of local anaesthetic. However, these two techniques have the same pain levels for tooth preparation.
Abstract in English:Cell culture system has been used to evaluate alloy cytotoxicity under different environments, testing the extracts, but the effect of temperature variation on the cytotoxicity of dental alloys has not been analyzed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate if temperature variation could affect dental alloy cytotoxicity, testing alloy extracts in an epithelial cell culture system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Discs of Ni-Cr, Co-Cr-Mo, Ni-Cr-Ti, Ti-6Al-4V and commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) were cast by arc melting, under argon atmosphere, injected by vacuum-pressure. Discs were immersed in artificial saliva and subjected to different temperatures: 37ºC and thermocycling (37ºC/5ºC/37ºC/55ºC/37ºC). After thermocycling, extracts were put in a subconfluent culture during 6 h, and the number of cells and their viability were used to evaluate cytotoxicity in these temperatures. For each alloy, data from temperature conditions were compared by Student's t-test (α=0.05). RESULTS: The cytotoxicity tests with alloy/metal extracts showed that Ni-Cr, Co-Cr-Mo, Ti-6Al-4V and cp Ti extracts (p>0.05) did not affect cell number or cell viability, while Ni-Cr-Ti (p<0.05) extract decreased cell number and viability when the alloy was subjected to thermocycling. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of the present study, the Ni-Cr-Ti alloy had cell number and viability decreased when subjected to temperature variation, while the other alloys/metal extracts did not show these results.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Calcium hydroxide cements have been largely used in deep cavities due to their abilities to stimulate dentin formation. However, their resistance can be relatively low and their solubility relatively high, in many instances. This study evaluated water sorption and solubility of different calcium hydroxide cements, in order to show alterations that may reduce their effectiveness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five discs (20 mm in diameter and 1.5 mm thick) of three different materials (Biocal®, Dycal® and Hidro C®) were prepared with the aid of a ring-shaped metallic matrix. After being stored at 37ºC for 24 h, the discs were weighed on a precision weight scale, dehydrated and weighed again. Immediately after weighing, discs were stored for a week in 50 mL of distilled water at 37ºC and, then, weighed again, dehydrated and submitted to a new weighing. The loss of soluble material and its water sorption was obtained from the difference between the initial and the final dry mass of each disc, after 1 week of immersion in water. Data were analyzed for significant differences by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). RESULTS: Mean water sorption values (g) ± standard deviation and percentage (%), for each evaluated cement, were: Biocal® (0.006 ± 0.001 / 2.15); Dycal® (0.016 ± 0.004 / 5.49); and Hidro C® (0.025 ± 0.003 / 8.27). Mean solubility values (g) ± standard deviation and percentage (%), for each evaluated cement, were: Biocal® (0.002 ± 0.001 / 0.72); Dycal® (0.013 ± 0.004 / 4.21); and Hidro C® (0.023 ± 0.004 / 7.65). CONCLUSIONS: Biocal® absorbed less water and was less soluble than the other evaluated cements; Hidro C® exhibited the highest water sorption and solubility values; and there were significant differences among all evaluated experimental groups.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The presence of Candida albicans on the surfaces of denture-base acrylic resins is strongly related to the development of oral stomatitis. This study evaluated the antifungal action of different agents over microwave-cured acrylic resin without polishing specimens previously contaminated with Candida albicans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty specimens were immersed in BHI broth previously inoculated with the yeast and stored for 3 h at 37ºC. They were divided into 5 experimental groups (n=10): G1: 2% chlorhexidine solution (10 min); G2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (10 min); G3: modified sodium hypochlorite (10 min); G4: effervescent agent (5 min); G5: hydrogen peroxide 10v (30 min). The specimens of the control group 1 (C1) were not disinfected. Ten additional specimens of the control group 2 (C2) were not infected with the yeast, aiming to check the asepsis during the experiment. The disinfection agents were neutralized and the acrylic resin specimens were immersed in BHI Broth for 24 h. Culture media turbidity was evaluated spectrophotometrically according to the transmittance degree, i.e. the higher the transmittance the stronger the antimicrobial action. Statistical analysis was performed (Kruskal-Wallis Test, p<0.05). RESULTS: The results, represented by the medians, were: G1 = 40; G2 = 100; G3 = 100; G4 = 90; G5 = 100; C1 = 40; C2 = 100. CONCLUSIONS: This in vitro study suggested that sodium hypochlorite-based substances and hydrogen peroxide are more efficient disinfectants against C. albicans than 2% chlorhexidine solution and the effervescent agent.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intrapulpal temperature variation after bleaching treatment with 35% hydrogen peroxide using different sources of activation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four human teeth were sectioned in the mesiodistal direction providing 48 specimens, and were divided into 4 groups (n=12): (G1) Control - Bleaching gel without light activation, (G2) Bleaching gel + halogen light, (G3) Bleaching gel + LED, (G4) Bleaching gel + Nd:YAG Laser. The temperatures were recorded using a digital thermometer at 4 time points: before bleaching gel application, 1 min after bleaching gel application, during activation of the bleaching gel, and after the bleaching agent turned from a dark-red into a clear gel. Data were analyzed statistically by the Dunnet's test, ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05). RESULTS: The mean intrapulpal temperature values (ºC) in the groups were: G1: 0.617 ± 0.41; G2: 1.800 ± 0.68; G3: 0.975 ± 0.51; and G4: 4.325 ± 1.09. The mean maximum temperature variation (MTV) values were: 1.5ºC (G1), 2.9ºC (G2), 1.7ºC (G3) and 6.9ºC (G4). When comparing the experimental groups to the control group, G3 was not statistically different from G1 (p>0.05), but G2 and G4 presented significantly higher (p<0.05) intrapulpal temperatures and MTV. The three experimental groups differed significantly (p<0.05) from each other. CONCLUSIONS: The Nd:YAG laser was the activation method that presented the highest values of intrapulpal temperature variation when compared with LED and halogen light. The group activated by LED light presented the lowest values of temperature variation, which were similar to that of the control group.
Abstract in English:Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is associated with periodontal disease, especially localized aggressive periodontitis, produces a potent leukotoxin and its distribution is influenced by ethnic characteristics of the population. Objective: Using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, this study evaluated the occurrence of this microorganism and the distribution of leukotoxic strains isolated from Indians belonging to the Umutima Reservation, Mato Grosso, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight native Brazilians with gingivitis and 38 with chronic periodontitis, belonging to Umutina, Paresi, Bororo, Bakairi, Kayabi, Irantxe, Nambikwara and Terena ethnicities, were studied. Subgingival, supragingival and saliva samples of each patient were collected and transferred to VMGA III medium and to ultra pure Milli Q water. Bacteria were grown on TSBV agar and incubated in anaerobiosis (90% N2 + 10% CO2) at 37ºC for 72 h. The presence of the ltx promoter was determined by PCR, and a 530 bp deletion in the promoter was evaluated by using specific primers. RESULTS: A. actinomycetemcomitans was isolated from 8.33% of saliva, supragingival and subgingival samples from patients with gingivitis and from 18.42% of saliva and supragingival biofilm, and 26.32% subgingival biofilm from patients with chronic periodontitis. By PCR, the bacterial DNA was detected in 8.33% of saliva, supragingival and subgingival biofilms from patients with gingivitis and from 23.68% of saliva, 28.95% supragingival biofilm and 34.21% subgingival biofilm from patients with periodontitis. All strains were grouped as non-JP2 clones based on the absence of deletion in the leukotoxin promoter. Differences among the microbial and clinical parameters in patients were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney, Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that A. actinomycetemcomitans can be related to the attachment loss in this population, but the presence of minimally leukotoxic strains, as well as its role in the pathogenesis of the periodontitis in these native Brazilians need to be further investigated.
Abstract in English:The light-curing technique is relevant to reduce the degree of polymerization shrinkage, improving clinical and esthetic success of composite resin restorations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro the effect of four light-curing techniques on depth of cure of a composite resin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten specimens of a composite resin were made in cylindrical cavities prepared in PVC plates (3.0 X 7.0 mm) for each light-curing technique. Four photoactivation methods were investigated: stepped, ramped, pulse-delay and traditional. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and polished for microhardness measurements (kg/mm²), which were made at 0.1, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mm from the irradiated surface. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS: The effect of factors studied (curing method and distance from the surface) and the interaction of these factors was statistically significant (p<0.05). The traditional method of cure provided higher microhardness values (69.6 ± 2.5) than the stepped (63.5 ± 3.1) and pulsed (63.9 ± 3.2) methods at all depths evaluated, but it did not differ from the ramped method (66.7± 4.4) at 0.1 and 1.0 mm of depth. CONCLUSION: All techniques employed provided satisfactory cure of the composite resin up to the depth of 2.0 mm from the irradiated surface.
Abstract in English:One of the most important properties of artificial teeth is the abrasion wear resistance, which is determinant in the maintenance of the rehabilitation's occlusal pattern. OBJECTIVES: This in vitro study aims to evaluate the abrasion wear resistance of 7 brands of artificial teeth opposed to two types of antagonists. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven groups were prepared with 12 specimens each (BIOLUX & BL, TRILUX & TR, BLUE DENT & BD, BIOCLER & BC, POSTARIS & PO, ORTHOSIT & OR, GNATHOSTAR & GN), opposed to metallic (M & nickel-chromium alloy), and to composite antagonists (C & Solidex indirect composite). A mechanical loading device was used (240 cycles/min, 4 Hz speed, 10 mm antagonist course). Initial and final contours of each specimen were registered with aid of a profile projector (20x magnification). The linear difference between the two profiles was measured and the registered values were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS: Regarding the antagonists, only OR (M = 10.45 ± 1.42 µm and C = 2.77 ± 0.69 µm) and BC (M = 6.70 ± 1.37 µm and C = 4.48 ± 0.80 µm) presented statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Best results were obtained with PO (C = 2.33 ± 0.91 µm and M = 1.78 ± 0.42 µm), followed by BL (C = 3.70 ± 1.32 µm and M = 3.70 ± 0.61 µm), statistically similar for both antagonists (p>0.05). Greater result variance was obtained with OR, which presented the worse results opposed to Ni-Cr (10.45 ± 1.42 µm), and results similar to the best ones against composite (2.77 ± 0.69 µm). CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, it may be concluded that the antagonist material is a factor of major importance to be considered in the choice of the artificial teeth to be used in the prosthesis.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of two brands of root canal sealers, epoxy-resin based and zinc oxide-eugenol based, and one commercial calcium hydroxide paste on a monocyte cell line THP-1. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Undiluted (crude extract) and diluted extracts to 10%, 1%, 0.1%, 0.01%, 0.001% and 0.0001% of the sealers were tested for cytotoxicity to THP-1 cells using the trypan blue assay. Extracts were obtained according to ISO standard. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests at 5% significance level. RESULTS: Crude extract of AH Plus and Fill Canal killed approximately 90% of THP-1 cells versus 36% of THP-1 cells killed by L&C crude extract (p<0.05). Ten-fold dilutions of L&C, Fill Canal and AH Plus killed 24, 35 and 61% of THP-1 cells (p<0.05), respectively. Dilutions lesser than 1% caused minimal cell death as compared to the control groups (p>0.05), except for L&C 1% extract. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed that the L&C paste crude extract was less cytotoxic to THP-1 cells than AH Plus or Fill Canal crude extracts.
Abstract in English:Dentin adhesion procedure presents limitations, especially regarding to lifetime stability of formed hybrid layer. Alternative procedures have been studied in order to improve adhesion to dentin. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of deproteinization or dentin tubular occlusion, as well as the combination of both techniques, on microtensile bond strength (µTBS) and marginal microleakage of composite resin restorations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Extracted erupted human third molars were randomly divided into 4 groups. Dentin surfaces were treated with one of the following procedures: (A) 35% phosphoric acid gel (PA) + adhesive system (AS); (B) PA + 10% NaOCl + AS; (C) PA + oxalate + AS and (D) PA + oxalate + 10% NaOCl + AS. Bond strength data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. The microleakage scores were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests. Significance level was set at 0.05 for all analyses. RESULTS: µTBS data presented statistically lower values for groups D and B, ranking data as A>C>B>D. The use of oxalic acid resulted in microleakage reduction along the tooth/restoration interface, being significant when used alone. On the other hand, the use of 10% NaOCl alone or in combination with oxalic acid, resulted in increased microleakage. CONCLUSIONS: Dentin deproteinization with 10% NaOCl or in combination with oxalate significantly compromised both the adhesive bond strength and the microleakage at interface. Tubular occlusion prior to adhesive system application seems to be a useful technique to reduce marginal microleakage.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: As the choice of suprastructure alloy to be combined with titanium for the oral cavity is still a much debated issue, the aim of this study was to investigate the electrochemical interaction of the suprastructure/implant couples under the determined experiment conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The potentiodynamic polarization curves and open-circuit potentials (OCP) of four UCLA type suprastructures coupled with straight Swiss Plus implant fixtures were taken in Afnor type artificial saliva solution at 37°C. The concentration of ions leached into artificial saliva solutions was estimated with ICP-MS. SEM images of the margins of suprastructure/implant couples were obtained before and after the electrochemical tests. RESULTS: The OCP value of titanium became passive at the most negative potential. The lowest difference between the initial and constant OCP value was exhibited by the Au based suprastructure. Suprastructures made greater contributions to the potentiodynamic polarization curves of the implant/suprastructure couples. According to the ICP-MS results, Pd based and Au based couples dissolved less than Co-Ni based and Co-Cr based couples. CONCLUSIONS: Within the conditions this study, it may be concluded that the titanium implant forms a stable passive oxide layer in artificial saliva exposed to open air and does not affect the corrosion properties of the suprastructures. Pd based and Au based couples have been found to be more corrosion-resistant than base alloy couples.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology of glass (GF), carbon (CF) and glass/carbon (G/CF) fiber posts and their bond strength to self or dual-cured resin luting agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Morphological analysis of each post type was conducted under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bond strength was evaluated by microtensile test after bisecting the posts and re-bonding the two halves with the luting agents. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Failure modes were evaluated under optical microscopy and SEM. RESULTS: GF presented wider fibers and higher amount of matrix than CF, and G/CF presented carbon fibers surrounded by glass fibers, and both involved by matrix. For CF and GF, the dual-cured material presented significantly higher (p<0.05) bond strength than the self-cured agent. For the dual agent, CF presented similar bond strength to GF (p>0.05), but higher than that of G/CF (p<0.05). For the self-cured agent, no significant differences (p>0.05) were detected, irrespective of the post type. For GF and G/CF, all failures were considered mixed, while a predominance of adhesive failures was detected for CF. CONCLUSION: The bonding between fiber posts and luting agents was affected by the type of fibers and polymerization mode of the cement. When no surface treatment of the post is performed, the bonding between glass fiber post and dual-cured agent seems to be more reliable.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine if there are qualitative differences in the appearance of external root resorption patterns of primary teeth undergoing physiologic resorption and permanent teeth undergoing pathological root resorption in different conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 40 teeth undergoing external root resorption in different conditions were divided into 4 groups and prepared for examination under scanning electron microscopy at magnifications ranging from 20x to 1000x. Group I: 10 primary molars exfoliated due to physiologic root resorption; Group II: 10 permanent teeth with periapical granulomas showing signs of resorption; Group III:10 permanent teeth therapeutically extracted during the course of orthodontic therapy with evidence of resorption, and Group IV: 10 permanent teeth associated with odontogenic tumors that showed evidence of resorption. RESULTS: In Group I, the primary teeth undergoing resorption showed smooth extensive and predominantly regular areas reflecting the slow ongoing physiologic process. In Group II, the teeth with periapical granulomas showed the resorption was localized to apex with a funnel shaped appearance in most cases. Teeth in Group III, which had been subjected to a short period of light orthodontic force, showed the presence of numerous resorption craters with adjoining areas of cemental repair in some cases. Teeth associated with odontogenic tumors in Group IV showed many variations in the patterns of resorption with extensive loss of root length and a sharp cut appearance of the root in most cases. CONCLUSION: Differences were observed in the patterns of external root resorption among the studied groups of primary and permanent teeth under physiologic and pathological conditions.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Functional orthodontic devices can modify oral function thus permitting more adequate growth processes. The assessment of their effects should include both facial morphology and muscle function. This preliminary study investigated whether a preformed functional orthodontic device could induce variations in facial morphology and function along with correction of oral dysfunction in a group of orthodontic patients in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks (forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth, jaw and ears) were collected in 10 orthodontic male patients aged 8-13 years, and in 89 healthy reference boys of the same age. Soft tissue facial angles, distances, and ratios were computed. Surface electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscles was performed, and standardized symmetry, muscular torque and activity were calculated. Soft-tissue facial modifications were analyzed non-invasively before and after a 6-month treatment with a functional device. Comparisons were made with z-scores and paired Student's t-tests. RESULTS: The 6-month treatment stimulated mandibular growth in the anterior and inferior directions, with significant variations in three-dimensional facial divergence and facial convexity. The modifications were larger in the patients than in reference children. In several occasions, the discrepancies relative to the norm became not significant after treatment. No significant variations in standardized muscular activity were found. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results showed that the continuous and correct use of the functional device induced measurable intraoral (dental arches) and extraoral (face) morphological modifications. The device did not modify the functional equilibrium of the masticatory muscles.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of desensitizing agents containing different amounts of fluoride on the shear bond strength of a dual polymerized resin cement and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) to dentin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred human molars were mounted in acrylic resin blocks and prepared until the dentin surface was exposed. The specimens were treated with one of four desensitizing agents: Bifluorid 12, Fluoridin, Thermoline and PrepEze. The remaining 20 specimens served as untreated controls. All groups were further divided into 2 subgroups in which a dual polymerized resin cement (Bifix QM) or a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (AVANTO) was used. The shear bond strength (MPa) was measured using a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. The data were analyzed statistically with a 2-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD test and regression analysis (α=0.05). The effect of the desensitizing agents on the dentin surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The fluoride-containing desensitizing agents affected the bond strength of the resin-based cements to dentin (p<0.001). PrepEze showed the highest bond strength values in all groups (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Regression analysis showed a reverse relation between bond strength values of resin cements to dentin and the amount of fluoride in the desensitizing agent (p<0.05).
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the wear in the apical third of simulate canals after preparation with ProTaper Universal Rotary System. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 24 sets of instruments were used in 24 simulated canals in transparent epoxy resin blocks with degree of curvature of either 20°or 40°. The canals were photographed preoperatively and after preparation of the apical stop with ProTaper F3, F4 and F5 instruments. The initial and final images were exported to Adobe Photoshop® software and superimposed to detect the root canal wall differences (in mm) between them, in two points located 1 (A) and 5 (B) mm from the point where the working length was established. Data were subjected to analysis of variance to verify the existence of interaction among the factors: canal curvature, instrument size and curve location. Significant level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Regardless of the location and the canal curvature, F4 and F5 instruments produced the greatest wear (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There was a deviation from the original pathway towards the outside of the root curvature in both analyzed points. All instruments produced canal transportation, but the F4 and F5 instruments produced more than the other instruments, and should thus be used with care in curved canals.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the presence of microorganisms and analyzed microscopically the pulp of 20 traumatized human teeth with intact crowns and clinical diagnosis of pulp necrosis, based on the association of at least three of the clinical criteria: crown discoloration, negative response to thermal and electric pulp vitality tests, positive response to vertical and horizontal percussion, pain on palpation or mobility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Microbiological collection was performed from the root canals to evaluate the presence of microorganisms. The pulp samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E.) for histological evaluation of possible morphological alterations. RESULTS: Analysis of results was performed by statistical tests (linear regression test and diagnostic analysis) and subjective analysis of the sections stained with H.E. and revealed that only 15% of the sample did not exhibit microbial development. The time elapsed between dental trauma and onset of endodontic intervention ranged from 15 days to 31 months; the percussion test presented high sensitivity (80%) for detection of microorganisms in the root canal of traumatized teeth; 3 teeth (15%) did not present pulp tissue, being characterized as complete autolysis; analysis of pulp samples was performed on the other 17 cases, among which 3 (15%) exhibited partial necrosis without possibility of repair and 14 presented complete necrosis; none of the clinical criteria employed for the diagnosis of pulp necrosis in traumatized teeth was pathognomonic. CONCLUSIONS: The present results allowed the following conclusions: with regard to microbiological findings, 85% of teeth presented microorganisms in the root canal, despite the presence of an intact crown. Concerning the microscopic findings, 100% of traumatized teeth presented pulp necrosis; the pulp vitality tests based on pulp response to heat, cold and vertical percussion were the most reliable to diagnose pulp necrosis in traumatized teeth.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated by three-dimensional finite element analysis the tensions generated by different disocclusion patterns (canine guide and bilateral balanced occlusion) in an implant-supported mandibular complete denture. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A three-dimensional model of implant-supported mandibular complete denture was fabricated according to the Brånemark protocol. A 5-element 3.75 x 13-mm screw-shape dental implant system was modeled for this study. The implants were located in the inter-mental foramen region with 3-mm-high prosthetic components joined by a nickel-chromium framework with 12-mm bilateral cantilever covered by acrylic resin and 12 acrylic denture teeth. SolidWorks® software was used before and after processing the simulations. The mechanical properties of the components were inserted in the model and a 15 N load was established in fixed points, in each one of the simulations. Data were collected in the entire nickel-chromium framework. The results were displayed three-dimensionally as color graphic scales. RESULTS: The canine guide generated greater tensions in the region of the first implant, while the bilateral balanced occlusion generated great tensions in the entire metallic framework. The maximum tension found in the simulation of the bilateral balanced occlusion was 3.22 fold higher than the one found in the simulation of the disocclusion in canine guide. CONCLUSION: The pattern of disocclusion in canine guide is the ideal for implant-supported mandibular complete denture.
Abstract in English:Conventional radiography has shown limitation in acquiring image of the ATM region, thus, computed tomography (CT) scanning has been the best option to the present date for diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment of bone lesions, owing to its specific properties. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate images of simulated bone lesions at the head of the mandible by multislice CT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Spherical lesions were made with dental spherical drills (sizes 1, 3, and 6) and were evaluated by using multislice CT (64 rows), by two observers in two different occasions, deploying two protocols: axial, coronal, and sagittal images, and parasagittal images for pole visualization (anterior, lateral, posterior, medial and superior). Acquired images were then compared with those lesions in the dry mandible (gold standard) to evaluate the specificity and sensibility of both protocols. Statistical methods included: Kappa statistics, validity test and chi-square test. Results demonstrated the advantage of associating axial, coronal, and sagittal slices with parasagittal slices for lesion detection at the head of the mandible. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the types of protocols regarding a particular localization of lesions at the poles. CONCLUSIONS: Protocols for the assessment of the head of the mandible were established to improve the visualization of alterations of each of the poles of the mandible's head. The anterior and posterior poles were better visualized in lateral-medial planes while lateral, medial and superior poles were better visualized in the anterior-posterior plane.
Abstract in English:After aggression to the dental pulp, some cells produce cytokines in order to start and control the inflammatory process. Among these cytokines, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) emerge as important ones. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the location, distribution and concentration of these cytokines in healthy and inflamed dental pulps. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty pulps, obtained from healthy third molars (n=10) and from pulpectomies (n=10) were used for the study, with half of each group used for immunohistochemistry and half for protein extraction and ELISA assays. Fibroblasts obtained from healthy dental pulps, stimulated or not by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in order to simulate aggression on the cell cultures, were also used and analyzed by ELISA for IL-1β and IL-8 as complementary information. Data obtained from immunohistochemistry were qualitatively analyzed. Data obtained from ELISA assays (tissue and cells) were statistically treated by the t-test (p<0.05). RESULTS: Immunohistochemically, it was observed that inflamed pulps were strongly stained for both cytokines in inflammatory cells, while healthy pulps were not immunolabeled. ELISA from tissues quantitatively confirmed the higher presence of both cytokines. Additionally, cultured pulp fibroblasts stimulated by LPS also produce more cytokines than the control cells. CONCLUSIONS: It may be concluded that inflamed pulps present higher amounts of IL-1β and IL-8 than healthy pulps and that pulp fibroblasts stimulated by bacterial LPS produce higher levels of IL-1β and IL-8 than the control group.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of implant-supported all-ceramic fixed partial dentures, which have three different pontic designs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two implants were placed in a metal model simulating mandibular left second premolar and mandibular left second molar. Thirty standardized 3-unit all-ceramic fixed partial dentures with biconvex, convex or concave pontic designs were fabricated using IPS e.max system (n=10). Afterwards, specimens were centrally loaded on the pontics until failure with a universal testing machine. Results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at 5% significance level. RESULTS: The fracture resistance values of all-ceramic fixed partial dentures designed with biconvex, convex or concave pontics were 349.71, 438.20 and 300.78 N, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the fracture resistances of the groups (p>0.05), except for convex and concave groups (p<0.05 and p=0.009, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Convex design showed the best mechanical properties as demonstrated by the high values of fracture resistance.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVES: Alterations in the temporomandibular complex can reflect in adaptations of the individual's entire muscular system, intervening with the head position and scapular waist, developing postural alterations and modifying all corporal biomechanics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the head position (HP) and head postural alterations before and after installation of occlusal splints. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) underwent clinical and postural examination, before the installation of an occlusal splint, and after 1 week and 1 month of use. RESULTS: There were statistically differences for HP, between the initial values and after 1 week of use of the occlusal device (p= 0.048) and also between 1 week and 1 month of evaluation (p= 0.001). Decrease of the painful symptomatology and maintenance of the rectification were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: The individual's postural position can suffer biomechanical alterations due to stomatognathic alterations, causing clinically visible changes in dysfunctional individuals and affecting the performance of the involved structures.