Abstract in English:Abstract Objective Alendronate (ALN) inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption and triggers osteostimulative properties both in vivo and in vitro, as shown by increase in matrix formation. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of 1% ALN gel as local drug delivery (LDD) in adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) for the treatment of chronic periodontitis among smokers. Material and Methods 75 intrabony defects were treated in 46 male smokers either with 1% ALN gel or placebo gel. ALN gel was prepared by adding ALN into carbopol-distilled water mixture. Clinical parameters [modified sulcus bleeding index, plaque index, probing depth (PD), and periodontal attachment level (PAL)] were recorded at baseline, at 2 months, and at 6 months, while radiographic parameters were recorded at baseline and at 6 months. Defect fill at baseline and at 6 months was calculated on standardized radiographs by using the image analysis software. Results Mean PD reduction and mean PAL gain were found to be greater in the ALN group than in the placebo group, both at 2 and 6 months. Furthermore, a significantly greater mean percentage of bone fill was found in the ALN group (41.05±11.40%) compared to the placebo group (2.5±0.93%). Conclusions The results of this study showed 1% ALN stimulated a significant increase in PD reduction, PAL gain, and an improved bone fill compared to placebo gel in chronic periodontitis among smokers. Thus, 1% ALN, along with SRP, is effective in the treatment of chronic periodontitis in smokers.
Abstract in English:Abstract Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are strongly associated with dental caries. However, the relationship between oral streptococci and dental caries in children with Down syndrome is not well characterized. Objective To assess and compare dental caries experience and salivary S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and streptococci counts between groups of Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome children and adolescents. Material and Methods This study included a sample of 30 Down syndrome children and adolescents (G-DS) and 30 age- and sex-matched non-Down syndrome subjects (G-ND). Dental caries experience was estimated by the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the primary dentition and the permanent dentition. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from all participants. The fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was used to identify the presence and counts of the bacteria. The statistical analysis included chi-square, Student’s t-test and Spearman’s correlation. Results The G-DS exhibited a significantly higher caries-free rate (p<0.001) and a lower S. mutans salivary density (p<0.001). No significant differences were found in the salivary densities of S. sobrinus or streptococci between the groups (p=0.09 and p=0.21, respectively). The salivary S. mutans or S. sobrinus densities were not associated with dental caries experience in neither group. Conclusion The reduced dental caries experience observed in this group of Down syndrome children and adolescents cannot be attributed to lower salivary S. mutans densities, as determined with the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique.
Abstract in English:Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is able to increase salivary calcium and phosphate levels at an acidic pH. Previous studies demonstrated that a CPP-ACP chewing gum was able to enhance the re-hardening of erosion lesions, but could not diminish enamel hardness loss. Therefore, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of CPP-ACP on dental erosion. Objective This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive enamel loss. Material and Methods: During three experimental crossover phases (one phase per group) of seven days each, eight volunteers wore palatal devices with human enamel blocks. The groups were: GI – Sugar free chewing gum with CPP-ACP; GII – Conventional sugar free chewing gum; and GIII – No chewing gum (control). Erosive challenge was extraorally performed by immersion of the enamel blocks in cola drink (5 min, 4x/day). After each challenge, in groups CPP and No CPP, volunteers chewed one unit of the corresponding chewing gum for 30 minutes. Quantitative analysis of enamel loss was performed by profilometry (µm). Data were analyzed by Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p<0.05). Results The use of chewing gum (CPP and No CPP) resulted in lower erosive enamel loss compared with the control group (p<0.05). CPP-ACP chewing gum (CPP) did not improve the protection against erosive enamel loss compared with conventional chewing gum (No CPP) (p>0.05). Conclusion The CPP-ACP chewing gum was not able to enhance the anti-erosive effect of conventional chewing gum against enamel loss.
Abstract in English:Abstract Elderly denture wearers are commonly affected by Candida-associated denture stomatitis (DS), an inflammatory process of the oral mucosa strongly associated with Candida spp and other microorganisms, as well as local and systemic factors. The impaired immune response against pathogens is among the inherent host factors that have been also associated with the pathogenesis of DS. Mononuclear phagocytes respond to the pathogens through phagocytosis followed by the production of several substances inside the phagosomes, among them are the reactive nitrogen species (RNS). A failure in these mechanisms may contribute to the DS development. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aging on the internalization and the production of nitric oxide (NO) by peritoneal adherent cells (PAC), in response to Candida albicans (C. albicans). Material and methods PAC obtained from young and aged mice were challenged with dead or viable C. albicans by using predetermined proportions (cells:yeast) for 30 and 120 minutes. Phagocytosis was analyzed by acridine orange dye, and NO production by the Griess reaction. Results C. albicans phagocytosis by PAC from aged mice was similar to that of young mice, although the cells from older mice cells present more internalized fungi compared with matched control. In addition, a tendency towards impaired NO production by peritoneal mononuclear phagocytes from aged mice was observed. Conclusions PAC from aged mice may capture and store many fungi, which in turn may mean that these cells are effectively unable to eliminate fungi, probably due to impaired NO production. Therefore, considering the important role of C. albicans overgrowth in the pathogenesis of DS and the aspects observed in this study, aging may favor the onset and severity of local candidosis such as DS and its systemic forms.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pulpal and periodontal tissues have similar microbiota that allows cross-contamination between the pulp and periodontal tissues. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of isolated Candida albicans from periodontal endodontic lesions in diabetic and normoglycemic patients, and the fungi's virulence in different atmospheric conditions. Material and Methods A case-control study was conducted on 15 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (G1) and 15 non-diabetics (G2) with periodontal endodontic lesions. Samples of root canals and periodontal pockets were plated on CHROMagar for later identification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virulence test. Results C. albicans was identified in 79.2% and 20.8% of the 60 samples collected from diabetic and normoglycemic patients, respectively. Of the 30 samples collected from periodontal pockets, 13 showed a positive culture for C. albicans, with 77% belonging to G1 and 23% to G2. Of the 11 positive samples from root canals, 82% were from G1 and 18% from G2. Production of proteinase presented a precipitation zone Pz<0.63 of 100% in G1 and 72% in G2, in redox and negative (Pz=1), under anaerobic conditions in both groups. Hydrophobicity of the strains from G1 indicated 16.4% with low, 19.3% with moderate, and 64.3% with high hydrophobicity in redox. In G2, 42.2% had low, 39.8% had moderate, 18% had high hydrophobicity in redox. In anaerobic conditions, G1 showed 15.2% with low, 12.8% with moderate, and 72% with high hydrophobicity; in G2, 33.6% had low, 28.8% had moderate, and 37.6% had high hydrophobicity. There was statistical difference in the number of positive cultures between G1 and G2 (p<0.05) with predominance in G1. There was statistical difference for all virulence factors, except hemolysis (p=0.001). Conclusions Candida albicans was isolated more frequently and had higher virulence in diabetic patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) is a ceramic that promises to have better mechanical properties than other materials with the same indications as well as improved adaptation and fracture strength. Objective In this study, marginal and internal misfit and fracture load with and without thermal-mechanical aging (TMA) of monolithic ZLS and lithium disilicate (LDS) crowns were evaluated. Material and methods Crowns were milled using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system. Marginal gaps (MGs), absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD), axial gaps, and occlusal gaps were measured by X-ray microtomography (n=8). For fracture load testing, crowns were cemented in a universal abutment, and divided into four groups: ZLS without TMA, ZLS with TMA, LDS without TMA, and LDS with TMA (n=10). TMA groups were subjected to 10,000 thermal cycles (5-55°C) and 1,000,000 mechanical cycles (200 N, 3.8 Hz). All groups were subjected to compressive strength testing in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure. Student’s t-test was used to examine misfit, two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze fracture load, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients for misfit and fracture load were calculated (α=0.05). The materials were analyzed according to Weibull distribution, with 95% confidence intervals. Results Average MG (p<0.001) and AMD (p=0.003) values were greater in ZLS than in LDS crowns. TMA did not affect the fracture load of either material. However, fracture loads of ZLS crowns were lower than those of LDS crowns (p<0.001). Fracture load was moderately correlated with MG (r=-0.553) and AMD (r=-0.497). ZLS with TMA was least reliable, according to Weibull probability. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, ZLS crowns had lower fracture load values and greater marginal misfit than did LDS crowns, although these values were within acceptable limits.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of laser-activated irrigation (LAI), XP-endo Finisher, CanalBrush, Vibringe, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and conventional syringe irrigation systems on the removal of calcium hydroxide (CH) from simulated root canal irregularities. Material and Methods The root canals of one hundred and five extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented using Reciproc rotary files up to size R40. The teeth were split longitudinally. Two of the three standard grooves were created in the coronal and apical section of one segment, and another in the middle part of the second segment. The standardized grooves were filled with CH and the root halves were reassembled. After 14 days, the specimens were randomly divided into 7 experimental groups (n=15/group). CH was removed as follows: Group 1: beveled needle irrigation; Group 2: double side-vented needle irrigation; Group 3: CanalBrush; Group 4: XP-endo Finisher; Group 5: Vibringe; Group 6: PUI; Group 7: LAI. The amount of remaining CH in the grooves was scored under a stereomicroscope at 20× magnification. Statistical evaluation was performed using Kruskal–Wallis and Bonferroni-Correction Mann–Whitney U tests. Results Groups 1 and 2 were the least efficient in eliminating CH from the grooves. Groups 6 and 7 eliminated more CH than the other protocols; however, no significant differences were found between these two groups (P>.05). Conclusions Nevertheless, none of the investigated protocols were able to completely remove all CH from all three root regions. LAI and PUI showed less residual CH than the other protocols from artificial grooves.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To assess the effect of fibronectin (Fn) and porcine type I collagen (PCOL) on odontoblast-like cells in vitro. Material and Methods Rat odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23 cells) were inoculated and cultured on Fn-coated or type I collagen-coated substrates. Proliferation assay, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP activity), mRNA expression of hard tissue-forming markers, and Alizarin red staining were investigated over a period of 10 days. Results Cells maintained a high proliferation activity on Fn and PCOL even at a low seeding concentration (0.5×104/mL) as demonstrated by CCK-8 assay. The proliferation activity of cells on Fn increases in a concentration-dependent manner while it reached a plateau after 10 µg/mL. Cells adopted long, thin and spindle shape on Fn(10-50) and PCOL. Parallel actin filaments were observed in MDPC-23 cells cultured on Fn and PCOL. ALP activity was markedly up-regulated on Fn and PCOL-coated surfaces. Importantly, gene expression of BSP (Fn10: 2.44±0.32; Fn20: 3.05±0.01; Fn30: 2.90±0.21; Fn40: 2.74±0.30; Fn50: 2.64±0.12; PCOL: 2.20±0.03) and OCN (Fn10: 2.52±0.23; Fn20: 2.28±0.24; Fn30: 2.34±0.21; Fn40: 2.34±0.25; Fn50: 2.20±0.22; PCOL: 1.56±0.16) was significantly enhanced on Fn and PCOL substrates as compared with control; moreover, expression of integrin beta 1 (ITGB1), an ubiquitous cell surface receptor was augmented in Fn(10-50) and PCOL groups simultaneously. In accordance with the ALP activity and gene expression data, calcific deposition in cells grown on Fn(10-50) and PCOL was observed as well. Conclusion Despite the limitation of this study, the findings indicate that a surface coating of Fn enhances the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of odontoblast-like cells by activation of integrin beta 1 (ITG B1). The promoting effects of Fn on MDPC-23 cells were achieved at a comparatively lower coating concentration than type I collagen (300 µg/mL). Specifically, it is suggested that the optimum coating concentration of Fn to be 10 µg/mL.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background and objectives Few studies have evaluated the effect of the topical application of sodium alendronate (ALN) on the treatment of intrabuccal bone defects, especially those caused by periodontitis. This 6-month randomized placebo controlled clinical trial aimed at evaluating the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment associated with the use of 1% ALN, through clinical evaluations and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods Twenty individuals with chronic periodontitis underwent periodontal examination at the baseline as well as 3 and 6 months after periodontal treatment, registering clinical attachment level (CAL), periodontal probing depth (PPD), and bleeding on probing (BOP) as the clinical outcomes. After manual scaling and root planing, 40 bilateral sites with interproximal vertical bone defects were randomly treated with either 1% ALN gel or a placebo. Bone defects were evaluated through CBCT at the baseline and 6 months post-treatment. The clinical and CBCT parameters were compared using the Wilcoxon and Friedman tests (p<0.05). Results Although ALN produced a greater CAL gain when compared to the placebo at 6 months post-treatment (p=0.021), both treatments produced similar effects on the PPD, BOP, and bone height. Significant differences in bone fill were observed only in patients of the ALN group (4.5 to 3.8 mm; p=0.003) at 6 months post-treatment. Conclusions Topical application of 1% ALN might be a beneficial adjuvant to non-surgical periodontal therapy.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives To evaluate the number of AgNORs per nucleus and the expression of Ki-67 at the tumor invasion front (TIF) in relation to clinical parameters (TNM), TIF classification and the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas in an Uruguayan population. Material and Methods This study was conducted through a retrospective survey from 2000 to 2010 at the National Institute of Cancer Montevideo, Uruguay and included 40 patients. The samples were obtained from the resection of the tumor and the TIF was defined according with Bryne, et al.5 (1992). Expression of Ki-67 was assessed by the percentage of positive tumor cells and the AgNOR was recorded as the mean AgNOR (mAgNOR) and the percentage of AgNOR per nucleus (pAgNOR). All analyzes were performed by a blinded and calibrated observer. Results No statistically significant association was observed between immunostaining of Ki-67 and AgNOR with the different types of TIF, regional metastasis and patients prognosis, however it was observed an increase in Ki-67 expression associated with worse patient’s clinical staging, although not statistically significant. Conclusions Our results suggest that proliferation markers as AgNOR and Ki-67 are not prognostic markers at the tumor invasive front of carcinoma of oral squamous cell.
Abstract in English:Abstract The development of opportunistic infections due to poor denture hygiene conditions justified the search for effective hygiene protocols for controlling denture biofilm. Objective This study evaluated Ricinus communis and sodium hypochlorite solutions in terms of biofilm removal ability, remission of candidiasis, antimicrobial activity, and participant satisfaction. Material and Methods It was conducted a controlled clinical trial, randomized, double-blind, and crossover. Sixty-four denture wearers with (n=24) and without candidiasis (n=40) were instructed to brush (3 times/day) and immerse their dentures (20 min/day) in different storage solutions (S1 / S2: 0.25% / 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; S3: 10% R. communis; S4: Saline).The trial period for each solution was seven days and a washout period of seven days was used before starting the use of another solution. The variables were analyzed at baseline and after each trial period. The biofilm of inner surfaces of maxillary dentures was disclosed, photographed, and total and dyed areas were measured (Image Tool software). The percentage of biofilm was calculated. Remission of candidiasis was assessed by visual scale and score were attributed. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the DNA-Checkerboard hybridization method. Patient satisfaction was measured using a questionnaire. Results S1 (4.41±7.98%) and S2 (2.93±5.23%) were more effective then S3 (6.95±10.93%) in biofilm remotion(P<0.0001). All solutions were different from the control (11.07±11.99%). S3 was the most effective solution in remission of candidiasis (50%), followed by S1 (46%). Concerning antimicrobial action, S1/S2 were similar and resulted in the lowest microorganism mean count (P=0.04), followed by S3. No significant differences were found with patient’s satisfaction. Conclusions 10% R. communis and 0.25% sodium hypochlorite were effective in biofilm removal, causing remission of candidiasis and reducing the formation of microbial colonies in denture surfaces. All solutions were approved by patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective This randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical study evaluated the effect of calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin) and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride (CPP-ACPF) on the prevention of post-operative sensitivity and on the effects of clinical bleaching treatment. Material and Methods Sixty volunteers were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and were randomly assigned into three groups (n=20): CG (control group) patients, who were treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide; NOVAG (NovaMin group) patients, who were treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide followed by the application of NovaMin; and CPPG (CPP group) patients, who were treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide followed by the application of CPP-ACPF. Both bioactive agents were applied for five minutes. An evaporative stimulus associated with a modified visual scale was used to analyze sensitivity 24 hours after each bleaching session. The color evaluation was performed on the maxillary central incisors using a spectrophotometer. Associations between the intervention group, bleaching session, and reported sensitivity were tested using Chi-square partitioning. Results Color change values (ΔE) were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The significance level used for both tests was 5%. In the intragroup assessment, the Friedman test showed that only the CPP-ACPF group showed no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between baseline and first bleaching session. In the intergroup assessment, the Kruskal–Wallis test showed that the CPPG had less postoperative sensitivity after the first session, when compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Color change analysis (ΔE) showed a significant difference between the means obtained in the different bleaching sessions in all groups (p<0.05). Conclusions This study showed that the combination of CPP-ACPF with 35% hydrogen peroxide significantly reduced post-operative sensitivity in the first session, compared with the other evaluated treatments. The association of CPP-ACPF and NovaMin did not affect the color change induced by tooth bleaching.
Abstract in English:Abstract Lesions in the floor of the mouth can be a challenging diagnosis due to the variety of pathological conditions that might be found in this area. Within a broad range of lesions, attention has to be addressed to those that require specific management, such as a dermoid cyst (DC) and a ranula. Especially in pediatric patients, in whom the failure of diagnosis can postpone the correct treatment and cause sequelae later in life. DC, a developmental anomaly, is managed primarily by surgical resection. On the other hand, ranula is a pseudocyst that may be treated by marsupialization. This article reports a large and painful lesion in the floor of the mouth in a pediatric patient. With a diagnostic hypothesis of ranula, two surgical interventions were performed, but there were recurrences of the lesion. Subsequently, the patient was referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit for re-evaluation. Computed tomography showed a semi-transparent image suggesting a cystic formation. Another surgical procedure was performed where the lesion was completely removed. Anatomopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of DC. The five-year follow-up showed no signs of recurrence. This article indicates that although DC in the floor of the mouth is rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other diseases in this area. This precaution may be particularly important in the following circumstances: 1) Similar lesions that have different therapeutic approaches and, 2) To prevent future sequelae in pediatric patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to show DPid as an important tool of potential application to solve cases with dental prosthesis, such as the forensic case reported, in which a skull, denture and dental records were received for analysis. Material and Methods Human identification is still challenging in various circumstances and Dental Prosthetics Identification (DPid) stores the patient’s name and prosthesis information and provides access through an embedded code in dental prosthesis or an identification card. All of this information is digitally stored on servers accessible only by dentists, laboratory technicians and patients with their own level of secure access. DPid provides a complete single-source list of all dental prosthesis features (materials and components) under complete and secure documentation used for clinical follow-up and for human identification. Results and Conclusion If DPid tool was present in this forensic case, it could have been solved without requirement of DNA exam, which confirmed the dental comparison of antemortem and postmortem records, and concluded the case as a positive identification.