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Journal of Applied Oral Science, Volume: 29, Published: 2021
  • MicroRNAs: emerging players in apical periodontitis Review

    SHEN, Zhen; SILVA, Renato Menezes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Apical periodontitis is an inflammatory disorder of periradicular tissues developed from endodontic infections. Understanding its pathophysiology and the underlying molecular mechanisms is key to the advancement of endodontics. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNAs, may be phenotypically and functionally associated with the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis. Several studies have focused on the role of miRNAs in the pulp and periradicular biology, and they have demonstrated their essential functions, such as initiating odontogenic differentiation and promoting pro- or anti-inflammatory responses in pulpitis. Up to date, over 2,000 miRNAs have been discovered in humans; however, only few have been reported to associate with apical periodontitis. Therefore, identifying miRNAs involved in diseased apical tissues and conducting functional studies are important in expanding our current knowledge of pulp and periradicular biology and exploring novel therapeutic avenues. In this review, we revisit current models of apical periodontitis and miRNA biogenesis, analyze existing evidence of the involvement of miRNAs in diseased apical tissues, and discuss their diverse functions and potential values. Based on their sheer abundance, prolonged stability in biofluid, and relative ease of sampling, miRNAs may be a useful tool to be developed as diagnostic biomarkers for apical periodontitis. Furthermore, it can be used as therapeutic targets in conjunction with conventional endodontic therapies.
  • Role of enamel and dentin on color changes after internal bleaching associated or not with external bleaching Original Article

    SANTANA, Tauan Rosa; BRAGANÇA, Rafaella Mariana Fontes de; CORREIA, Ana Claudia Conceição; OLIVEIRA, Isadora de Melo; FARIA-E-SILVA, André Luis

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of the association between external and internal tooth bleaching on color changes in dentin and enamel, individually or recombined, previously stained with triple antibiotic paste (TAP). Methodology Forty enamel-dentin specimens from bovine incisors were separated into ten blocks according to similarity in their whiteness index (WID). Three specimens within each block were stained by dentin exposure to TAP, and the remaining specimen was used as control to estimate color changes. Specimens were sectioned to separate tissues, and dentin and enamel colors were measured individually and after being recombined. Alterations in color (CIEDE2000 - ΔE00) and translucency parameter (TP) resulting from staining were estimated by color difference between stained and control specimens. The contribution of each tissue to the color change (CTCC) was also calculated. Non-sectioned stained specimens were bleached by applying sodium perborate on dentin, associated or not with 35% hydrogen peroxide on enamel. Color changes caused by bleaching procedures were estimated and data were analyzed using the paired t-test or Two-way repeated measures ANOVA. Results TAP caused more pronounced changes in dentin, but enamel color was also affected. Both protocols presented a similar ΔE00, and dentin showed the greater color change. After exposure to TAP, we observed a reduction in WID; WID values were the same for bleached and control specimens regardless of protocol. We found no significant effect of substrate and bleaching technique on TP. Enamel played a more critical role in color changes caused by either staining or bleaching procedures. Conclusion Enamel color played a greater role on tooth color changes than dentin. External and internal bleaching association did not improve bleaching effect on specimens stained with TAP.
  • The new bone formation in human maxillary sinuses using two bone substitutes with different resorption types associated or not with autogenous bone graft: a comparative histomorphometric, immunohistochemical and randomized clinical study Original Article

    PEREIRA, Rodrigo dos Santos; BONARDI, João Paulo; OUVERNEY, Felippe Ricardo Frossard; CAMPOS, Annelise Backer; GRIZA, Geraldo Luiz; OKAMOTO, Roberta; HOCHULI-VIEIRA, Eduardo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the new bone and connective tissue formation and the biomaterial remaining after maxillary sinus bone augmentation using 5 different bone substitutes. The osteocalcin immunolabeling was performed to demonstrate their calcification and the possibility of receiving dental implants. Methodology 40 patients underwent maxillary sinus bone augmentation and were divided in 5 groups: Group 1 with 8 maxillary sinuses were grafted with autogenous bone graft (AB); Group 2 with 8 maxillary sinuses grafted with bioactive glass (BG); Group 3 with 8 maxillary sinuses grafted with bioactive glass added to autogenous bone graft (BG + AB) 1:1; Group 4 with 8 maxillary sinuses grafted with Bio-Oss (BO) and Group 5 with 8 maxillary sinuses grafted with Bio-Oss added to autogenous bone graft (BO + AB) 1:1. Results In group AB, 37.8% of bone was formed in the pristine bone region, 38.1% in the intermediate and 44.5% in the apical region. In group BG, 43.6% was formed in the pristine bone, 37% in the intermediate and 49.3% in the apical region. In group BG + AB 1:1, 39.0% was formed in the pristine bone region, 34.8% in the intermediate and 36.8% in apical region. In group BO, 33.4% was formed in the pristine bone, 32.5% in the intermediate and 34.3% in the apical region. In group BO + AB 1:1, 32.8% was formed in the pristine bone, 36.1% in intermediate and 27.8% in the apical regions. The immunolabeling for osteocalcin showed an intensive staining for all groups, which could demonstrate the calcification of the bone formed. Conclusion This study showed that the groups evaluated formed a suitable lamellar bone in the maxillary sinus reconstruction after six months of bone healing, thus being indicated to receive dental implants.
  • Dietary supplementation with multi-strain formula of probiotics modulates inflammatory and immunological markers in apical periodontitis Original Article

    COSME-SILVA, Leopoldo; DAL-FABBRO, Renan; CINTRA, Luciano Tavares Angelo; ERVOLINO, Edilson; PRADO, Alana Sant’Ana do; OLIVEIRA, Daniel Pinto de; MARCELOS, Priscylla Gonçalves Correia Leite de; GOMES-FILHO, João Eduardo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether probiotics multi-strain formula affects the development of apical periodontitis (AP) induced in rats. Methodology 16 Wistar rats were divided in two groups (n=8): rats with AP fed with regular diet (Control-C (CG)); rats with AP, fed with regular diet and supplemented with multi-strain formula (one billion colony-forming units (CFU)): GNC Probiotic Complex (PCG) ( Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivaris, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium animalis subs. lactis and Streptococcus thermofilus ). AP was induced in the upper and lower first molars by dental pulp exposure to the oral environment. PCG was administered orally through gavage for 30 days during the AP development. After this period the animals were euthanized and the mandibles were removed and processed for histologic analysis, and immunochemical assays for interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-1β, RANKL, OPG, and TRAP. The Mann–Whitney U test and Student’s t test were performed (P<.05). Results The CG showed more intense inflammatory infiltrate than the PCG group (P<.05). IL-1β, IL 6 and RANKL decreased in the PCG group compared with CG (P<.05). The IL-10 level increased in the PCG group (P<.05). The OPG level was similar in both groups (P>.05). The number of mature osteoclasts (TRAP-positive multinucleated cells) was lower in PCG group when compared to the CG (P<.05). Conclusion Probiotic Complex modulates inflammation and bone resorption in apical periodontitis.
  • Evolution of mirror-image pain in temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis mouse model Original Article

    ROTPENPIAN, Nattapon; TAPECHUM, Sompol; VATTARAKORN, Anchalee; CHINDASRI, Wongsathit; CARE, Chit; PAKAPROT, Narawut; WANASUNTRONWONG, Aree

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Mirror-image pain is a kind of pain that occurs on the contralateral side, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. Objective To develop an osteoarthritis mouse model for investigating mirror-image pain through observing nocifensive behaviors, histological changes, and nociceptive activity at days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the chemical induction of unilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis. Methodology We randomly divided 6-week-old mice into sham and complete Freund adjuvant groups. To induce nocifensive behaviors, we applied 0.04 g of von Frey filament, 10 psi of air puff, and cold acetone on both sides of whisker pads at different days. The histology of TMJ on both sides was observed by hematoxylin/eosin staining and microcomputed tomography scanning. Furthermore, the nociceptive activity was evaluated using the phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (pCREB) and a microglia marker at different days in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis. Results Nocifensive behaviors against mechanical and temperature stimuli on the contralateral side became stronger than the baseline on day 28, in agreement with the elevation of the pCREB and the microglia marker in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis. Thus, hypernociception on the contralateral side occurred at day 28. Conclusions Clearly, the TMJ model with unilateral osteoarthritis exhibited mirror-image pain. Therefore, this model is useful in investigating the pathogenesis of pain and in developing treatments.
  • The protective role of selenium against dental amalgam-induced intracellular oxidative toxicity through the TRPV1 channel in DBTRG glioblastoma cells Original Article

    CEYHAN, Derya; GUZEL, Kadriye Gorkem Ulu; CIG, Bilal

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective The exposure to mercury (Hg) from dental amalgams is a suspected causative factor in neurological diseases. This study investigated the toxic effects of two different amalgam compositions related to Hg and the protective effects of selenium against the toxic effects of Hg through the TRPV1 channel in the human DBTRG glioblastoma cell line. Methodology Six groups of the cells were organized. Analyses of cell viability, apoptosis, caspase 3 and caspase 9 activities, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and Western Blotting for protein expression levels were performed. Results Cell viability values were lower in amalgam with high copper (HCu) and low copper (LCu) groups independently of time but were increased by selenium and capsazepine (p<0.001 and p<0.05). Conversely, apoptosis rates, caspase 3 and caspase 9 expression, ROS formation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and protein expression levels were higher in the HCu and LCu groups but were decreased by selenium (p<0.001 and p<0.05). Conclusions Selenium combined with an amalgam of either HCu or LCu decreases the toxic effects created by Hg in human DBTRG glioblastoma cells.
  • Effect of final irrigation with sodium hypochlorite at different temperatures on postoperative pain level and antibacterial activity: a randomized controlled clinical study Original Article

    KARATAŞ, Ertuğrul; AYAZ, Nilay; ULUKÖYLÜ, Esra; BALTACI, Mustafa Özkan; ADIGÜZEL, Ahmet

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of final irrigation of root canals with NaOCl solution at different temperatures on postoperative pain level and antimicrobial activity. Methodology 45 patients were randomly divided into three groups using a web program according to the irrigation selected: NaOCl 2ºC, NaOCl 25ºC and NaOCl 45ºC. First root canal samples were collected before treatment (S1). After chemo-mechanical preparation, final irrigation was performed with the selected irrigant (NaOCl 2ºC, NaOCl 25ºC and NaOCl 45ºC) and second samples were collected (S2). Samples were subjected to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the levels of total bacteria. The root canal treatments were completed and the participants were given instructions to record postoperative pain levels at 24, 48 and 72 hours, 5 days and 1 week after treatment using a visual analog scale (VAS). Results The reduction in the number of total bacterial cell equivalents from S1 to S2 was statistically significant in all groups (p<0.001). The NaOCl 2˚C group reported significantly less postoperative pain than the NaOCl 45˚C group (p<0.05). Postoperative analgesic intake was significantly higher in the NaOCl 45˚C group than in the NaOCl 2˚C group (p<0.05). Conclusion We conclude that final irrigation with NaOCl at different temperatures results in similar antibacterial effectiveness. Final irrigation with cold NaOCl (2˚C) is better than NaOCl 45˚C when comparing postoperative pain levels.
  • A prospective and randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of ART restorations with high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement versus conventional restorations with resin composite in Class II cavities of permanent teeth: two-year follow-up Original Article

    MENEZES-SILVA, Rafael; VELASCO, Sofia R Maito; BRESCIANi, Eduardo; BASTOS, Roosevelt da Silva; NAVARRO, Maria Fidela de Lima

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective To compare the effectiveness of ART restorations using High Viscosity Glass-ionomer cement (HVGIC) with conventional restorations using resin composite in Class II cavities of permanent teeth, in a 2-year follow-up. Methodology Seventy-seven restorations were made with each restorative material, Equia Fil-GC Corporation (ART restorations) and Z350-3M (conventional restoration), in 54 participants in this parallel and randomized clinical trial. Restorations were evaluated at 6 months, 1 and 2 years using the ART and the modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Chi-square test and Survival Analysis (p<0.05) were used for statistical analysis. Results The success rates for ART restorations were 98.7% (6 months) and 95.8% (1 year) for both criteria. At 2 years, success rate was 92% and 90.3% when scored by the modified USPHS and ART criteria (p=0.466), respectively. The success rates for conventional restorations were 100% (6 months), 98.7% (1 year) and 91.5% (2 years) for both assessment criteria. ART restorations presented a lower survival rate by the criterion of ART (83.7%) when compared to the modified USPHS criterion of (87.8%), after 2 years (p=0.051). The survival of conventional restorations was 90.7% for both evaluation criteria. Conclusion At the 2-years follow-up evaluation, no statistically significant difference was observed between the success rate of ART restorations with HVGIC compared to conventional restorations with resin composite in Class II cavities of permanent teeth.
  • Effects of ClpP protease on biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis Original Article

    FENG, Ying; WANG, Hongyuan; Lu, HE; Yi, LIU; Hong, LI

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), one of the main pathogens responsible for refractory periapical periodontitis and nosocomial infections, exhibits markedly higher pathogenicity in biofilms. Objectives Studies have shown that caseinolytic protease P (ClpP) is involved in biofilm formation. However, to date, few studies have investigated the role of ClpP in the survival of E. faecalis, and in enhancing biofilm formation. Therefore, we investigated the role of ClpP in the formation of E. faecalis biofilms. Methodology In our study, we used homologous recombination to construct clpP deleted and clpP complement strains of E. faecalis ATCC 29212. A viable colony counting method was used to analyze the growth patterns of E. faecalis. Crystal violet staining (CV) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM) were used to characterize biofilm mass formation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the biofilm microstructure. Data was statistically analyzed via Student’s t-test or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The results exhibited altered growth patterns for the clpP deletion strains and depleted polysaccharide matrix, resulting in reduced biofilm formation capacity compared to the standard strains. Moreover, ClpP was observed to increase biofilm formation in E. faecalis. Conclusion Our study shows that ClpP can increase biofilm formation in E. faecalis and emphasizes the importance of ClpP as a potential target against E. faecalis.
  • Ki67 Labelling Index predicts clinical outcome and survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma Original Article

    GADBAIL, Amol Ramchandra; SARODE, Sachin C; CHAUDHARY, Minal S; GONDIVKAR, Shailesh M; TEKADE, Satyajit Ashok; YUWANATI, Monal; PATIL, Shankargouda

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective To investigate the Ki 67 expression and its correlation with clinicopathological features and 3 years as well as 5 years survival rate in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methodology Total 217cases of OSCC primarily treated with surgery with or without radiation were included. All patients were followed up for 3 years and 150 were followed up of 5 years for disease free survival. The immunohistochemistry was carried out on neutral buffered formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue to evaluate the expression of Ki67. Results The Ki67 labeling index (LI) was significantly higher with respect to adverse clinicopathological parameters such as histopathological grading (p<0.001), clinical TNM staging (p<0.001) and nodal metastasis (p<0.001). The OSCC patients survived for less than 3 and 5 years were showed significantly higher Ki67 LI as compared to diseases free survived more than 3 and 5 years(p<0.001). The three years survival rate of OSCC patient significantly higher with low Ki67 LI (≤45) 96.2%, followed by moderate Ki67 LI (46 to 60) 60.7% and high Ki67 LI (≥61) 37.7% (p<0.001). The five years survival rate of OSCC patient statistically significantly higher with low Ki67 LI (≤45)93.3%, followed by moderate Ki67 LI (46 to 60) 46.8% and Ki67 LI (≥61) 23.3% (p<0.001). Conclusion The measurement of cell proliferative activity by using Ki67 antigen expression in individual OSCC might provide unique, predictive information on clinical outcome, prognosis and deciding treatment modalities in OSCC.
  • Removal of denture adhesives from PMMA and Polyamide denture base materials Original Article

    POLYCHRONAKIS, Nick; SYKARAS, Nikitas; POLYZOIS, Gregory; LAGOUVARDOS, Panagiotis

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Denture adhesives need complete removal due to their frequent replacement. Objective Our study investigates the removal of denture adhesives from denture base materials, using different methods. Methodology PMMA and Polyamide denture base materials were used to fabricate 120 samples (15×15×1.5mm). One side of the samples was left as processed and the other polished with a usual procedure, hydrated for 24 h, dried, and weighted. They received 0.2 g of three adhesive creams on their unpolished surface (Corega, Olivafix, Fittydent), pressed on polysulfide material, stored under 37°C and 95% rel. humidity for 1 h and 60 of them, following their separation from polysulfide base, brushed under running water, whereas the rest inserted in a cleanser bath (Fittydent Super) for 5 min. The samples were dried and inserted in the oven (37°C) for additional 10 min and weighted again. Roughness tests of denture materials and light microscopy of adhesives creams were also used to evaluate the materials. Time lapse images of spayed with water adhesives on PMMA base were also taken to evaluate the volumetric changes of adhesives. Weight data before and after adhesive removal, indicating the amount of remaining adhesive, were statistically analyzed using Welch’s ANOVA and Games-Howell multiple comparisons tests at α=0.05 level of significance. Results Roughness of Polyamide was higher than PMMA and Fittydent showed greater volumetric changes than the others. Significant differences (p<0.05), were found between PMMA and Polyamide bases, between Olivafix and Fittydent adhesives, and between brushing and cleansing methods but only for PMMA-Olivafix combination. Conclusions Adhesives showed a stronger adherence to PMMA surface, and Fittydent was the most difficult to be removed. Removal methods were not effective for all adhesives or denture base materials. These indicate that removal methods, adhesive type and denture base material are all playing a significant role in the removal of adhesives from denture surfaces.
  • Dental workers in front-line of COVID-19: an in silico evaluation targeting their prevention Original Article

    SETTE-DE-SOUZA, Pedro Henrique; COSTA, Moan Jéfter Fernandes; AMARAL-MACHADO, Lucas; ARAÚJO, Fábio Andrey da Costa; ALMEIDA FILHO, Adauto Trigueiro; LIMA, Luiza Rayanna Amorim de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract SARS-CoV-2 has high human-human transmission rate. The aerosols and saliva droplets are the main contamination source. Thus, it is crucial to point out that dental practitioners become a high-risk group of contagion by SARS-CoV-2. Based on this, protocols have been recommended to avoid cross-contamination during dental care; however, appropriate evidence has not yet been established. Objective Our study sought to make a screening, by in silico analysis, of the potential of mouth rinses used in dental practices to prevent the dental workers' contamination by SARS-CoV-2. Methodology Multiple sequence comparisons and construction of the phylogenetic tree were conducted using the FASTA code. Therefore, molecular docking investigation between SARS-CoV-2 proteins (Main Protease, Spike Glycoprotein, Non-structure Protein, and Papain-like Protease) and molecules used in dental practices (chlorhexidine digluconate, hydrogen peroxide, cetylpyridinium chloride, povidone-iodine, gallic acid, β-cyclodextrin, catechin, and quercetin) was performed using AutoDock Vina. Moreover, 2D interactions of the complex protein-ligand structure were analyzed by Ligplot+. Results The obtained results showed a remarkable affinity between SARS-CoV-2 proteins and all tested compounds. The chlorhexidine digluconate, catechin, and quercetin presented a higher affinity with SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions The overall results allowed us to suggest that chlorhexidine is the most suitable active compound in reducing the SARS-CoV-2 salivary load due to its better binding energy. However, in vivo studies should be conducted to confirm their clinical use.
  • Association of Nd:YAG laser and calcium-phosphate desensitizing pastes on dentin permeability and tubule occlusion Original Article

    MAXIMIANO, Vinícius; MACHADO, Alana Cristina; LOPES, Raquel Marianna; RABELO, Fernanda Ellen Mercatelli; GARÓFALO, Stephanie Assimakopoulos; ZEZELL, Denise Maria; ARANHA, Ana Cecilia Corrêa; SCARAMUCCI, Taís

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Nd:YAG laser associated with calcium-phosphate desensitizing pastes on dentin permeability and tubule occlusion after erosive/abrasive challenges. Methodology Dentin specimens were exposed to 17% ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) solution for 5 min and randomly allocated into five groups: G1, control (no treatment); G2, Nd:YAG laser (1 W, 10 Hz, 100 mJ, 85 J/cm2); G3, Laser + TeethmateTM Desensitizer; G4, Laser + Desensibilize Nano P; and G5, Laser+Nupro®. Specimens underwent a 5-day erosion-abrasion cycling. Hydraulic conductance was measured post-EDTA, post-treatment, and post-cycling. Post-treatment and post-cycling permeability (%Lp) was calculated based on post-EDTA measurements, considered 100%. Open dentin tubules (ODT) were calculated at the abovementioned experimental moments using scanning electron microscopy and ImageJ software (n=10). Data were analyzed using two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results G1 presented the highest %Lp post-treatment of all groups (p<0.05), without significantly differences among them. At post-cycling, %Lp significantly decreased in G1, showed no significant differences from post-treatment in G3 and G4, and increased in G2 and G5, without significant differences from G1 (p>0.05). We found no significant differences in ODT among groups (p>0.05) post-EDTA. At post-treatment, treated groups did not differ from each other, but presented lower ODT than G1 (p<0.001). As for post-cycling, we verified no differences among groups (p>0.05), although ODT was significantly lower for all groups when compared to post-EDTA values (p<0.001). Conclusion All treatments effectively reduced dentin permeability and promoted tubule occlusion after application. Combining Nd YAG laser with calcium-phosphate pastes did not improve the laser effect. After erosive-abrasive challenges, treatments presented no differences when compared to the control.
  • Fcγ receptors on aging neutrophils Original Article

    GASPAROTO, Thaís Helena; DALBONI, Thalita Marcato; AMÔR, Nádia Ghinelli; ABE, Aneli Eiko; PERRI, Graziela; LARA, Vanessa Soares; VIEIRA, Narciso Almeida; GASPAROTO, Carlos Teodoro; CAMPANELLI, Ana Paula

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective Neutrophils are key effector cells of the innate immune system. They recognize antigens through membrane receptors, which are expressed during their maturation and activation. Neutrophils express FcγRII (CD32), FcγRIII (CD16), and FcγRI (CD64) after being activated by different factors such as cytokines and bacterial products. These receptors are involved with phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized microbes and enhance defense mechanisms. Based on that, our study seeks to compare the expression of FcγRII, FcγRIII, FcγRI, and CD11b on neutrophils from elderly and young subjects and their expression after in vitro activation with cytokines and LPS. Methodology Neutrophils were isolated from human peripheral blood and from mice bone marrow by density gradient. After isolation, FCγRs expression was immediately analyzed by flow cytometry or after in vitro stimulation. Results In freshly isolated cells, the percentage of FcγRIIIb+ and CD11b+ neutrophils were higher in samples from young individuals; FcγRIIIa expression was more prominent on aged neutrophils; FcγRIA expression was similar in all samples analyzed. Exposure to CXCL8 and LPS resulted in a higher percentage of FcγRIa+ neutrophils on elderly individuals’ samples but lower when compared with neutrophils from young donors. We observed that LPS caused an increase in FcγRIIa expression on aging human neutrophils. In contrast, FcγRIIIb expression in response to CXCL8 and LPS stimulation was not altered in the four groups. CD11b expression was lower in neutrophils from elderly individuals even in response to LPS and CXCL8. In mice, we observed differences only regarding CD11b expression, which was increased on aged neutrophils. LPS exposure caused an increase in all FcγRs. Conclusions Our results suggest that, in humans, the overall pattern of FcγR expression and integrin CD11b are altered during aging and immunosenescence might contribute to age-related infection.
  • Dentinal tubule occlusion using Er:YAG Laser: an in vitro study Original Article

    ZHUANG, Hongmin; LIANG, Yuee; XIANG, Shaowen; LI, Huanying; DAI, Xingzhu; ZHAO, Wanghong

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objectives We analyzed the effects of the Er:YAG laser used with different parameters on dentinal tubule (DT) occlusion, intrapulpal temperature and pulp tissue morphology in order to determine the optimal parameters for treating dentin hypersensitivity. Methodology Dentin specimens prepared from 36 extracted human third molars were randomized into six groups according to the treatment method (n=6 each): control (A); Gluma desensitizer (B); and Er:YAG laser treatment at 0.5 W , 167 J/cm2 (50 mJ, 10 Hz) (C), 1 W , 334 J/cm2 (50 mJ, 20 Hz) (D), 2 W , 668 J/cm2 (100 mJ, 20 Hz) (E), and 4 W and 1336 J/cm2 (200 mJ, 20 Hz) (F). Treatment-induced morphological changes of the dentin surfaces were assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to find parameters showing optimal dentin tubule occluding efficacy. To further verify the safety of these parameters (0.5 W, 167 J/cm2), intrapulpal temperature changes were recorded during laser irradiation, and morphological alterations of the dental pulp tissue were observed with an upright microscope. Results Er:YAG laser irradiation at 0.5 W (167 J/cm2) were found to be superior in DT occlusion, with an exposure rate significantly lower than those in the other groups (P<0.05). Intrapulpal temperature changes induced by Er:YAG laser irradiation at 0.5 W (167 J/cm2) with (G) and without (H) water and air cooling were demonstrated to be below the threshold. Also, no significant morphological alterations of the pulp and odontoblasts were observed after irradiation. Conclusion Therefore, 0.5 W (167 J/cm2) is a suitable parameter for Er:YAG laser to occlude DTs, and it is safe to the pulp tissue.
  • Comparison of tooth movement and biological response resulting from different force magnitudes combined with osteoperforation in rabbits Original Article

    HUANG, Cheng-Yi; LU, Hai-Ping; YU, Yu-Feng; DING, Xi; ZHANG, Zan-Zan; ZHANG, Jia-Nan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective To compare tooth movement rate and histological responses with three different force magnitude designs under osteoperforation in rabbit models. Methodology 48 rabbits were divided into three groups: Group A, Group B, and Group C, with traction force of 50 g, 100 g, 150 g, respectively. Osteoperforation was performed at the mesial of the right mandibular first premolar, the left side was not affected. One mini-screw was inserted into bones between two central incisors. Coil springs were fixed to the first premolars and the mini-screw. Tooth movement distance was calculated, and immunohistochemical staining of PCNA, OCN, VEGF, and TGF-β1 was analyzed. Results The tooth movement distance on the surgical side was larger than the control side in all groups (P<0.01). No significant intergroup difference was observed for the surgical side in tooth movement distance among the three groups (P>0.05). For the control side, tooth movement distance in Group A was significantly smaller than Groups B and C (P<0.001); no significant difference in tooth movement distance between Group B and Group C was observed (P>0.05). On the tension area of the moving premolar, labeling of PCNA, OCN, VEGF and TGF-β1 were confirmed in alveolar bone and periodontal ligament in all groups. PCNA, OCN, VEGF and TGF-β1 on the surgical side was larger than the control side in all groups (P<0.001). Conclusion Osteoperforation could accelerate orthodontic tooth movement rate in rabbits. Fast osteoperforation-assisted tooth movement in rabbits was achieve with light 50 g traction.
  • Effect of different low-level intensity laser therapy (LLLT) irradiation protocols on the osseointegration of implants placed in grafted areas Original Article

    OLIVEIRA, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de; PINOTTI, Felipe Eduardo; ARONI, Maurício Andres Tinajero; MARCANTONIO JR, Elcio; MARCANTONIO, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of different protocols of low-level intensity laser therapy (LLLT) irradiation on the osseointegration of implants placed in grafted areas. Methodology 84 rats were randomly allocated into six groups: DBB: defect filled with deproteinized bovine bone; HA/TCP: defect filled with biphasic ceramic of hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate ; DBB-LI: defect filled with DBB and treated with LLLT after implant placement; HA/TCP-LI: defect filled with HA/TCP and treated with LLLT after implant placement; DBB-LIB: defect filled with DBB and treated with LLLT after graft procedure and implant placement; and HA/TCP-LIB: defect filled HA/TCP and treated with LLLT after graft procedure and implant placement. The bone defects were made in the tibia and they were grafted. After 60 days, the implants were placed. The rats were subsequently subjected to euthanasia 15 and 45 days after implant placement. The pattern of osseointegration and bone repair in the grafted area was evaluated by biomechanical, microtomographic, and histometric analyses. Furthermore, the expression of bone biomarker proteins was assessed. Results The LLLT groups presented higher removal torque, mineralized tissue volume, and a greater degree of osseointegration, especially when LLLT was performed only after implant placement, and these findings were associated with higher expression of BMP2 and alkaline phosphatase. Conclusion LLLT performed on implants placed in grafted areas enhances the osseointegration process.
  • Dental and maxillomandibular incidental findings in panoramic radiography among individuals with mucopolysaccharidosis: a cross-sectional study Original Article

    CARNEIRO, Natália Cristina Ruy; ABREU, Lucas Guimarães; MILAGRES, Roselaine Moreira Coelho; AMARAL, Tania Mara Pimenta; FLORES-MIR, Carlos; PORDEUS, Isabela Almeida; BORGES-OLIVEIRA, Ana Cristina

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a group of rare and inherited metabolic disorders caused by the accumulation of macromolecule glycosaminoglycans inside lysosomes. Affected individuals may have dental and craniofacial tissue alterations, facilitating the development of several oral diseases. Objectives To assess, with panoramic radiographic images, the frequency of dental and maxillomandibular incidental findings among MPS individuals and compare them with non-MPS individuals. Methodology A cross-sectional study evaluating a sample of 14 MPS individuals and 28 non-MPS individuals aged from 5 to 26 years was carried out. They were matched for sex and age on a 2:1 proportion. Panoramic radiographs were assessed for the presence/absence of the following dental and maxillomandibular alterations: dental anomalies of number (hypodontia/dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth); anomalies of form (microdontia, macrodontia, conoid teeth, taurodontism, and root dilaceration); anomalies of position (impacted tooth, inverted tooth, tooth migration, partially bony teeth, complete bony teeth); periapical alterations (furcation lesion, circumscribed bone rarefaction); other alterations (radiolucent bone lesions, radiopaque bone lesions, radiopacity in the maxillary sinus, condylar hypoplasia). Differences between groups were tested by the Fisher’s exact test and chi-square test (p<0.05). Results For intrarater agreement, Kappa values were 0.76 to 0.85. The presence of supernumerary teeth (p=0.003); conoid teeth (p=0.009); taurodontism (p<0.001); impacted teeth (p<0.001); partial bony teeth (p=0.040); complete bony teeth (p=0.013); and root dilaceration (p=0.047) were statistically more frequent in MPS individuals compared to non-MPS individuals. Bone rarefaction/furcation lesions (p=0.032), condylar hypoplasia (p<0.001), radiolucent bone lesions (p=0.001), and dentigerous cysts (p=0.002) were also more frequent in MPS individuals. Conclusion The presence of specific oral manifestations is more common in MPS individuals than non-MPS individuals.
  • Root canal retreatment: a retrospective investigation using regression and data mining methods for the prediction of technical quality and periapical healing Original Article

    SIGNOR, Bruna; BLOMBERG, Luciano Costa; KOPPER, Patrícia Maria Poli; AUGUSTIN, Paulo Affonso Nonnenmacher; RAUBER, Marcos Vinicius; RODRIGUES, Guilherme Scopel; SCARPARO, Roberta Kochenborger

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objectives This study aimed to investigate patterns and risk factors related to the feasibility of achieving technical quality and periapical healing in root canal non-surgical retreatment, using regression and data mining methods. Methodology This retrospective observational study included 321 consecutive patients presenting for root canal retreatment. Patients were treated by graduate students, following standard protocols. Data on medical history, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up visits variables were collected from physical records and periapical radiographs and transferred to an electronic chart database. Basic statistics were tabulated, and univariate and multivariate analytical methods were used to identify risk factors for technical quality and periapical healing. Decision trees were generated to predict technical quality and periapical healing patterns using the J48 algorithm in the Weka software. Results Technical outcome was satisfactory in 65.20%, and we observed periapical healing in 80.50% of the cases. Several factors were related to technical quality, including severity of root curvature and altered root canal morphology (p<0.05). Follow-up periods had a mean of 4.05 years. Periapical lesion area, tooth type, and apical resorption proved to be significantly associated with retreatment failure (p<0.05). Data mining analysis suggested that apical root resorption might prevent satisfactory technical outcomes even in teeth with straight root canals. Also, large periapical lesions and poor root filling quality in primary endodontic treatment might be related to healing failure. Conclusion Frequent patterns and factors affecting technical outcomes of endodontic retreatment included root canal morphological features and its alterations resulting from primary endodontic treatment. Healing outcomes were mainly associated with the extent of apical periodontitis pathological damages in dental and periapical tissues. To determine treatment predictability, we suggest patterns including clinical and radiographic features of apical periodontitis and technical quality of primary endodontic treatment.
  • The effect of reduced glutathione on the toxicity of silver diamine fluoride in rat pulpal cells Original Article

    KIM, Seunggun; NASSAR, Mohannad; TAMURA, Yukihiko; HIRAISHI, Noriko; JAMLEH, Ahmed; NIKAIDO, Toru; TAGAMI, Junji

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Due to its ability to arrest untreated dental caries, silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has been advocated for indirect pulp capping procedures. However, the high concentrations of silver and fluoride in SDF raise concerns about its biocompatibility to pulpal tissues. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of SDF on the viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and morphology of pulpal-like cells (RPC-C2A) and to evaluate the influence of reduced glutathione (GSH) on SDF-induced cytotoxicity and deposit formation on dentin. Methodology The cytotoxicity of diluted 38% SDF solutions (10-4 and 10-5), with or without the addition of 5 mM or 50 mM GSH, was evaluated at 6 and 24 hours. Cell viability was detected using WST-8 and the effect on ALP activity was performed using an ALP assay kit. Cell morphology was observed using a phase-contrast microscope. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of GSH incorporation or conditioning on SDF-induced deposit formation on dentin discs. Cytotoxicity data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc tests (p<0.05). Results There were significant differences between the groups. The results demonstrated that all tested SDF dilutions caused a remarkable cytotoxic effect, while the addition of GSH prevented SDF-induced damage at 6-hour exposure time in the higher dilution of SDF. Dentin treated with plain SDF or GSH-incorporated SDF solution showed deposit formation with occluded dentinal tubules, unlike the other groups. Conclusion SDF severely disturbed the viability, mineralization-ability, and morphology of pulpal-like cells, while controlled concentrations of GSH had a short-term protective effect against SDF-induced damage. GSH showed an inhibitory effect on SDF-induced dentinal deposit formation. Further research is warranted to evaluate the effect of GSH on caries-arresting, anti-hypersensitivity, and antibacterial functions of SDF.
  • A novel acrylic resin palatal device contaminated with Candida albicans biofilm for denture stomatitis induction in Wistar rats Original Article

    MORAES, Gustavo Simão; ALBACH, Thaís; RAMOS, Isabella Esser; KOPACHESKI, Mariana Gomes; CACHOEIRA, Victoria Schlumberger; SUGIO, Carolina Yoshi Campos; Galvão ARRAIS, César Augusto; NEPPELENBROEK, Karin Hermana; URBAN, Vanessa Migliorini

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Denture stomatitis is the most frequent oral lesion in removable prosthesis wearers, with high recurrence rates and a complex treatment. Objective This study describes a protocol to obtain and to contaminate a palatal device with Candida albicans biofilm that could be used for an animal model of denture stomatitis. Methodology Acrylic resin devices (N=41) were obtained from impressions of the palates of Wistar rats with individual trays and polyether. The efficacy of microwave irradiation (MW), ultraviolet light (UV), or ultrasonic bath (US) was assessed by colony viability and spectrophotometric analyses (n=5) in order to select the most appropriate method for sterilizing the devices. Then, different devices (n=5) were contaminated with C. albicans and evaluated by CFU/mL determination, scanning electron microscopy, and laser confocal microscopy. Device stabilization was assessed with either autopolymerizing acrylic resins or a self-adhesive resin cement (n=2). The spectrophotometric data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey’s HSD post-hoc test (α=0.05). Results MW was the only method capable of sterilizing the devices, and the contamination protocol developed a mature and viable C. albicans biofilm (~1.2 x 106 CFU/mL). The self-adhesive resin cement was the best stabilization material. Conclusions This acrylic resin palatal device was designed to be similar to the clinical situation of contaminated prostheses, with easy manufacturing and handling, effective stabilization, and satisfactory contamination. Thus, the acrylic device can be a valuable tool in the development of denture stomatitis in rats.
  • Prevalence of hyposalivation and associated factors in survivors of head and neck cancer treated with radiotherapy Original Article

    Schulz, Riéli Elis; Bonzanini, Laura Izabel Lampert; Ortigara, Gabriela Barbieri; Soldera, Eloisa Barbieri; Danesi, Cristiane Cademartori; Antoniazzi, Raquel Pippi; Ferrazzo, Kívia Linhares

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Hyposalivation and sensation of dry mouth (xerostomia) are one of the most common adverse effects in the treatment of patients with head and neck cancer. Objective: This study evaluates the prevalence of late hyposalivation and associated factors in survivors of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx treated with radiotherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 88 patients who had concluded radiotherapy at least three months before the study, at a referral center for the treatment of head and neck cancer in the Southern region of Brazil. Hyposalivation was evaluated based on the stimulated salivary flow rate using the spitting method. Multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression was performed to determine the associations between hyposalivation and clinical and demographic variables. Results: Hyposalivation was found in 78.41% of the sample and the mean radiation dose was 63.01 Gy (±9.58). In the crude model of the multivariate analysis, hyposalivation was associated with higher doses of radiation (p=0.038), treatment with concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy (p=0.005), and time elapsed since the end of radiotherapy (p=0.025). In the adjusted model of the multivariate analysis, hyposalivation was only associated with dose and time elapsed. Patient who received higher doses of radiation had a 4.25-fold greater chance of presenting hyposalivation, whereas a longer time elapsed since the end of radiotherapy exerted a 75% protective effect against the occurrence of hyposalivation. Conclusion: Hyposalivation is a highly prevalence late-onset side effect of radiotherapy in patients treated for head and neck cancer, with a greater chance of occurrence among those who received higher doses of radiation and those who ended therapy less than 22 months before our study. Concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy does not seem to increase the chances of hyposalivation compared to radiotherapy alone.
  • Physicochemical properties and effect of bioceramic root canal filling for primary teeth on osteoblast biology Original Article

    OCHOA RODRÍGUEZ, Victor Manuel; TANOMARU-FILHO, Mario; RODRIGUES, Elisandra Márcia; BUGANÇA, Eduarda de Oliveira; GUERREIRO-TANOMARU, Juliane Maria; FARIA, Gisele

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Bio-C Pulpecto (Bio-CP) was recently developed as the first bioceramic root filling material for primary teeth. Objective To evaluate the physicochemical properties of radiopacity, setting time, pH, cytocompatibility and potential of Bio-CP to induce mineralisation, compared with (1) Calen thickened with zinc oxide (Calen-ZO), and (2) zinc oxide and eugenol (ZOE). Methodology Physicochemical properties were evaluated according to ISO 6876. Saos-2 (human osteoblast-like cell line) exposed to extracts of the materials were subjected to assays of methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium, neutral red, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralised nodule production. The results were analysed using one-way or two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s or Bonferroni’s post-tests (α=0.05). Results All the materials showed radiopacity higher than 3 mm Al. Bio-CP had lower pH than Calen-ZO, but higher pH than ZOE. Calen-ZO and Bio-CP did not set. The setting time for ZOE was 110 min. The cytocompatibility order was Calen-ZO > Bio-CP > ZOE (1:2, 1:4 dilutions) and Calen-ZO > Bio-CP = ZOE (1:12, 1:24 dilutions) and Calen-ZO = Bio-CP > ZOE (1:32 dilution). Bio-CP induced greater ALP activity at 7 days, and greater mineralised nodule production, compared to Calen-ZO (p<0.05). Conclusions Bio-CP showed adequate physicochemical properties, cytocompatibility and potential to induce mineralisation.
  • Physicochemical properties and biological effects of quaternary ammonium methacrylates in an experimental adhesive resin for bonding orthodontic brackets Original Article

    Assad-Loss, Tatiana Féres; Vignoli, Jamille Ferreira; Garcia, Isadora Martini; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Schneider, Luis Felipe J.; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Cavalcante, Larissa Maria Assad; Tostes, Monica de Almeida

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Fixed orthodontic appliances may lead to biofilm accumulation around them that may increase caries risk. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) on the physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial activity of adhesive resins for orthodontic purposes. Methodology: A base resin was prepared with a comonomer blend and photoinitiator/co-initiator system. Two different QAMs were added to the base adhesive: dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate at 5 wt.% (DMADDM) or dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) at 10 wt.%. The base adhesive, without QAMs, (GC) and the commercial Transbond™ XT Primer 3M (GT) were used as control. The resins were tested immediately and after six months of aging in the water regarding the antibacterial activity and shear bond strength (SBS). The antibacterial activity was tested against Streptococcus mutans via metabolic activity assay (MTT test). The groups were also tested for the degree of conversion (DC) and cytotoxicity against keratinocytes. Results: The resins containing QAM showed antibacterial activity compared to the commercial material by immediately reducing the metabolic activity by about 60%. However, the antibacterial activity decreased after aging (p<0.05). None of the groups presented any differences for SBS (p>0.05) and DC (p>0.05). The incorporation of DMADDM and DMAHDM significantly reduced the keratinocyte viability compared to the GT and GC groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Both adhesives with QAMs showed a significant reduction in bacterial metabolic activity, but this effect decreased after water aging. Lower cell viability was observed for the group with the longer alkyl chain-QAM, without significant differences for the bonding ability and degree of conversion. The addition of QAMs in adhesives may affect the keratinocytes viability, and the aging effects maybe decrease the bacterial activity of QAM-doped materials.
  • Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 promotes osteoclast formation and accelerates orthodontic tooth movement in rats Original Article

    Peng, Ju-Xiang; Guan, Xiao-Yan; Li, Gao-Hua; Zhong, Jian-Li; Song, Ju-Kun; Xiao, Lin-Lin; Jin, Su-Han; Liu, Jian-Guo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: IGF-1 may be an important factor in bone remodeling, but its mechanism of action on osteoclasts during orthodontic tooth movement is complex and unclear. Methodology: The closed-coil spring was placed between the left maxillary first molar and upper incisors with a force of 50 g to establish an orthodontic movement model. Eighty SD rats were randomized to receive phosphate buffer saline or 400 ng rhIGF-1 in the lateral buccal mucosa of the left maxillary first molar every two days. Tissue sections were stained for tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP), the number of TRAP-positive cells was estimated and tooth movement measured. Results: The rhIGF-1 group exhibited evidential bone resorption and lacuna appeared on the alveolar bone compared to the control group. Moreover, the number of osteoclasts in compression side of the periodontal ligament in the rhIGF-1 group peaked at day 4 (11.37±0.95 compared to 5.28±0.47 in the control group) after the orthodontic force was applied and was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.01). Furthermore, the distance of tooth movement in the rhIGF-1 group was significantly larger than that of the control group from day 4 to day 14 (p<0.01), suggesting that rhIGF-1 accelerated orthodontic tooth movement. Conclusion: Our study has showed that rhIGF-1 could stimulate the formation of osteoclasts in the periodontal ligament, and accelerate bone remodeling and orthodontic tooth movement.
  • The prevalence of novel periodontal pathogens and bacterial complexes in Stage II generalized periodontitis based on 16S rRNA next generation sequencing Original Article

    Abu Fanas, Salem; Brigi, Carel; Varma, Sudhir Rama; Desai, Vijay; Senok, Abiola; D'souza, Jovita

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To define the subgingival microbial profile associated with Stage II generalized periodontitis using next-generation sequencing and to determine the relative abundance of novel periodontal pathogens and bacterial complexes. Methodology: Subgingival biofilm samples were collected from 80 subjects diagnosed with Stage II generalized periodontitis. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and 16S rRNA-based bacterial profiling via next-generation sequencing was carried out. The bacterial composition and diversity of microbial communities based on the age and sex of the patients were analyzed. The bacterial species were organized into groups: bacterial complexes (red, orange, purple, yellow, and green), novel periodontal pathogens, periodontal health-related species, and unclassified periodontal species. The results were analyzed and statistically evaluated. Results: The highest number of bacteria belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. In terms of relative abundance, the orange complex represented 18.99%, novel bacterial species (Fretibacterium spp. and Saccharibacteria spp.) comprised 17.34%, periodontal health-related species accounted for 16.75% and unclassified periodontal species represented (Leptotrichia spp. and Selenomonas spp.) 15.61%. Novel periodontal pathogens had outweighed the periodontal disease-related red complex (5.3%). The one-sample z-test performed was statistically significant at p<0.05. The Beta diversity based on the unweighted UniFrac distance at the species level demonstrated a total variance of 15.77% based on age and 39.19% on sex, which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The bacterial species corresponding to the disease-related orange complex and novel periodontal pathogens are predominant in Stage II generalized periodontitis.
  • Effects of acute mental stress on conditioned pain modulation in temporomandibular disorders patients and healthy individuals Original Article

    FERREIRA, Dyna Mara Araújo Oliveira; COSTA, Yuri Martins; BONJARDIM, Leonardo Rigoldi; CONTI, Paulo César Rodrigues

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Stress is a contributing factor to painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Nevertheless, the underpinnings of this relationship are not fully understood. Objective To investigate the effects of acute mental stress on conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in TMD patients compared with healthy individuals. Methodology Twenty women with chronic myofascial TMD diagnosed according to the RDC/TMD and 20 age-matched healthy women had the CPM assessed before and after a stressful task using the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) in a single session. Subjective stress response was assessed with the aid of visual analog scale (VAS). Pressure pain threshold (PPT) on masseter muscle was the test stimulus (TS) and immersion of the participant’s hand on hot water was the conditioning stimulus (CS) - CPM-sequential paradigm. Results Healthy individuals reported PASAT are more stressful when compared with TMD patients and the stress task did not affect the CPM in neither group. Nonetheless, a negative correlation was observed between change in CPM and change in TS from baseline to post-stress session, which indicates that the greater the increase in PPT after the stress task, the greater was the decrease in CPM magnitude. The correlation was strong for healthy controls (r=- 0.72, p<0.001) and moderate for TMD patients (r=- 0.44, p=0.047). Conclusions The correlation between the change in CPM and the TS change following the stress task may possibly indicate an overlapping pathway between stress-induced analgesia/hyperalgesia and descending pain inhibition.
  • Botulinum toxin type A and acupuncture for masticatory myofascial pain: a randomized clinical trial Original Article

    DE LA TORRE CANALES, Giancarlo; CÂMARA-SOUZA, Mariana Barbosa; POLUHA, Rodrigo Lorenzi; GRILLO, Cassia Maria; CONTI, Paulo César Rodrigues; SOUSA, Maria da Luz Rosário de; RODRIGUES GARCIA, Renata Cunha Matheus; RIZZATTI-BARBOSA, Célia Marisa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract BoNT-A has been widely used for TMD therapy. However, the potential benefits compared to dry needling techniques are not clear. Objective this study aimed to compare the immediate effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections and Acupuncture in myofascial temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients. Methodology 54 women were divided into three groups (n=18). AC patients received four sessions of traditional acupuncture, being one session/week during 20-min. BoNT-A patients were bilaterally injected with 30U and 10U in masseter and anterior temporal muscles, respectively. Moreover, a control group received saline solution (SS) in the same muscles. Self-perceived pain was assessed by visual analog scale, while pressure pain threshold (PPT) was verified by a digital algometer. Electromyographic evaluations (EMG) of anterior temporal and masseter muscles were also measured. All variables were assessed before and 1-month after therapies. The mixed-design two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc tests were used for analysis, considering a=0.05. Results Self-perceived pain decreased in all groups after one month of therapy (P<.001). BoNT-A was not better than AC in pain reduction (P=0.05), but both therapies were more effective in reducing pain than SS (P<0.05). BoNT-A was the only treatment able to improve PPT values (P<0.05); however, a severe decrease of EMG activity was also found in this group, which is considered an adverse effect. Conclusion after one month of follow-up, all therapies reduced the self-perceived pain in myofascial TMD patients, but only BoNT-A enhanced PPT yet decreased EMG.
  • Is there an association between dental caries, fluorosis, and molar-incisor hypomineralization? Original Article

    Duarte, Marília Bizinoto Silva; Carvalho, Vanessa Reinaldo; Hilgert, Leandro Augusto; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Takeshita, Eliana Mitsue

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and molar-incisor hypomineralization, and their associations in a group of Brazilian schoolchildren. Methodology: Adolescents (n=411) were evaluated by two calibrated examiners for dental caries (DC), dental fluorosis (DF), and molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) using the CAST (Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment) instrument, Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF) index, and MIH Severity Scoring System (MIH-SSS), respectively. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The sample comprised 42.75% boys and 57.25% girls. The prevalence of DC in permanent dentition was 94.75%, of which 29% were represented by dentin lesions. For DF, a prevalence of 40.75% was observed, with 69.32% mild, 12.88% moderate, and 17.79% severe. A positive association between the source of water and fluorosis was detected (p=0.01). The prevalence of MIH was 18%. Thirty adolescents (41.7%) presented with severe MIH. No association was found between DF or MIH and dentin DC or between MIH and DF at the individual level. However, a significant negative relationship was detected between DF and dentin carious lesions ( p <0.005) and DF and MIH ( p <0.00001) at the tooth level, whereas a positive association was observed between MIH and dentin carious lesions ( p <0.00001). A positive association was also observed between the severity of both conditions ( p <0.00001). Mild DF was the most prevalent problem observed. Cases of teeth with mild MIH were the most predominant in MIH-affected teeth. Conclusions: No association was observed among the dentin carious lesions, MIH, and DF at the participant level. However, a positive association between MIH and dentin carious lesions was found at the tooth level, whereas MIH, DF, and DF and dentin carious lesions showed a negative relationship.
  • Effect of combining photoinitiators on cure efficiency of dental resin-based composites Original Article

    Lara, Lucas; Rocha, Mateus Garcia; Menezes, Livia Rodrigues de; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Oliveira, Dayane

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Camphorquinone is the most conventionally used photoinitiator in Dentistry. Although different alternative photoinitiators have been proposed, no photoinitiator was capable of completely substituting camphorquinone. The combination of photoinitiators has been considered the best alternative. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of combining Norrish type I and II photoinitiators on the cure efficiency of dental resin-based composites. Methodology: Experimental composites were produced containing different photoinitiator systems: Norrish type I-only, mono-alkyl phosphine oxide (TPO); Norrish type II-only, camphorquinone (CQ); or its combination, CQ and TPO, in a 1: 1 molar ratio. UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry was performed to assess the consumption of each photoinitiator after curing (n=3). A multi-wave LED (Bluephase® G2, Ivoclar Vivadent) was pre-characterized and used with a radiant exposure of 24 J/cm2. The degree of conversion was evaluated by Raman spectrometry, and the elution of the monomers by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis (n=3). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05; β=0.2). Results: The combination of CQ and TPO increased the consumption of the photoinitiator system compared to CQ-only (p=0.001), but presented similar consumption compared to TPO-only (p=0.52). There was no significant difference in the degree of conversion between the composites regardless of the photoinitiator system (p=0.81). However, the elution of the monomers was reduced when both photoinitiators were combined. TPO-based material presented the highest elution of monomers. Conclusions: The combination of the photoinitiator systems seems to be beneficial for the cure efficiency of dental resin-based composites.
  • Pain and removal force associated with bracket debonding: a clinical study Original Article

    Nakada, Narumi; Uchida, Yasuki; Inaba, Mizuki; Kaetsu, Ryo; Shimizu, Natsuo; Namura, Yasuhiro; Motoyoshi, Mitsuru

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: Pain is a problem during bracket removal, and more comfortable treatment is needed. This study examined the association of pain with the removal force required for ceramic brackets, compared with metal and plastic brackets, to determine which removal method resulted in less pain and discomfort. Methodology: 81 subjects (mean age, 25.1 years; 25 males and 56 females) were enrolled, from whom 1,235 brackets (407 ceramic, 432 plastic, and 396 metal) were removed. Measured teeth were distinguished at six segments. Pain was measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS) during the removal of each bracket. An additional grip was placed on the grips of debonding pliers with right-angled beaks; a mini loading cell sensor pinched by the grips was used to measure removal force during debonding. VAS and force values were statistically analyzed. The Kruskal–Wallis test followed by the Mann–Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction were performed for multiple comparisons; multiple regression analysis was also performed. Results: Forces in the upper and lower anterior segments were significantly smaller (p<0.05) than those in the other segments. Pain tended to be greater in the upper and lower anterior segments than in the posterior segments. In all segments, the removal force was greater for metal brackets than for plastic or ceramic brackets. Ceramic brackets caused significantly greater pain than plastic brackets for the upper and lower anterior segments. Debonding force was involved in the brackets, following adjustments for pain, upper left segment, age, and sex. Conclusions Pain and discomfort are likely to occur during bracket debonding.
  • Association of sleep quality and psychological aspects with reports of bruxism and TMD in Brazilian dentists during the COVID-19 pandemic Original Article

    Peixoto, Karen Oliveira; Resende, Camila Maria Bastos Machado de; Almeida, Erika Oliveira de; Almeida-Leite, Camila Megale; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues; Barbosa, Gustavo Augusto Seabra; Barbosa, Juliana Stuginski

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Dentists are exposed to contamination by SARS-CoV-2 due to dental interventions, leading to a state of alert and potential risk of negative impact in mental health and sleep quality, associated with Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD) and bruxism. Objective: to evaluate the psychosocial status, sleep quality, symptoms of TMD, and bruxism in Brazilian dentists (DSs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: The sample (n=641 DSs) was divided into three groups (quarantined DSs; DSs in outpatient care; and frontline professionals), which answered an electronic form containing the TMD Pain Screening Questionnaire (Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders – DC/TMD), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and the sleep and awake bruxism questionnaire. ANOVA test and Mann Whitney post-test were used, with Bonferroni adjustment (p<0.016) and a 95% confidence level. Results: Probable TMD was found in 24.3% (n=156) of the participants, while possible sleep and awake bruxism were diagnosed in 58% (n=372) and 53.8% (n=345) of them, respectively. Among all variables evaluated, only symptoms of depression were significantly greater in the quarantined DSs group when compared to those who were working at the clinical care (p=0.002). Working DSs were significantly less likely (OR=0.630, p=0.001) to have depressive symptoms. Those who were not worried or less worried about the pandemic were less likely to experience stress (OR=0.360), anxiety (OR=0.255), and poor sleep quality (OR=0.256). Sleep had a strong positive and moderate correlation with psychological factors on frontline workers and DSs in outpatient care, respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest confinement may have a more negative impact on the life of DSs than the act of being actively working. The concern about Covid-19 and poor sleep quality was significantly prevalent and may negatively affect the quality of life of DSs. Thus, further research on the topic is needed.
  • The effect of solution and gel forms of sodium hypochlorite on postoperative pain: a randomized clinical trial Original Article

    OZLEK, Esin; GUNDUZ, Hüseyin; KADI, Gizem; TAŞAN, Ahmet; AKKOL, Elif

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of using gel and solution forms of NaOCI during the chemomechanical preparation of the root canals on postoperative pain at different time intervals. Methodology 114 patients with mandibular molar teeth and symptomatic irreversible pulpitis were included in the study. All patients were divided into two groups based on the irrigant used during root canal preparation (n=57): Group 1, 5.25% NaOCI, Group 2, 5.25% NaOCI gel. All groups were filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus root canal sealer using single-cone technique. VAS scale (1-10) was used for postoperative pain assessment. After endodontic treatment, all patients were asked to record their postoperative pain levels at the 6th, 24th, 48th, 72nd hours, and 1 week later. The data were analyzed using Chi-Squared, Independent Samples T, Cochran Q and Friedman tests. Results Statistically significant difference was not found between the distributions of pain levels at different times according to the groups (p>0.050). A statistically significant difference was observed between the distributions of pain levels measured at different times in the solution group (p<0.001). A statistically significant difference was found between the distributions of pain levels measured at different times in the gel group (p<0.001). In both groups, highest postoperative pain levels occurred in the first 6 hours. Pain levels of the gel group as 38,5% mild, 17.3% moderate, 5.8% severe and pain levels of the solution group were obtained as 46.2% mild, 26.9% moderate, 9.6% severe at the 6th hour. Conclusions The use of the gel form of NaOCI during the chemomechanical preparation of the root canals showed similar postoperative pain when compared to the solution form.
  • Association between malocclusion, tongue position and speech distortion in mixed-dentition schoolchildren: an epidemiological study Original Article

    ASSAF, Débora do Canto; KNORST, Jessica Klöckner; BUSANELLO-STELLA, Angela Ruviaro; FERRAZZO, Vilmar Antônio; BERWIG, Luana Cristina; ARDENGHI, Thiago Machado; MARQUEZAN, Mariana

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Malocclusions are highly prevalent in childhood and adolescence, being considered a public health problem worldwide, in addition to be considered an important predictor in the tongue position and speech disorders. Objective Evaluate the association of malocclusions with tongue position and speech distortion in mixed-dentition schoolchildren from the south of Brazil. Methodology This cross-sectional study was performed using a database of an epidemiological survey realized in the southern of Brazil, in 2015, for evaluating the dental and myofunctional condition of the mixed-dentition from 7-13 years’ schoolchildren. The outcome variables were tongue position and speech distortion, evaluated by a trained and calibrated examiner. Characteristics regarding sociodemographic and oral health measures (Angle’s classification of the malocclusion, overjet, overbite, posterior crossbite and respiratory mode) were also assessed. Poisson regression models with adjusted robust variance were used to evaluate the association among predictors variables in the outcomes. Results are presented as prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results A total of 547 children were evaluated. Schoolchildren who presented anterior open bite (PR 2.36 95%CI 1.59-3.49) and having oral/oral-nasal breathing (RP 2.51 95%CI 1.70-3.71) are more likely to have altered position of the tongue. Both deep bite and being male represent protection factors for the abnormal tongue position. Regarding speech distortion, deep overbite presents a protective relationship to speech distortion (PR 0.41; 95%CI 0.24-0.71), whereas schoolchildren with posterior crossbite were more likely to present this problem (PR 1.77; 95%CI 1.09-2.88). Conclusion Anterior open bite and posterior crossbite were the malocclusions related to speech distortion and/or altered tongue position. Oral/oral-nasal breathing was also related to myofunctional changes. Deep bite malocclusion was a protective factor for both speech problems and altered tongue position when compared to a normal overbite.
  • Evaluation of salivary protein patterns among a rural population exposed and non-exposed to arsenic-contaminated drinking water in areas of Tucumán (Argentina): a pilot study Original Article

    GUBER, Rosa Silvina; GONZALEZ MAC DONALD, Mauricio; ALEMAN, Mariano Nicolas; LUCIARDI, Maria Constanza; MENTZ, Paula; WIERNA, Alicia; ANSONNAUD, Carlos; GARCIA, Veronica; ANSONNAUD, Ana María; SORIA, Analía

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Arsenic contamination in the environment and groundwater is a major global public health problem. Several researchers suggest that the toxicity of arsenic could be related to oral cancer development, usually resulting from potentially malignant lesions. During pathological processes, salivary proteins suffer modifications, which could lead to the discovery of new biomarkers. Objective To analyze the protein profile in human saliva samples from a rural population exposed to high levels of arsenic in drinking water and its association with potentially malignant lesions. Methodology This observational, analytic and cross-sectional design included 121 patients from the state of Graneros (Tucumán, Argentina). Arsenic concentration in drinking water was determined and, according to the values obtained, individuals were divided into 2 groups: exposed group and non-exposed group. Saliva samples were obtained, and total protein concentration was measured by Bradford method. Finally, Laemmli SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was conducted to obtain the protein profile. Results Total protein concentration in saliva was lower in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group. Average areas of 20 and 42 KDa bands were significantly lower in exposed group than non-exposed group. Conclusion Chronic intake of high arsenic concentrations in drinking water produces changes in the salivary protein profile, which is associated with the presence of potentially malignant lesions.
  • Complete denture hygiene solutions: antibiofilm activity and effects on physical and mechanical properties of acrylic resin Original Article

    ROCHA, Millena Mangueira; CARVALHO, Adrianne Moura; COIMBRA, Flávia Cristina Targa; ARRUDA, Carolina Noronha Ferraz de; OLIVEIRA, Viviane de Cássia; MACEDO, Ana Paula; SILVA-LOVATO, Cláudia Helena; PAGNANO, Valéria Oliveira; PARANHOS, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Appropriated denture hygiene is a predictive factor for longevity of rehabilitation treatment and maintenance of the oral mucosal health. Although, disinfectant solutions are commonly used as denture cleansers, the impact of these solutions on acrylic resin-based dentures remain unclear. Objective To evaluate, in vitro, the antibiofilm activity of complete denture hygiene solutions and their effects on physical and mechanical properties of acrylic resin. Methodology For antibiofilm activity measurement acrylic resin specimens were contaminated with Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Streptococcus mutans. After biofilm growth, the specimens were assigned to the hygiene solutions: Distilled water (Control); 0.2% Sodium hypochlorite (SH); Efferdent Power Clean Crystals (EPC) and 6.25% Ricinus communis (RC). The viability of microorganisms was evaluated by agar plate counts. In parallel, physical, and mechanical properties of the acrylic resin were evaluated after simulating a 5-year period of daily immersion in the previously mentioned solutions. The changes in surface roughness, color, microhardness, flexural strength, impact strength, sorption and solubility were evaluated. Data were compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test or Kruskal-Wallis followed by the Dunn test depending on the distribution (α=0.05). Results Regarding antibiofilm action, SH eliminated all microorganisms while EPC and RC exhibited moderate action against S. mutans (p=0.001) and C. glabrata (p<0.001), respectively. Relative to effects on the physical and mechanical properties of the acrylic resin, RC led to higher values of color change (p=0.030), hardness (p<0.001), surface roughness (p=0.006) and flexural strength (p<0.001). Moreover, RC induced the highest values of changes in solubility (p<0.001). EPC promoted greater changes in surface morphology, whereas immersion in SH retained the initial appearance of the acrylic resin surface. All hygiene solutions reduced the impact strength (p<0.05). Conclusion SH presented the most effective antibiofilm activity. In addition, changes on properties were observed after immersion in RC, which were considered within acceptable limits.
  • Action of disinfectant solutions on adaptive capacity and virulence factors of the Candida spp. biofilms formed on acrylic resin Original Article

    BADARÓ, Mauricio Malheiros; BUENO, Frank Lucarini; MAKRAKIS, Lais Ranieri; ARAÚJO, Camila Borba; OLIVEIRA, Viviane de Cássia; MACEDO, Ana Paula; PARANHOS, Helena de Freitas Oliveira; WATANABE, Evandro; SILVA-LOVATO, Cláudia Helena

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Understanding the behavior of Candida spp. when exposed to denture disinfectants is essential to optimize their effectiveness. Changes in the virulence factors may cause increased resistance of Candida spp. to disinfectant agents. Objective To evaluate the microbial load, cellular metabolism, hydrolytic enzyme production, hyphae formation, live cell and biofilm quantification of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata after exposure to disinfectant solutions. Methodology Simple biofilms were grown on heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens, and divided into groups according to solutions/strains: distilled water (control); 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl 0.25% ); 10% Ricinus communis (RC 10%); and 0.5% Chloramine T (CT 0.5%). The virulence factors were evaluated using the CFU count (microbial load), XTT method (cell metabolism), epifluorescence microscopy (biofilm removal and live or dead cells adhered), protease and phospholipase production and hyphae formation. Data were analyzed (α=0.05) by one-way ANOVA/ Tukey post hoc test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxon test. Results NaOCl 0.25% was the most effective solution. CT 0.5% reduced the number of CFUs more than RC 10% and the control. RC 10% was effective only against C. glabrata. RC 10% and CT 0.5% decreased the cellular metabolism of C. albicans and C. glabrata. Enzyme production was not affected. Hyphal growth in the RC 10% and CT 0.5% groups was similar to that of the control. CT 0.5% was better than RC 10% against C. albicans and C. tropicalis when measuring the total amount of biofilm and number of living cells. For C. glabrata, CT 0.5% was equal to RC 10% in the maintenance of living cells; RC 10% was superior for biofilm removal. Conclusions The CT 0.5% achieved better results than those of Ricinus communis at 10%, favoring the creation of specific products for dentures. Adjustments in the formulations of RC 10% are necessary due to efficacy against C. glabrata. The NaOCl 0.25% is the most effective and could be suitable for use as a positive control.
  • Bioactivity effects of extracellular matrix proteins on apical papilla cells Original Article

    LEITE, Maria Luísa; SOARES, Diana Gabriela; ANOVAZZI, Giovana; Filipe Koon Wu, MON; BORDINI, Ester Alves Ferreira; HEBLING, Josimeri; DE SOUZA COSTA, Carlos Alberto

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Potent signaling agents stimulate and guide pulp tissue regeneration, especially in endodontic treatment of teeth with incomplete root formation. Objective This study evaluated the bioactive properties of low concentrations of extracellular matrix proteins on human apical papilla cells (hAPCs). Methodology Different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 µg/mL) of fibronectin (FN), laminin (LM), and type I collagen (COL) were applied to the bottom of non-treated wells of sterilized 96-well plates. Non-treated and pre-treated wells were used as negative (NC) and positive (PC) controls. After seeding the hAPCs (5×103 cells/well) on the different substrates, we assessed the following parameters: adhesion, proliferation, spreading, total collagen/type I collagen synthesis and gene expression (ITGA5, ITGAV, COL1A1, COL3A1) (ANOVA/Tukey; α=0.05). Results We observed greater attachment potential for cells on the FN substrate, with the effect depending on concentration. Concentrations of 5 and 10 µg/mL of FN yielded the highest cell proliferation, spreading and collagen synthesis values with 10 µg/mL concentration increasing the ITGA5, ITGAV, and COL1A1 expression compared with PC. LM (5 and 10 µg/mL) showed higher bioactivity values than NC, but those were lower than PC, and COL showed no bioactivity at all. Conclusion We conclude that FN at 10 µg/mL concentration exerted the most intense bioactive effects on hAPCs.
  • Multi-state outcome analysis of treatment interventions after failure of non-surgical root canal treatment: a 13-year retrospective study Original Article

    BHAGAVATULA, Pradeep; MOORE, Alex; REIN, Lisa; SZABO, Aniko; IBRAHIM, Mohamed

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective To examine the factors affecting the transitions through treatment interventions after failure of non-surgical root canal treatment (NS-RCT). Methodology Insurance enrollment and claim information for enrollees of Delta Dental of Wisconsin (DDWI), USA were analyzed for 438,487 initial NS-RCT procedures to determine the effect of initial provider type and other covariates on additional treatments (no additional treatment, nonsurgical retreatment, surgical retreatment and extraction). A multi-state model was created using the “mstate” R package. Transitions between the four states identified by Code on Dental Procedures and Nomenclature were analyzed. Cox proportional Hazards regression stratified by transition type was used to estimate the effect of provider type on the risk of each transition, adjusting for covariates. Results The overall survival rates for all teeth that were treated by NS-RCT was 82.8% [95% CI 82.57%, 83.11%] at 10 years. Approximately, 7% of cases changed from the first state of initial NS-RCT during the 13-year study period with ultimately 0.9%, 0.4% and 5% of cases receiving non-surgical retreatment, surgical retreatment or extraction, respectively. Teeth are more likely to be retreated non-surgically than surgically, and to be extracted than retreated. In general, the probability of a tooth having non-surgical retreatment was higher if the initial provider was not an endodontist (Hazard Ratio (HR)=3.2). Molars were more likely to be non-surgically retreated (HR=2.0) or extracted (HR=2.8) when compared to anterior teeth. The probability of non-surgical retreatment (HR=0.93) or extraction (HR=0.50) was lower when a crown was placed within 90 days after NS-RCT. Conclusion Most teeth remained in the same state after treatment with no additional treatment transitions. When a transition occurred, it was more likely to be an extraction. Type of provider, age, location of the tooth, gender, and time to placement of final restoration significantly influence treatment transitions.
  • Influence of caries activity and number of saliva donors: mineral and microbiological responses in a microcosm biofilm model Original Article

    VIANA, Chayane Souza; MASKE, Tamires Timm; SIGNORI, Cácia; VAN DE SANDE, Françoise Hélène; OLIVEIRA, Elenara Ferreira de; CENCI, Maximiliano Sérgio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective this study evaluated the mineral and microbiological response of biofilms originating from different types of saliva inoculum with distinct levels of caries activity. Methodology the biofilms grown over enamel specimens originated from saliva collected from a single donor or five donors with two distinct levels of caries activity (caries-active and caries-free) or from pooling saliva from ten donors (five caries-active and five caries-free). The percentage surface hardness change (%SHC) and microbiological counts served as outcome variables. Results the caries activity of donors did not affect the %SHC values. Inoculum from five donors compared to a single donor showed higher %SHC values (p=0.019). Higher lactobacilli counts were observed when saliva from caries-active donors was used as the inoculum (p=0.017). Pooled saliva from both caries activity levels showed higher mutans streptococci counts (p<0.017). Conclusion Overall, pooled saliva increased the mineral response of the derived biofilms, but all the inoculum conditions formed cariogenic biofilms and caries lesions independently of caries activity.
  • Effect of rhBMP-2 applied with a 3D-printed titanium implant on new bone formation in rabbit calvarium Original Article

    RYU, Jaeyoung; KANG, Hyo-Sun; KANG, Byung-Hun; JUNG, Seunggon; KOOK, Min-Suk; OH, Hee-Kyun; JUNG, Ji-Yeon; PARK, Hong-Ju

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective This study sought to compare the biocompatibility of a three-dimensional (3D)-printed titanium implant with a conventional machined titanium product, as well as the effect of such implant applied with recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein Type 2 (rhBMP-2) for guided bone regeneration. Methodology Disk-shaped titanium specimens fabricated either by the conventional machining technique or by the 3D-printing technique were compared by MC3T3-E1 cells cytotoxicity assay. New bone formation was evaluated using a rapid prototype titanium cap applied to the calvaria of 10 rabbits, which were divided into two groups: one including an atelopeptide collagen plug on one side of the cap (group I) and the other including a plug with rhBMP-2 on the other side (group II). At six and 12 weeks after euthanasia, rabbits calvaria underwent morphometric analysis through radiological and histological examination. Results Through the cytotoxicity assay, we identified a significantly higher number of MC3T3-E1 cells in the 3D-printed specimen when compared to the machined specimen after 48 hours of culture. Moreover, morphometric analysis indicated significantly greater bone formation at week 12 on the side where rhBMP-2 was applied when evaluating the upper portion immediately below the cap. Conclusion The results suggest that 3D-printed titanium implant applied with rhBMP-2 enables new bone formation.
  • Effects of therapeutic and aerobic exercise programs in temporomandibular disorder-associated headaches Original Article

    MOLEIRINHO-ALVES, Paula Manuela Mendes; ALMEIDA, André Mariz Coelho Santos de; CEBOLA, Pedro Miguel Teixeira Carvas; OLIVEIRA, Raul Alexandre Nunes da Silva; PEZARAT-CORREIA, Pedro Luís Camecelha de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective To assess the effects of three 8-week exercise programs on the frequency, intensity, and impact of headaches in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Methodology Thirty-six patients diagnosed with headache attributed to TMD participated in the study and were divided into three groups of 12 patients: a therapeutic exercise program (G1, mean age: 26.3±5.6 years), a therapeutic and aerobic exercise program (G2, mean age: 26.0±4.6 years), and an aerobic exercise program (G3, 25.8±2.94 years). Headache frequency and intensity were evaluated using a headache diary, and the adverse headache impact was evaluated using the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6). The intensity was reported using the numerical pain rating scale. These parameters were evaluated twice at baseline (A01/A02), at the end of the 8-week intervention period (A1), and 8–12 weeks after the end of the intervention (A2). Results At A1, none of the G2 patients reported having headaches, in G1, only two patients reported headaches, and in G3, ten patients reported headache. The headache intensity scores (0.3 [95% CI: -0.401, 1.068]), (0.0 [95% CI: -0.734, 0.734]) and HIT-6 (50.7 [95% CI: 38.008, 63.459]), (49.5 [95% CI: 36.808, 62.259]), significantly decreased in G1 and G2 at A1. At A2 headache intensity scores (0.5 [95% CI: -0.256, 1.256]), (0.0 [95% CI: -0.756, 0.756]) and HIT-6 (55.1 [95% CI: 42.998, 67.268]), (51.7 [95% CI: 39.532, 63.802]) in G1 and G2 haven’t change significantly. The effects obtained immediately after the completion of the intervention programs were maintained until the final follow-up in all groups. Conclusion The programs conducted by G1 (therapeutic exercises) and G2 (therapeutic and aerobic exercise) had significant results at A1 and A2.
  • Temporo-spatial distribution of stem cell markers CD146 and p75NTR during odontogenesis in mice Original Article

    QUEIROZ, Aline; PELISSARI, Cibele; ARANA-CHAVEZ, Victor Elias; TRIERVEILER, Marília

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Mesenchymal and epithelial stem cells were identified in dental tissues; however, knowledge about the odontogenic stem cells is limited, and there are some questions regarding their temporo-spatial dynamics in tooth development. Objective Our study aimed to analyze the expression of the stem cell markers CD146 and p75NTR during the different stages of odontogenesis. Methodology The groups consisted of 13.5, 15.5, 17.5 days old embryos, and 14 days postnatal BALB/c mice. The expression of CD146 and p75NTR was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results Our results showed that positive cells for both markers were present in all stages of tooth development, and the number of positive cells increased with the progression of this process. Cells of epithelial and ectomesenchymal origin were positive for CD146, and the expression of p75NTR was mainly detected in the dental papilla and dental follicle. In the postnatal group, dental pulp cells were positive for CD146, and the reduced enamel epithelium and the oral mucosa epithelium showed immunostaining for p75NTR. Conclusions These results suggest that the staining pattern of CD146 and p75NTR underwent temporal and spatial changes during odontogenesis and both markers were expressed by epithelial and mesenchymal cell types, which is relevant due to the significance of the epithelial-ectomesenchymal interactions in tooth development.
  • The effect of ellagic acid on the repair process of periodontal defects related to experimental periodontitis in rats Original Article

    ÖNGÖZ DEDE, Figen; BOZKURT DOĞAN, Şeyma; BALLI, Umut; DURMUŞLAR, Mustafa Cenk; AVCI, Bahattin; GÜLLE, Kanat; AKPOLAT FERAH, Meryem

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective This study aims to evaluate the effect of ellagic acid (EA) by measuring the levels of alveolar bone resorption and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the periodontal tissues and serum on the periodontal repair process related to experimental periodontitis in rats. Methodology Forty Wistar rats were divided into four study groups as follows: Group 1=healthy control (n=10); Group 2=EA control (15 mg/kg)(n=10); Group 3=periodontitis (n=10); Group 4=periodontitis+EA (15 mg/kg) (n=10). The periodontitis model was established by ligating bilateral mandibular first molars for 14 days. Then, rats were given normal saline or EA for another 14 days by gavage administration. Serum and gingiva myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine(8-OHdG), and glutathione (GSH) levels were analyzed by ELISA. İmmunohistochemical analysis was used to detect Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) immunoreactivities in the periodontal tissues. Alveolar bone loss (ABL) and attachment loss (AL) was evaluated by histomorphometry analysis. Results ABL and AL were statistically higher in group 3 than in groups 1, 2 and 4 and in group 4 than in groups 1 and 2 (p<0.05). MPO activities in gingival tissue and serum were significantly increased in group 3 compared to groups 1 and 2 (p<0.05). Significantly higher serum GSH levels, lower gingiva, and serum 8-OHdG levels, and MPO activity were observed in group 4 compared to group 3 (p<0.05). Rats with periodontitis (group 3) expressed significantly higher immunoreactivities of IL-6 and TNF-α and lower IL-10 immunoreactivity compared to those other groups (p<0.05). IL-6 and TNF-α immunoreactivities significantly decreased and IL-10 immunoreactivity increased in group 4 after the use of EA compared to group 3 (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings showed that EA provides significant improvements on gingival oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and alveolar bone resorption in the repair process associated with experimental periodontitis. Therefore, EA may have a therapeutic potential on periodontitis.
  • Odontogenic gene expression profile of human dental pulp-derived cells under high glucose influence: a microarray analysis Original Article

    HORSOPHONPHONG, Sivaporn; SRITANAUDOMCHAI, Hathaitip; NAKORNCHAI, Siriruk; KITKUMTHORN, Nakarin; SURARIT, Rudee

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Hyperglycemia, a major characteristic of diabetes, is considered to play a vital role in diabetic complications. High glucose levels have been found to inhibit the mineralization of dental pulp cells. However, gene expression associated with this phenomenon has not yet been reported. This is important for future dental therapeutic application. Objective Our study aimed to investigate the effect of high glucose levels on mineralization of human dental pulp-derived cells (hDPCs) and identify the genes involved. Methodology hDPCs were cultured in mineralizing medium containing 25 or 5.5 mM D-glucose. On days 1 and 14, RNA was extracted and expression microarray performed. Then, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected for further validation using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method. Cells were fixed and stained with alizarin red on day 21 to detect the formation of mineralized nodules, which was further quantified by acetic acid extraction. Results Comparisons between high-glucose and low-glucose conditions showed that on day 1, there were 72 significantly up-regulated and 75 down-regulated genes in the high-glucose condition. Moreover, 115 significantly up- and 292 down-regulated genes were identified in the high-glucose condition on day 14. DEGs were enriched in different GO terms and pathways, such as biological and cellular processes, metabolic pathways, cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction and AGE-RAGE signaling pathways. RT-qPCR results confirmed the significant expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 3 (PDK3), cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8), activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), fibulin-7 (Fbln-7), hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1), interleukin 4 receptor (IL-4R) and apolipoprotein C1 (ApoC1). Conclusions The high-glucose condition significantly inhibited the mineralization of hDPCs. DEGs were identified, and interestingly, HAS1 and Fbln-7 genes may be involved in the glucose inhibitory effect on hDPC mineralization.
  • Triple-blinded randomized clinical trial comparing efficacy and tooth sensitivity of in-office and at-home bleaching techniques Original Article

    DONASSOLLO, Sandrina Henn; DONASSOLLO, Tiago Aurélio; COSER, Sumaia; WILDE, Sabrina; UEHARA, Juliana Lays Stolfo; CHISINI, Luiz Alexandre; CORREA, Marcos Britto; CENCI, Maximiliano Sérgio; DEMARCO, Flávio Fernando

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective Our study aims to compare the efficacy and tooth sensitivity following in-office (35% hydrogen peroxide) or at-home (10% carbamide peroxide) bleaching treatments both preceded by 2% potassium nitrate (2%KF) desensitizing gel. Methodology 130 volunteers were randomly allocated to a) in-office bleaching and a placebo at-home protocol; or b) in-office placebo and at-home bleaching treatment. 2% KF was applied for 10 min before both treatments. Objective color evaluation was performed (spectrophotometer CIEL*a*b* system and CIEDE2000) to calculate the color change (ΔE00). Subjective evaluation was performed using the VITA classical shade guide followed by shade variation (ΔSGU) at the beginning and end of bleaching treatment and 2 weeks post-bleaching. Tooth sensitivity was daily recorded using a Likert scale varying from 1 (no sensitivity) to 5 (severe sensitivity). Analysis was carried out using non-parametric tests. Results Regarding the color change, at-home bleaching resulted in significant color improvement compared to in-office treatment for the parameters Δb* (p=0.003) and Δa* (p=0.014). Two weeks post-bleaching, the at-home treatment resulted in significant color improvement compared to in-office treatment for the parameters Δb* (p=0.037) and ΔE00 (p=0.033). No differences were observed in either ΔSGU parameters. Concerning sensitivity, patients treated with in-office bleaching reported more tooth sensitivity than the at-home group only on the first day after bleaching started, without significant differences in the other periods evaluated (p>0.05). Conclusions At-home and in-office bleaching, preceded by a desensitizing agent, were effective for vital teeth bleaching and 10% carbamide peroxide produced a higher whitening effect than 35% hydrogen peroxide in the short time evaluation. Tooth sensitivity rates were similar for the two techniques tested.
  • Protection of calcium silicate/sodium phosphate/fluoride toothpaste with serum on enamel and dentin erosive wear Original Article

    ZANATTA, Rayssa Ferreira; ÁVILA, Daniele Mara da Silva; MAIA, Morgana Menezes; VIANA, Ítallo Emídio Lira; SCARAMUCCI, Tais; TORRES, Carlos Rocha Gomes; BORGES, Alessandra Bühler

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of a toothpaste containing calcium silicate/sodium phosphate/fluoride associated or not to the boost serum (BS) against erosive tooth wear (ETW) on enamel and dentin. Methodology Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were subjected to an erosion-abrasion cycling model (1% citric acid - pH 3.6 -2 min / artificial saliva – 60 min, 4×/day, 5 days). Toothbrushing was performed for 15 s (2 min exposed to slurry), 2×/day, with the toothpastes (n=10): control without fluoride (Weleda), Arg/Ca/MFP (Colgate Pro-Relief), Si/PO4/MFP (Regenerate-Unilever), and Si/PO4/MFP/BS (Si/PO4/MFP with dual BS – Advanced Enamel Serum-Unilever). The effect of treatments on the eroded tissues was assessed by surface microhardness in the first day, and surface loss (SL) resulting from ETW was evaluated by profilometry (μm) after three and five days. Additional dentin specimens (n=5/group) were subjected to 20,000 brushing cycles to verify the abrasivity of the toothpastes. Data were subjected to ANOVA and correlation tests (5%). Results For enamel, no difference in microhardness was observed among the treated groups, and similar SL was obtained after 5 days. For dentin, Si/PO4/MFP/BS resulted in higher microhardness values, but none of the groups presented significantly lower SL than the control. There was no significant correlation between SL and abrasiveness. Conclusion The calcium silicate/sodium phosphate toothpaste and serum increased microhardness of eroded dentin, but they did not significantly reduce enamel and dentin loss compared to the non-fluoride control toothpaste. The abrasiveness of the toothpastes could not predict their effect on ETW.
  • Impact event and orofacial pain amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil: a cross-sectional epidemiological study Original Article

    DE CAXIAS, Fernanda Pereira; ATHAYDE, Flávia Regina Florencio de; JANUZZI, Marcella Santos; PINHEIRO, Larissa Viana; TURCIO, Karina Helga Leal

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objectives This study aims to assess the impact of social isolation, due to the Covid-19 pandemic, on mental health, Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD) and orofacial pain in men and women. Methodology Individuals living in Brazil answered an online questionnaire on their sociodemographic and behavioral aspects, emotional scale (DASS-21), Impact of Event Scale, and Pain Screener in Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD-Pain Screener) during June 2020. Descriptive statistical analyses and logistic and linear regressions were applied (5% significance). Results Overall, 2301 individuals were included, 89.1% practiced social isolation, 72.6% were employed/studying, at least 15% presented severe or extremely severe levels of emotional distress and presence of powerful (34.1%) and severe impact event (15%). During the outbreak, 53.2% perceived feeling worse and 31.8% reported that orofacial pain started or worsened after the pandemic outbreak. Gender was associated with “social class” (P=0.036), “pain/stiffness in the jaw on awakening” (P=0.037), “change of pain during jaw habits” (P=0.034) and “perception of change in the situations mentioned in the TMD-Pain Screener” (P=0.020), “depression” (P=0.012), “anxiety” (P=0.006) and “impact of the event” (P=8.3E-11). Social isolation had a lesser chance to change the routine, to be practiced by the unemployed/not studying, and to be practiced by men (all with P<0.001). Associations were found between social class and all subscales of the DASS-21 and IES, all with P<0.001. Conclusions The practice of social isolation has social determinants. High levels of psychological and event impacts were detected. The presence of orofacial pain seemed to increase during the health crisis, and there were gender differences in the response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Optimal culture conditions for neurosphere formation and neuronal differentiation from human dental pulp stem cells Original Article

    GONMANEE, Thanasup; ARAYAPISIT, Tawepong; VONGSAVAN, Kutkao; PHRUKSANIYOM, Chareerut; SRITANAUDOMCHAI, Hathaitip

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objectives Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been used to regenerate damaged nervous tissues. However, the methods of committing DPSCs into neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) or neurospheres are highly diverse, resulting in many neuronal differentiation outcomes. This study aims to validate an optimal protocol for inducing DPSCs into neurospheres and neurons. Methodology After isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cell identity, DPSCs were cultured in a NSPC induction medium and culture vessels. The durations of the culture, dissociation methods, and passage numbers of DPSCs were varied. Results Neurosphere formation requires a special surface that inhibits cell attachment. Five-days was the most appropriate duration for generating proliferative neurospheres and they strongly expressed Nestin, an NSPC marker. Neurosphere reformation after being dissociated by the Accutase enzyme was significantly higher than other methods. Passage number of DPSCs did not affect neurosphere formation, but did influence neuronal differentiation. We found that the cells expressing a neuronal marker, β-tubulin III, and exhibiting neuronal morphology were significantly higher in the early passage of the DPSCs. Conclusion These results suggest a guideline to obtain a high efficiency of neurospheres and neuronal differentiation from DPSCs for further study and neurodegeneration therapeutics.
  • Brain-derived Neurotropic factor (BDNF) mediates the protective effect of Cucurbita pepo L. on salivary glands of rats exposed to chronic stress evident by structural, biochemical and molecular study Original Article

    ALMOHAIMEED, Hailah M.; ALBADAWI, Emad A.; MOHAMMEDSALEH, Zuhair M.; ALGHABBAN, Hadel M.; SELEEM, Hanan S.; RAMADAN, Osama I.; AYUOB, Nasra N.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Acute and chronic stresses affect the salivary glands, representing the source of plasma BDNF during stressful conditions. Pumpkin is a medicinal plant with an evident antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and potential antidepressant effects. Objective To assess the structural and biochemical effects induced by exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) on salivary glands of albino rats, and to evaluate the role of pumpkin extract (Pump) in ameliorating this effect. Methodology Four groups (n=10 each) of male albino rats were included in this study: the control, CUMS, Fluoxetine-treated and Pump-treated. The corticosterone, the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the oxidant/antioxidant profile were all assessed in the serum. The level of BDNF mRNA was measured in the salivary glands using qRT-PCR. Histopathological changes of the salivary glands were also assessed. Results The depressive-like status was confirmed behaviorally and biochemically. Exposure to CUMS significantly up-regulated (p<0.001) the level of serum corticosterone. CUMS induced degenerative changes in the secretory and ductal elements of the salivary glands evident by increased apoptosis. Both Fluoxetine and Pumpkin significantly up-regulated (p<0.001) BDNF expression in the salivary glands and ameliorated the CUMS-induced histopathological and biochemical alterations in the salivary glands. Pumpkin significantly (p<0.001) increased the serum levels of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GPX and CAT, and reduced the serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6. Conclusion Pumpkin ameliorates the depressive-like status induced in rats following exposure to chronic stress through exerting a promising anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-depressant-like effects. The pumpkin, subsequently, improved stress-induced structural changes in the salivary glands that might be due to up-regulation of BDNF expression in the glands.
  • Pulpal blood flow changes and pain scores related to using Superelastic 0.018-inch Nickel Titanium as the first orthodontic alignment archwire: a prospective clinical trial Original Article

    ALHAIJA, Elham S. Abu; SHAHIN, Ahmad Y.; BADRAN, Serene A.; DAHER, Saba O.; DAHER, Hasan O.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background Optimal orthodontic force results in maximum rate of tooth movement without tissue damage. Even though starting orthodontic treatment with a thicker archwire may shorten treatment duration, the evidence on the effect of using 0.018-inch NiTi as the first alignment archwire on pulpal blood flow (PBF) status is still scarce. Objectives to record PBF changes and pain scores associated with using 0.018-inch NiTi as the first alignment archwire during fixed orthodontic treatment. Methodology Patients were selected from subjects attending postgraduate orthodontic teaching clinics at Jordan University of Science and Technology. In total, forty healthy patients who exhibited mild lower arch crowding were included. A split-mouth trial design was used. Each patient received two archwire sizes at one time joined in the midline by crimpable hook and applied in the lower arch. Patients were assigned into one of two groups based on archwire sizes used. Group 1: 0.014-inch and 0.018-inch NiTi (Six males, 14 females aged 19.4±1.33 years) and Group 2: 0.016-inch and 0.018-inch NiTi (Seven males, 13 females aged 19.6±1.45 years). The archwire size group was randomly allocated with a 1:1 allocation ratio. A Laser Doppler Flowmeter was used to measure PBF at different time intervals (T0-T5). Pain scores were recorded using a visual analogue scale (VAS). A repeated measures ANOVA and a post-hoc Bonferroni comparison tests were conducted to examine differences at the different time points before and during orthodontic alignment. Results For all studied archwire sizes, PBF decreased 20 minutes after their placement. Most PBF changes occurred within 24hours and continued to decrease until 72 hours after archwire placement where the maximum reduction was reached. Eventually, normal values were reverted within 1 month. PBF changes were similar between all alignment – groups. Conclusions Initial orthodontic alignment with 0.018-inch NiTi does not cause irreversible changes to pulpal vasculature or produces higher pain scores.
  • Efficacy of injectable platelet-rich fibrin in the erosive oral lichen planus: a split-mouth, randomized, controlled clinical trial Original Article

    SAGLAM, Ebru; OZSAGIR, Zeliha Betul; UNVER, Tugba; ALINCA, Suzan Bayer; TOPRAK, Ali; TUNALI, Mustafa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective Our study compared the effects of injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) with those of corticosteroids in the treatment of erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP). Methodology This split-mouth study included 24 individuals diagnosed histopathologically with bilateral EOLP. One bilateral lesion was injected with i-PRF, whereas the other was injected with methylprednisolone acetate in four sessions at 15-day intervals. Visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and satisfaction, oral health impact profile scale-14, and the lesion size were used. Results The intragroup comparisons showed a significant decrease in VAS-pain and lesion size in both the i-PRF group (from 81.88±17.74 to 13.33±18.34, and from 4.79±0.41 to 1.88±1.08, respectively) and the corticosteroid group (from 80.21±17.35 to 23.33±26.81, and from 4.71±0.46 to 2.21±1.35, respectively) in the 6th month compared to baseline (p<0.001). Moreover, VAS-satisfaction increased significantly in both the i-PRF group (from 26.67±17.8 to 85.63±16.24) and the corticosteroid group (from 28.33±17.05 to 74.38±24.11) in the 6th month compared to baseline (p<0.001). However, no significant difference in any value occurred in the intergroup comparisons. Conclusion In patients with EOLP, both methods decreased pain and lesion size similarly, and both increased satisfaction. Therefore, the use of i-PRF may be considered an option in cases refractory to topical corticosteroid therapy. Biochemical and histopathological studies are required to reveal the mechanism of i-PRF action in EOLP treatment.
  • Synthesis of a chitosan nanoparticle suspension and its protective effects against enamel demineralization after an in vitro cariogenic challenge Original Article

    MAGALHÃES, Taís Chaves; TEIXEIRA, Natália Moreira; FRANÇA, Renata Sobreira; DENADAI, Ângelo Márcio Leite; SANTOS, Rogério Lacerda dos; CARLO, Hugo Lemes; MUNCHOW, Eliseu Aldrighi; CARVALHO, Fabíola Galbiatti de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective Our study aims to synthesize, characterize, and determine the effects of a ChNPs suspension on human enamel after cariogenic challenge via pH-cycling. Methodology ChNPs were synthesized by ion gelation and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering. Forty enamel blocks were divided into four groups (n=10/group): (i) ChNPs suspension; (ii) chitosan solution; (iii) 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) solution; and (iv) distilled water. Specimens were exposed to cariogenic challenge by cycling in demineralization solution (3 h) and then remineralized (21h) for 7 days. Before each demineralization cycle, the corresponding solutions were passively applied for 90 s. After 7 days, specimens were examined for surface roughness (Ra) and Knoop hardness (KHN) before and after the cariogenic challenge; % KHN change (variation between initial and final hardness), and surface topography by an optical profilometer. The data were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA, One-way ANOVA, and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results TEM images showed small spherical particles with diameter and zeta potential values of 79.3 nm and +47.9 mV, respectively. After the challenge, all groups showed an increase in Ra and a decrease in KHN values. Optical profilometry indicated that ChNPs- and NaF-treated specimens showed uneven roughness interspersed with smooth areas and the lowest %KHN values. Conclusion The ChNPs suspension was successfully synthesized and minimized human enamel demineralization after a cariogenic challenge, showing an interesting potential for use as an oral formulation for caries prevention.
  • Cephalometric changes during aging in subjects with normal occlusion Original Article

    GARIB, Daniela; NATSUMEDA, Gabriela Manami; MASSARO, Camila; MIRANDA, Felicia; NAVEDA, Rodrigo; JANSON, Guilherme

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective To assess craniofacial changes from early adulthood to the seventh decade of life in individuals with normal occlusion. Methodology The sample comprised lateral cephalograms of 21 subjects with normal occlusion (11 male, 10 female), taken at 17 (T1) and 61 years of age (T2). Anteroposterior and vertical maxillomandibular relationships, and dentoalveolar and soft tissue changes were analyzed. Interphase comparisons were performed using paired t-tests. Differences between sexes, and subgroups with and without tooth loss were evaluated using t-tests (p<0.05). Results Maxillary and mandibular anterior displacement, and facial and ramus height increased from T1 to T2. Maxillary molars showed significant mesial angulation. Maxillary and mandibular molars, and mandibular incisors developed vertically during the evaluation period. Soft tissue changes included a decrease of the nasolabial angle, upper and lower lip retrusion, decrease of upper lip thickness and increase of the lower lip and soft chin thickness. Maxillary incisor exposure by the upper lip decreased 3.6 mm in 40 years. Males presented counterclockwise rotation of the mandible, whereas females showed mandibular clockwise rotation and backward displacement of the chin. The group with tooth loss showed a greater increase of the posterior facial height and ramus height. Conclusion We observed aging changes in dentoskeletal structures and soft tissue, as well as sexual differences for craniofacial changes during the maturational process. Subjects with multiple tooth losses showed a greater increase in mandibular ramus height.
  • Anticancer effects of 6-shogaol via the AKT signaling pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma Original Article

    HUANG, Hai; KIM, Myoung-Ok; KIM, Ki-Rim

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the common type of cancer that leads to death; and is becoming a global concern. Due to the lack of efficient chemotherapeutic agents for patients with oral cancer, the prognosis remains poor. 6-shogaol, a bioactive compound of ginger, has a broad spectrum of bioactivities and has been widely used to relieve many diseases. However, its effects on human oral cancer have not yet been fully evaluated. In our study, we investigated the anticancer effects of 6-shogaol on the proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and underlying mechanisms within human OSCC cell lines. Methodology We investigated the effect of 6-shogaol on the growth of OSCC cells by cell viability and soft agar colony formation assay. Migration and invasion assays were conducted to confirm the effect 6-shogaol on OSCC cell metastasis. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and the underlying mechanism on the antigrowth effect of 6-shogaol in OSCC cells was assessed using western blotting. Results In our results, 6-shogaol not only suppressed proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in OSCC cells, but also induced apoptosis by regulating the apoptosis-associated factors such as p53, Bax, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3. Migration and invasion of OSCC cells were inhibited following the regulation of E-cadherin and N-cadherin by 6-shogaol. Additionally, 6-shogaol treatment significantly inhibited the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Conclusion Therefore, our results may provide critical evidence that 6-shogaol can be a potential new therapeutic candidate for oral cancer.
  • Cephalometric predictors of hypernasality and nasal air emission Original Article

    DENEGRI, María Alicia; SILVA, Patrick Pedreira; PEGORARO-KROOK, Maria Inês; OZAWA, Terumi Okada; YAEDU, Renato Yassutaka Faria; DUTKA, Jeniffer de Cássia Rillo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract During times of increasingly recognized importance of interprofessional practices, professionals in Medicine, Dentistry, and Speech Pathology areas cooperate to optimize treatment of velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD), after primary palatoplasty for correction of cleft palate. Objective Our study aims to compare velar length, velar thickness, and depth of the nasopharynx of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) with the presence, or absence, of hypernasality and nasal air emission; and to verify if the depth:length ratio, between nasopharynx and velum, would be predictive of consistent hypernasality and nasal air emission (speech signs of VPD). Methodology Cephalometric radiographs and outcome of speech assessment were obtained from 429 individuals, between 6 and 9 years of age, with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate. Velar length, velar thickness, depth of the nasopharynx, depth:length ratio, scores of hypernasality, and scores of nasal air emission were studied and compared; grouping the radiographs according to presence or absence of hypernasality and nasal air emission. Results For the group with speech signs of velopharyngeal dysfunction (those with consistent hypernasality and nasal air emission), the velums were shorter and thinner; the nasopharynx was deeper and the depth:length ratio was larger than the group without hypernasality and nasal air emission. Velar length was significantly shorter in individuals with consistent hypernasality and nasal air emission (p<0.001) and with history of palatal fistula (p=0.032). Depth of nasopharynx was significantly greater in individuals with consistent hypernasality and nasal air emission (p<0.001). Depthlength ratio was significantly larger in individuals with consistent hypernasality and nasal air emission (p<0.001). A depth:length ratio larger than 0.93 was always associated with speech signs of VPD. Conclusion Estimated with cephalometric radiographs, a depth:length ratio greater than 0.93, between the nasopharyngeal space and the velum, was 100% accurate in predicting hypernasality and nasal air emission after primary repair of unilateral cleft lip and palate.
  • Three-year evaluation of different adhesion strategies in non-carious cervical lesion restorations: a randomized clinical trial Original Article

    Gonçalves, Diego Felipe Mardegan; Shinohara, Mirela Sanae; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Marão de Andrade; Ramos, Fernanda de Souza e Silva; Oliveira, Laryssa de Castro; Omoto, Érika Mayumi; Fagundes, Ticiane Cestari

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Objective: To evaluate non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) restored with different adhesion strategies. Methodology: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, split-mouth study. An adhesive restorative system (Single Bond Universal/Filtek Z350XT – SBU) was evaluated both without and with selective enamel conditioning (E-SBU), resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (Vitremer; RMGIC), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid pretreatment (EDTA; E-RMGIC). In total, 200 restorations, placed in 50 patients, were evaluated at baseline and at a 3-year follow-up using the modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Data were analyzed using the two-proportion equality test, multinomial logistic regression, Wilcoxon test, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Results: In total, 42 (84%) patients returned for the 3-year follow-up. SBU showed restoration losses statistically different from RMGIC. Retention was also statistically different in SBU between baseline and the 3-year follow-up. Marginal defects and surface texture were statistically significant for all groups in the period studied, except for the surface texture of SBU and the marginal integrity in E-RMGIC. We observed no statistically significant difference in wear, secondary caries, anatomical form, surface staining, and color over time. Recession degree was the only factor to influence retention rates. Cumulative survival (%) was 89, 98, 98, and 95.3, for SBU, SE-SBU, RMGIC, and E-RMGIC, respectively, without significant differences among them. There was a statistically significant difference between survival curves; however, multiple comparison procedures found no statistical differences. Conclusion: Selective enamel etching affected the retention of non-carious cervical restorations. Adhesion using EDTA and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements delayed marginal defects over time. The degree of gingival recession influenced retention rates. Resin composite restorations showed initial marginal defects, and ionomer restorations, reduced surface luster. EDTA pre-treatment followed by resin-modified glass-ionomer cements may be a promising adhesion strategy for NCCL restorations.
  • A standardized extract of Centella asiatica (ECa 233) prevents temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis by modulating the expression of local inflammatory mediators in mice Original Article

    ROTPENPIAN, Nattapon; ARAYAPISIT, Tawepong; ROUMWONG, Atitaya; PAKAPROT, Narawut; TANTISIRA, Mayuree; WANASUNTRONWONG, Aree

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objectives To investigate the effect of a standardized extract of Centella asiatica (ECa 233), which has anti-inflammatory properties, on the local expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), the acid-sensing ion channel subunit 3 (ASIC3), and the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) structure 21 days after injecting the TMJ with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). Methodology A mouse model was induced by analyzing the CFA-injected TMJ on days 7, 14, and 21. We assessed TMJ histology by the osteoarthritis cartilage grade score. Then, we observed the effect of different ECa 233 concentrations (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) and of 140 mg/kg ibuprofen doses on TRPV1, ASIC3, and CGRP local expression on day 21. Results Osteoarthritis cartilage scores were 1.17±0.37 and 3.83±0.68 on days 14 and 21, respectively, in the CFA group (n=5). On day 21, TRPV1, ASIC3, and CGRP expression significantly increased in the CFA group. In the ibuprofen-treated group, TRPV1 expression significantly decreased, but ASIC3 and CGRP showed no significant difference. All ECa 233 doses reduced TRPV1 expression, but the 100 mg/kg ECa 233 dose significantly decreased ASIC3 expression. Conclusions TRPV1, ASIC3, and CGRP expression increased in mice with TMJ-OA on day 21. All ECa 233 and ibuprofen doses inhibited pathogenesis by modulating the local expression of TRPV1 and ASIC3. Therefore, ECa 233 was more effective than ibuprofen.
  • Clinical evaluation of single and repeated sessions of photobiomodulation with two different therapeutic wavelengths for reducing postoperative sequelae after impacted mandibular third molar surgery: a randomized, double-blind clinical study Original Article

    YÜKSEK, Mehmet Nuri; EROĞLU, Cennet Neslihan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The effects of the number of photobiomodulation (PBM) sessions on the postoperative inflammatory process remain controversial. The current literature comparing single and repeated PBM sessions is limited. Objective This study aimed to compare the effects of single and repeated PBM sessions, applied at two different therapeutic wavelengths within the infrared spectrum, on postoperative inflammatory response after impacted third molar tooth extraction. Methodology This randomized, double-blind clinical study included 40 patients with bilateral impacted mandibular third molars (80 teeth). The patients were divided into two groups each including 20 subjects (40 teeth) to receive either single-session laser at 810 nm (20 teeth) and 940 nm (20 teeth) immediately after the surgery or repeated laser sessions at 810 nm (20 teeth) and 940 nm (20 teeth) (immediately after the surgery and on postoperative Day 1). Lasers at 940 nm (power density 0.5 Watt/cm2, energy density 4 J/cm2 for a time until the cumulative energy on the device screen reaches 50 J from 0 J, in continuous mode, spot size 2.8 cm2) and at 810 nm (power density 0.14 Watt/cm2, energy density 4 J/cm2, for 30 seconds, in continuous mode, spot size 2.1 cm2) were applied intra- and extra-orally. Pain, swelling, and trismus were evaluated postoperatively. Results No significant differences were determined between the groups on the evaluated parameters (p>0.05). Conclusion Within the study limitations, in PBM, the effects of 810 nm and 940 nm and those of single and repeated applications were similar regarding pain, swelling and trismus. Immediate postoperative PBM could be preferred to repeated applications performed by point application within a 24-hour period.
  • In vivo effect of fluoride combined with amoxicillin on enamel development in rats Original Article

    Feltrin-Souza, Juliana; Costa, Silas Alves da; Bussaneli, Diego Girotto; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio; Cury, Jaime; Tenuta, Livia; Cordeiro, Rita de Cássia Loiola

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Some evidence in vitro suggested that amoxicillin and fluoride could disturb the enamel mineralization. Objective: To assess the effect of amoxicillin and of the combination of amoxicillin and fluoride on enamel mineralization in rats. Methodology: In total, 40 rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control group (CG); amoxicillin group (AG - amoxicillin (500 mg/kg/day), fluoride group (FG - fluoridated water (100 ppm -221 mg F/L), and amoxicillin + fluoride group (AFG). After 60 days, the samples were collected from plasma and tibiae and analyzed for fluoride (F) concentration. The incisors were also collected to determine the severity of fluorosis using the Dental Fluorosis by Image Analysis (DFIA) software, concentration of F, measurements of enamel thickness, and hardness. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey’s post-hoc test, or Games-Howell post-hoc test (α=0.05). Results: Enamel thickness of the incisors did not differ statistically among the groups (p=0.228). Groups exposed to fluoride (AFG and FG) have higher F concentrations in plasma, bone and teeth than those not exposed to fluoride (CG and AG). The groups showed a similar behavior in the DFIA and hardness test, with the FG and AFG groups showing more severe fluorosis defects and significant lower hardness when compared with the AG and CG groups, with no difference from each other. Conclusion: The rats exposed to fluoride or fluoride + amoxicillin developed dental fluorosis, while exposure to amoxicillin alone did not lead to enamel defects.
  • Proteolytic activity and degradation of bovine versus human dentin matrices Original Article

    Inagati, Cristiane Mayumi; Scheffel, Débora Lopes Salles; Anovazzi, Giovana; Alonso, Juliana Rosa Luiz; Christoffoli, Marcelly Tupan; Pashley, David Henry; De Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Hebling, Josimeri

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Non-human teeth have been commonly used in research as replacements for human teeth, and potential dissimilarities between the dental tissues should be considered when interpreting the outcomes. Objective: To compare the proteolytic activity and degradation rate of bovine and human dentin matrices. Methodology: Dentin beam specimens were obtained from human molars (n=30) and bovine incisors (n=30). The beams were weighed hydrated and after complete dehydration to obtain the mineralized wet and dry masses. Then, the beams were demineralized in 10 wt% phosphoric acid. Next, 15 beams from each substrate were randomly selected and again dehydrated and weighed to obtain the initial demineralized dry mass (DM). Then, the beams were stored in saliva-like buffer solution (SLBS) for 7, 14 and 21 days. SLBS was used to evaluate hydroxyproline (HYP) release after each storage period. The remaining beams of each substrate (n=15) were tested for initial MMP activity using a colorimetric assay and then also stored in SLBS. DM and MMP activity were reassessed after 7, 14 and 21 days of incubation. The data were subjected to two-way ANOVA tests with repeated measures complemented by Bonferroni’s tests. Unpaired two-tailed t-tests were also used (p<0.05). Results: Similar water and inorganic fractions were found in human and bovine dentin, while human dentin had a higher protein content. The most intense proteolytic activity and matrix deterioration occurred short after dentin was demineralized. Both substrates exhibited a sharp reduction in MMP activity after seven days of incubation. Although human dentin had higher MMP activity levels, greater HYP release and DM loss after seven days than bovine dentin, after 14 and 21 days, the outcomes were not statistically different. Conclusion: Bovine dentin is a suitable substrate for long-term studies involving the degradation of dentin matrices.
  • Evaluation of squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (tumor cells and peritumoral T-lymphocytes) and verrucous carcinoma and comparison with normal oral mucosa Original Article

    Derakhshan, Samira; Poosti, Arvin; Razavi, Amirnader Emami; Moosavi, Mohammad Amin; Mahdavi, Nazanin; Naieni, Fereshteh Baghaei; Hesari, Kambiz Kamyab; Rahpeima, Amirsina

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) is used as a prognostic marker for recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in various sites, including head and neck. Studies suggest that its high serum levels are correlated to some clinical features, such as nodal metastasis. However, it is still unknown if high SCCA in patients with SCCA tissue expression in tumor cells are related to peripheral T-lymphocytes. Therefore, we did this study to evaluate SCCA expression in squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma and to compare it with normal oral mucosa, also investigating the correlation between serum-based and tissue-based antigen levels. Methodology: In this study, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique was used to determine the SCCA1 expression pattern in 81 specimens divided into 3 groups, including oral squamous cell carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma, and normal oral mucosa. Serum-based and tissue-based antigen levels of 20 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases were compared by the western blot assay. SCCA expression was also evaluated and compared in both tumor cells and peripheral T-lymphocytes by the immunofluorescence assay. Results: Our results showed that the SCCA levels in SCC specimens were significantly lower than in verrucous carcinoma and normal and hyperplastic oral mucosa specimens. We found no correlation between the IHC expression of SCCA and serum levels. SCCA was well expressed in both tumor cells and peripheral T-lymphocytes. Conclusion: Decreasing SCCA in SCC specimens suggested that SCC tumor cells may affect more than the serum levels of SCCA in some patients. In addition, expression of SCCA in peripheral T-lymphocytes showed that both tumor cells and T-lymphocytes may cause serum SCCA.
  • Monitoring of canonical BMP and Wnt activities during postnatal stages of mouse first molar root formation Original Article

    WANG, Jia; RAN, Shujun; LIU, Bin; GU, Shensheng

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective This study aimed to explore the precise temporospatial distributions of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Wnt signaling pathways during postnatal development of mammalian tooth roots after the termination of crown morphogenesis. Methodology A total of two transgenic mouse lines, BRE-LacZ mice and BAT-gal mice, were undertaken. The mice were sacrificed on every postnatal (PN) day from PN 3d up to PN 21d. Then, the first lower molars were extracted, and the dissected mandibles were stained with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-galactopyranoside (X-gal) and fixed. Serial sections at 10 µm were prepared after decalcification, dehydration, and embedding in paraffin. Results We observed BMP/Smads and Wnt/β-catenin signaling activities in the dental sac, dental pulp, and apical papilla with a certain degree of variation. The position of activation of the BMP/Smad signaling pathway was located more coronally in the early stage, which then gradually expanded as root elongation proceeded and was associated with blood vessels in the pulp and developing complex apical tissues in the later stage. However, Wnt/β-catenin signaling was highly concentrated in the mesenchyme below the cusps in the early stage, gradually expanded to regions around the root in the transition/root stage, and then disappeared entirely in the later stage. Conclusions These results further confirmed the participation of both BMP and Wnt canonical signaling pathways in tooth root development, as well as formed the basis for future studies on how precisely integrated signaling pathways regulate root morphogenesis and regeneration.
  • Chitosan improves the durability of resin-dentin interface with etch-and-rinse or self-etch adhesive systems Original Article

    PASCHOINI, Vitória Leite; ZIOTTI, Isabella Rodrigues; NERI, Cláudio Roberto; CORONA, Silmara Aparecida Milori; SOUZA-GABRIEL, Aline Evangelista

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Degradation of the dentin-resin interface can occur due to hydrolysis of exposed collagen, resulting in reduced bond strength. This study assessed the effect of dentin treatment with chitosan combined with an etch-and-rinse or self-etch adhesive system on improvement of bond strength and preservation of the interface durability. Methodology Enamel was removed from 80 molars and the teeth were divided into two groups: without chitosan (control) or with 2.5% chitosan gel (1 min). They were further subdivided into two subgroups according to the adhesive system: etch-and-rinse or self-etch. Dentin was restored using a composite resin. Half of the specimens from each restored group were subjected to interface aging and the remaining specimens were used for immediate analysis. The specimens were sectioned and subjected to microtensile bond strength (µTBS) test (n=10), chemical composition testing using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy (n=4) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) (n=5), and morphological analysis of the adhesive interface using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (n=5). Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA. Results Chitosan improved the µTBS of the adhesive interface when compared with the control group (p=0.004). No significant differences were observed in dentin adhesion between the adhesive systems (p=0.652). Immediate µTBS was not significantly different from that after 6 months (p=0.274). EDS and SEM did not show significant differences in the chemical and structural composition of the specimens. FTIR showed a decrease in the intensity of phosphate and carbonate bands after using chitosan. Conclusions Dentin treatment with chitosan combined with an etch-and-rinse or self-etch adhesive system improved the immediate and preserved the 6-month bond strength of the adhesive interface.
  • The influence of flap design on patients’ experiencing pain, swelling, and trismus after mandibular third molar surgery: a scoping systematic review Systematic Review

    DE MARCO, Gennaro; LANZA, Alessandro; CRISTACHE, Corina M.; CAPCHA, Estefani B.; ESPINOZA, Karen I.; RULLO, Rosario; VERNAL, Rolando; CAFFERATA, Emilio A.; DI FRANCESCO, Fabrizio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Third molar removal surgery usually comes accompanied by postoperative discomfort, which could be influenced by the surgical approach chosen. This scoping systematic review aimed at compiling the available evidence focused on the influence of flap design, including envelope flap (EF), triangular flap (TF), and modified triangular flap (MTF), on postoperative pain, swelling, and trismus, as primary outcome measures, and any result mentioning healing promotion or delay, as secondary outcome measure, after mandibular third molar extraction surgery. An electronic search, complemented by a manual search, of articles published from 1999 to 2020 was conducted in the Medline (PubMed), EMBASE and Web of Science databases including human randomized controlled trials, prospective, and retrospective studies with at least 15 patients. The risk of bias of the included studies was assessed either with the Cochrane’s Risk of Bias tool or with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Every step of the review was performed independently and in duplicate. The initial electronic search recovered 2102 articles. After applying the inclusion criteria, 12 articles were included. For patient’s perceived postoperative pain, TF and MTF frequently reported better results than EF. For swelling, the literature is divided, despite a trend favoring EF. For trismus, data showed that its occurrence is mostly associated with the duration of the surgery rather than with the chosen flap. For healing, the limited data is inconclusive. Finally, randomized studies showed a high risk of bias, whereas nonrandomized studies were mostly of good quality and low risk of bias. Although there was no clear consensus regarding the influence of different flap designs for third mandibular molar extraction on postoperative clinical morbidities; the surgeon’s experience, estimated surgical difficulty, molar position and orientation, and surg ery duration should be considered when choosing among the different flap designs.
  • Association between tooth agenesis and cancer: a systematic review Systematic Review

    Medina, Melany Clarissa Gámez; Bastos, Renata Travassos da Rosa Moreira; Mecenas, Paulo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Normando, David

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The congenital absence of multiple teeth may share the same genetic background of the development of some types of cancer. Objective: This systematic review aimed to investigate the possible association between dental agenesis and cancer, and the perspective of agenesis as an early predictor for cancer risk. Methodology: The electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, LILACS, and OpenGrey were searched and the risk of bias was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa tool. The GRADE tool was used to evaluate the certainty of the evidence. Results: Six studies met the eligibility criteria. A positive co-occurrence between ovarian cancer and hypodontia was found in two articles. Three studies evaluated the association between dental agenesis and colorectal cancer and only one showed common genes for these conditions. One paper found individuals with hypodontia had a higher risk of family history of cancer. Five studies had a fair quality and one a good quality. The certainty of evidence was classified as very low. Conclusion: Notwithstanding the limited scientific evidence, there may be a possible association between dental agenesis and cancer due to genes involved in both conditions. Agenesis of multiple teeth could be an early indicator of cancer risk. Nevertheless, studies with a better level of evidence are needed to confirm this possible association.
  • Polymorphisms of the serotonin receptors genes in patients with bruxism: a systematic review Systematic Review

    CAMPELLO, Camilla Porto; MORAES, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; VASCONCELOS, Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito; LIMA, Elker Lene Santos de; PELLIZZER, Eduardo Piza; LEMOS, Cleidiel Aparecido Araújo; MUNIZ, Maria Tereza Cartaxo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate if SNP rs6313, SNP rs2770304, SNP rs4941573, and SNP rs1923884 of the 5-HT2A receptor gene and SNP rs6295 of the 5-HT1A receptor gene are associated with bruxism etiology. Methodology This systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018094561). A search was conducted for articles published in or before May 2021. To qualify for eligibility in this review, the studies had to be case-controls, cohort or cross-sectional. The inclusion criteria were the articles with a group of patients with bruxism and a control group in which the presence of these SNPs was evaluated. The exclusion criteria were the investigations of other polymorphisms, the studies that did not consider a control group for comparison, case reports, and reviews. The NOS and JBI were used to evaluate the methodological quality of studies. Results We conducted this study with databases, such as Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and ProQuest. We considered four studies eligible. A total of 672 participants were included,187 with sleep bruxism, 105 with awake bruxism, 89 with sleep and awake bruxism, and 291 controls. One study found a strong association between the SNPs rs6313, rs2770304 and rs4941573 of the 5-HT2A receptor gene and sleep bruxism. In one study, we considered the C allele of the SNP rs2770304 a risk factor for sleep bruxism. We found no significant results of other SNPs in sleep bruxers compared to controls. We found no positive association concerning the SNPs and groups of awake bruxism and sleep and awake bruxism. Conclusion The different results regarding the SNPs in sleep bruxers could be explained by the genetic distinction between Chilean, Mexican, Japanese, and Polish population. More clinical trials and prospective studies must be conducted with larger sample size and in different ethnicities to confirm the results of this review.
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