Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, Volume: 31, Número: 9, Publicado: 2020
  • Determination of Ethanol in Gel Hand Sanitizers Using Mid and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Communication

    Fonseca Jr., Fernando S.; Brito, Lívia R. e; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Leal, Leila B.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Alcohol-based gel hand sanitizers became very popular during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. In Brazil, several irregular factories emerged requiring an efficient control by the police and regulatory agencies to guarantee product quality. This problem required a method to determine ethanol content, which led to the development of two methods employing mid and near infrared spectroscopy associated with chemometrics. Partial least squares (PLS) models were built and presented satisfactory results with mean absolute percentage error of prediction and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.12 and 0.76% (m/m), respectively, for mid-infrared (MIR) and 1.83 and 1.18% (m/m) for near-infrared (NIR). The analysis of commercial and seized samples of hand sanitizers showed that only 7 out of 34 samples had an ethanol content of 70% (m/m) or higher. This result reinforces the need for constant vigilance by authorities to ensure that the products have the required specifications.
  • Drawing Electrochemical Sensors Using a 3D Printing Pen Communication

    Cardoso, Rafael M.; Castro, Sílvia V. F.; Stefano, Jéssica S.; Muñoz, Rodrigo A. A.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    This communication demonstrates that a 3D printing pen, commercially-available as a toy for kids, can be used to draw thermoplastic electrochemical sensors using conductive filaments over any desirable format and substrate. A polylactic acid filament containing graphene or carbon black was passed through the 3D pen that works as a handheld 3D printer (fused deposition modeling type). As proof-of-concepts, we select three designs, the first one analogous to a conventional carbon-paste electrode, the second one containing the three electrodes in a cylindrical tube and the third one similar to commercial screen-printed electrodes. The 3D pen was used to draw the thermoplastic electrodes inside the pockets of all devices until reaching the copper wires to establish electric contact. Customized 3D printed substrates were used to guide the application of the 3D pen. The fabricated electrodes were applied for the detection of dopamine and trace metals as well as to generate electrochemically a Prussian Blue modified sensor. Many other designs, conductive filaments and substrates can be combined with a 3D pen to draw electrochemical sensors as well as other electrochemical devices, with applications ranging from medical point-of-care platforms, energy-storage devices as well as for teaching purpose.
  • New Strategy for Streptavidin Detection Using AuNRs/PAAm Hydrogel Composites Article

    Oliveira, Jean H. de; Monteiro, Johny P.; Buzzetti, Paulo H. M.; Cabral Júnior, Bento P.; Radovanovic, Eduardo; Girotto, Emerson M.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is a collective oscillation of free electrons induced by the incident light in nanometric surfaces of conductive materials. Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have been studied for plasmonic devices due to their anisotropic properties. Herein, we report the construction of a specific biosensor using polyacrylamide (PAAm) as the gold nanorods support and test its efficiency with specific streptavidin interaction using biotinylated substrates. First, the hydrogels were synthesized by electropolymerization using cyclic voltammetry on ITO/glass substrates and swallowed with AuNRs. The AuNRs were characterized by visible absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The substrates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and their plasmonic sensitivities were evaluated using sucrose solutions with different concentrations. The results showed a sensitivity of ca. 226.4 nm RIU-1 with linear correlation of 0.9974. Furthermore, this composite presented reliable detection of the streptavidin biomolecule in the gold surface with good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).
  • A Highly Selective Fluorescent Chemosensor for Al3+ Based on 2,2’:6’,2”-Terpyridine with a Salicylal Schiff Base Article

    Xu, Jiacheng; Li, Hui; Li, Liangwei; Wang, Jianzhi; Wang, Feng; He, Luying

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Two 2,2’:6’,2”-terpyridine-based Schiff bases (TPySSB and TPySB) have been synthesized. The TPySSB shows remarkable selective ‘off-on’ fluorescence for Al3+ in combination with photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism and C=N isomerization mechanism. Chemosensor TPySSB binds Al3+ in a 1:2 ratio with an association constant 6.8 × 105 (correlation coefficient (R2) = 0.98) and this 1:2 stoichiometric model is established on Job’s plot and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Comparing TPySSB and TPySB, it is of great importance the existence of oxygen atom of hydroxyl group in salicylidene due to its strong binding abilities of both phenol and C=N structure to the Al3+.
  • Zinc Hexacyanoferrate/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Films for Rechargeable Aqueous Batteries Article

    Silva, Murillo N. T.; Ardisson, José D.; Fabris, José D.; Nossol, Edson

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) is a Prussian Blue analog and can be intercalated by both monovalent and divalent ions. ZnHCF/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film could be used as a cathode for zinc ions battery. Carbon nanotubes improved significantly the electrochemical performance of the electrode. It is described the preparation of ZnHCF/MWCNT films by the interfacial method with cyclohexane/water mixture as solvent. The crystal structure, morphology, and microstructure of the as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Mossbaüer, Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. Results revealed that the MWCNTs extend the electrochemical properties of the ZnHCF and influence the structure and morphology of the hexacyanoferrate particles. If tested as cathode material for zinc ion batteries, the nanocomposite film exhibits a capacity of 25.81 mA h g-1, which is much higher than those obtained for a ZnHCF single-component film (3.28 mA h g-1). The physical characteristics and properties that allow good reversibility to a high potential difference, achieved with the ZnHCF/MWCNT film, suggest new developments in the manufacture of translucent, flexible and light energy storage devices, which can be used as a lower-cost, safer and environmentally friendly alternative to the currently existing technologies.
  • Mechanistic Investigation of DBU-Based Ionic Liquids for Aza-Michael Reaction: Mass Spectrometry and DFT Studies of Catalyst Role Article

    Cândido, Augusto A.; Rozada, Thiago C.; Rozada, Andrew M. F.; Souza, João R. B.; Pilau, Eduardo J.; Rosa, Fernanda A.; Basso, Ernani A.; Gauze, Gisele F.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    1,8-Diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU)-based ionic liquids (ILs) has exhibited a high catalytic activity in the aza-Michael reactions compared to conventional catalysts and with imidazole-based ILs. In the present work DBU-based ILs showed high catalytic potential for aza-Michael addition of aromatic amines to 2-cyclohexen-1-one under solvent-free condition. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and density functional theory studies have been carried out to provide an effective activation mode of DBU-based ILs in aza-Michael addition. Our results show that both the presence of the acid hydrogen in the IL and the ability of the anion to carry out a hydrogen bond with the −NH2 group of the arylamine are fundamental for the reaction catalysis. The catalytic model proposed can be used for the rational development of new ILs with excellent catalytic properties.
  • Synthesis and Evaluation of Nematicidal Activity of Compounds Derived from Norbornadiene Article

    Gomes, Anni C. S.; Demuner, Antonio J.; Alvarenga, Elson S.; Gondim, João P. E.; Fonseca, Andressa R.; Buonicontro, Dalila S.; Pilau, Eduardo J.; Silva, Evandro

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Nematode is a major problem in agriculture, the effective way to control this pest is through chemical control, but the efficient molecules present in the market have great toxicity to mammals and birds. Thus, there is a constant demand for the development of new nematicide molecules. This study describes the synthesis of 21 novel esters derived from norbornadiene and evaluation of their potential activity against Meloidogyne javanica. The esters 5-25 presented 50% mortality of the nematodes. The acid 3 and the ester 4 caused 96 and 93% mortality of the nematodes, respectively. The lethal concentration to kill 50% of the nematodes (LD50) were determined as being 11.8 µg mL-1 for the acid 3 and 99.4 µg mL-1 for the ester 4. According to the results obtained it is believed that polarity seems to be a key factor for the higher activity of compound 3 compared to structurally similar ester derivatives.
  • Synthesis, Characterization, Absorption and Fastness Properties of Novel Monoazo Dyes Derived from 1-Phenyl-3-amino-4-(2-thiazolilazo)pyrazol-5-one Article

    Erol, Fatma

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Monosubstitute thiazolyl amines were diazotized in acetic acid, coupled to 1-phenyl-3-aminopyrazol-5-one (1a-1c) and acetylated to obtain the 2a-2c dyes. The dyes were characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), ultraviolet (UV)) methods. The effects on the visible absorption spectra of the substituents present, solvents, pH, concentration and temperature were investigated in detail. Tautomerism of the dyes were investigated by spectroscopic methods. Fastness properties of dyes were studied using the standard method for the assessment of color fastness of textile.
  • Phytochemical Analysis, Multi-Element Composition and Biological Activities of Extracts and Lupenone from Albizia inundata (Mart.) Barneby & J.W.Grimes Article

    Andrade, Eberson M. J.; Teixeira, Jéssica S.; Silva, Dahara K. C.; Santos, Tatiana B. dos; Korn, Maria G. A.; Brandão, Hugo N.; Ferraz, Caline G.; Meira, Cássio S.; Soares, Milena B. P.; Guimarães, Elisava T.; C. S. Neta, Lourdes; F. S. Júnior, Aníbal

    Resumo em Inglês:

    In this study, antimicrobial activity of extracts and lupenone from A. inundata (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae), were tested. In addition, the multi-element composition of the leaves, bark and stems (heartwood) of A. inundata was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Lupenone was isolated in the petroleum ether extract of leaves, for the first time. Biological assays were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic) of extracts, their fractions and lupenone. The results showed antimicrobial and antileishmanial activity of these compounds, which may be useful for obtaining a chemical composition and biological activity database on Albizia species. For multi-element composition, we found the mean concentrations (minimum-maximum) of Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, V and Zn in the samples ranged between 0.06 and 265.41 µg g-1. Concentration ranges of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn are large, which makes these samples as additional sources of these macronutrients.
  • Antibacterial Activity of 2-Amino-1,4-naphthoquinone Derivatives against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacterial Strains and Their Interaction with Human Serum Albumin Article

    Silva, Carla C. da; Chaves, Otávio A.; Paiva, Rojane O.; Costa, Gisela L. da; Netto-Ferreira, José Carlos; Echevarria, Aurea

    Resumo em Inglês:

    A series of 2-amino-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives (NQA-NQF) was synthesized by alternative methods (ultrasonication and microwave irradiation), with yields ranging from 40 to 71%, and without the need of further recrystallization. Each compound was evaluated against four Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and five Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae positive β-lactamase) bacteria strains. The NQF was the most active amino-naphthoquinone derivative with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 31.2 µg mL-1 against K. pneumoniae positive β-lactamase (a common intestinal bacteria which can cause life-threatening infections). On the other hand, NQA and NQC showed good activity as a potential antibiotic for the bacteria strains assayed, except for K. pneumoniae. In addition, the affinity of these three most active compounds (NQA, NQC, and NQF) for human serum albumin (HSA) was evaluated employing multiple spectroscopic techniques (steady-state, time-resolved, and synchronous fluorescence, as well as circular dichroism), combined with theoretical calculations (molecular docking). The interaction HSA:2-amino-1,4-naphthoquinones occurs spontaneously and moderately inside the subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s site I) via hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces.
  • Crystallographic Changes Accompanying the Verwey Transition in a Magnetite from Steatite Article

    Silva, Fernando D. da; Nogueira, Sandra L.; Fabris, José D.; Goulart, Antônio T.; Couceiro, Paulo R. C.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The crystallographic structural analysis of the magnetite of a steatite rock at 298 K, (saturation magnetization, σ = 95.0 J T-1 kg-1) showed two cubic networks and, below Verwey temperature (TV ca.120 K) a monoclinic structure, basing on their cell dimensions and different transitional behaviors when reducing the temperature. A monoclinic structure was identified from their cell dimensions and different transition behaviors when reducing the temperature. The average chemical formula of this almost stoichiometric magnetite was deduced from the chemical analysis, 298 K-Mössbauer and the structural refinement. The Rietveld fitting of the 298 K X-ray pattern is Fe3+Fe0.953+Fe0.882+Cr0.043+Al0.043+Mg0.052+Ni0.022+⊗0.02O4, where [ ] and { } stand for cations in tetrahedral and octahedral coordination symmetries, respectively. The crystallographic structure below TV in this magnetite was observed from synchrotron X-ray diffraction data (XRD), collected at 15 K. It was identified three structures: two cubic (space group, Fd3m), with significantly different lattice parameters, and one monoclinic (P2/c).
  • Accessing Basic Sites on Modified CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles: Addressing the Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol and Unraveling the Au:Pd Ratio Effects by XPS Article

    Pereira, Laíse N. S.; Garcia, Marco A. S.; Rozendo, Jennifer; Vidinha, Pedro; Duarte, Alfredo; Moura, Carla V. R. de; Moura, Edmilson M. de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    AuPd nanoparticles have gained substantial attention due to their application in selective oxidation of alcohols. However, due to the radical nature of the oxidation of benzyl alcohol, under specific conditions, even without a catalyst, the reaction occurs and affects the selectivity of the system. Therefore, we aimed to develop a catalyst that enables the control of the oxidation leading to higher reaction selectivity. To accomplish this, we have prepared a catalytic support comprised of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles impregnated with Sr(OH)2 that presented a significant control of the reaction selectivity without any metal or external base addition. After the impregnation of AuPd nanoparticles in a specific ratio, the reaction reached a selectivity of > 99% for benzaldehyde, in 3.5 h, with a recycle regime of five runs without loss of activity and selectivity. Our results show that the judicious choice of the ratio of the metals prevents the necessity of manipulating the reaction conditions to improve the performance of the system. Additionally, studies under N2 and O2 environments, with or without water, confirmed the role of the O2 in the system. Holding all this information, we propose a possible mechanism for the prepared system.
  • Electroanalytical Method for Determination of Trace Metals in Struvite Using Electrochemically Treated Screen-Printed Gold Electrodes Article

    Vasconcellos, Maria L. S.; Rocha, Diego P.; Castro, Sílvia V. F.; Silva, Luiz R.G. e; Muñoz, Rodrigo A. A.; Freitas, Marcos B. J. G.; Ferreira, Rafael Q.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    We present an electroanalytical method using square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry on electrochemically-treated screen-printed gold electrodes to the simultaneous determination of lead(II), copper(II) and mercury(II) in struvite (natural fertilizer produced from urine). Electrochemical treatment via cyclic voltammetry of the working electrodes increased surface rugosity that improved the electroanalytical responses for the three metals. Under optimized conditions and using a deposition time of 90 s, the proposed method presented the following limit of detection values: 1.3 µg L-1 for lead(II), 2.0 µg L-1 for copper(II) and 0.9 µg L-1 for mercury(II). Struvite samples were easily dissolved in supporting electrolyte solution (0.05 mol L-1 HCl). Satisfactory recovery values between 91 and 111% were obtained for the analysis of spiked samples. Hence, we can infer that the proposed electroanalytical method is an effective alternative for the determination of trace metals, since it provides precise and accurate direct analyses, with rapid responses without interference from sample matrix and enabling in field analysis.
  • Omega-3 and Omega-6 Determination in Nile Tilapia’s Fillet Based on MicroNIR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Calibration Article

    Santos, Dayane A. dos; Coqueiro, Aline; Gonçalves, Thays R.; Carvalho, Jonathan C.; Bezerra Jr., Jailton S.; Matsushita, Makoto; Oliveira, Carlos A. L. de; Março, Paulo H.; Valderrama, Patrícia; Ribeiro, Ricardo P.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is the most cultivated fish species in Brazil. Studies have shown that fish consumption is related to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases due to its high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids, as omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6). In this sense, a new method to determine omega-3 and omega-6 by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate calibration based on partial least squares (PLS) was proposed. Spectra of fillets of Nile tilapias packed under vacuum were obtained and compared to the reference method (gas chromatography) used for quantification of fatty acids. The outliers were evaluated in the models that were validated by calculation of the parameters for model performance estimation, showing promising results. The appropriate values achieved for accuracy, limits of detection and quantification, indicate that the NIR/PLS models can be an alternative to chromatography in the determination of omega-3 and omega-6 in fillets of Nile tilapia. Furthermore, the spectra acquisition on the vacuum-packed fillet contributes to the NIR/PLS method in terms of cost and quickness.
  • Effects of Temperature and Concentration on the Determination of PET Viscosity Article

    Silva, Felipe Z. da; Bastos, Izabella C.; Hirata, Daniela B.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    This work describes the use of experiment planning to investigate the effects of the variables temperature and concentration of the polymer solution on the viscosity test of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). For this, the response surface methodology was based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) to optimize the combinations of the analytical conditions. With the analysis of the standard sample of PET with intrinsic viscosity of 0.630 ± 0.008 dL g-1 and 2-chlorophenol solvent, it was observed that the solution flow temperature and PET concentration caused significant effects on the results, while the storage temperature of the solvent was not statistically significant. With the results and the model developed, an industrial solid state polymerization process of PET was evaluated with simulations of the production of 30 tons of PET, demonstrating the importance of controlling the variables to guarantee the performance in quality control laboratories.
  • Optimization and Validation of LLE-LTP and QuEChERS Methodologies for Determining 2,4-D in Water Samples Article

    Freitas, Lucas V. P.; Sicupira, Lázaro C.; Pinho, Gevany P.; Silvério, Flaviano O.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has been one of the main herbicides used to control weeds, however, due to its high use it can promote episodes of environmental contamination. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize and validate the liquid-liquid extraction with low-temperature partition (LLE-LTP) and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) methods for determining 2,4-D in water samples by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector. The recovery percentages of the two methodologies were close to 100 ± 3%, and the limits of quantification were 2.0 and 3.1 µg L-1 for LLE-LTP and QuEChERS, respectively. The methodologies were selective and presented linearity from 2.0-26.0 and 3.1-40.6 µg L-1 for LLE-LTP and QuEChERS, respectively. The LLE-LTP was better than QuEChERS due to a smaller number of steps, lower reagent consumption, higher concentration factor and a lower limit of quantification. The real samples did not reveal any environmental contamination episodes by 2,4-D.
  • Dereplication of Aporphine Alkaloids by UHPLC-HR-ESI-MS/MS and NMR from Duguetia lanceolata St. -Hil (Annonaceae) and Antiparasitic Activity Evaluation Article

    Dantas, Erick P.; Monteiro, Jackson; Medeiros, Lívia S. de; Romanelli, Maiara M.; Amaral, Maiara; Tempone, Andre G.; Lago, João Henrique G.; Soares, Marisi G.; Sartorelli, Patricia

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Although the genus Duguetia is well known for producing alkaloids as chemical constituents, there are no reports of alkaloids identified in the species D. lanceolata. Thus, aiming to identify the chemical composition of this species, the dereplication of alkaloidic phase was performed by use of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography high resolution electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-ESI-MS/MS) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The chromatographic fractionation of the alkaloid extract from Duguetia lanceolata (Annonaceae) leaves afforded four fractions (I-IV) that were shown to be composed of aporphine alkaloids. 1H NMR analysis and UHPLC-HR-ESI-MS/MS based dereplication allowed the identification of eight alkaloids: glaucine (1), norglaucine (2), isocorydine (3), N-methyllaurotetanine (4), oxoglaucine (5), liriodenine (6), lanuginosine (7), dehydroglaucine (8). Compounds 2,3, 4,6 and 7 were described for the first time in this species, while alkaloids 1,5 and 8 are newly discovered in the genus Duguetia. Additionally, the antiparasitic activity of the four fractions was evaluated in vitro against Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi. Fraction I, composed exclusively by 1, displayed activity against Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi intracellular amastigotes, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 7.5 and 28.6 µg mL-1, respectively. Fraction IV (constituted by 2,3 and 4) showed activity against promastigotes of Leishmania infantum with IC50 value of 50.0 µg mL-1, while fraction II (constituted by 5 and 6) showed activity against trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, with IC50 values of 83.0 µg mL-1. This work showed that fragmentation in UHPLC-HR-ESI-MS/MS combined with 1H NMR analysis of fractions is useful for identifying alkaloids in mixtures. Additionally, it was also demonstrated the potential of aporphine alkaloids from Duguetia lanceolata St. -Hil (Annonaceae) in the search for new drug candidates for neglected diseases.
  • Synthesis and Evaluation of the Fungal Activity of New Pyrazole-Carboxamides against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Article

    González-López, Edwin; León-Jaramillo, Jhair; Trilleras, Jorge; Grande-Tovar, Carlos D.; Peralta-Ruiz, Yeimmy; Quiroga, Jairo

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The pyrazole core has been recognized by their biological properties and included in the synthesis of modern agrochemicals. Part of these studies consists of making structural modifications to pesticides for commercial purposes to increase efficacy. In this article, we present the synthesis of four new pyrazol-4-carboxamide 8a-8d derivatives (PCD), through a four-step synthetic protocol, starting with edaravone 1 and primary amines like benzo-fused, aliphatic, and hydrazines, through a process of low environmental impact. Synthesized derivatives were evaluated against one fungal strain of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides BA3, fungus that causes several losses to farmers around the world, through in vitro sensitivity tests. The compound 8c showed better inhibiting behavior against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides BA3, inducing a lag phase of almost 2.77 days. These results were obtained via Gompertz modeling, for the first time reported for biological evaluation of pyrazole-carboxamide derivatives against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
  • Profiling the Cymbopogon nardus Ethanol Extract and Its Antifungal Potential against Candida Species with Different Patterns of Resistance Artile

    Toledo, Luciani G. de; Ramos, Matheus A. S.; Spósito, Larissa; Castilho, Elza M.; Pavan, Fernando R.; Lopes, Érica O.; Silva, Isabel C. da; Zocolo, Guilherme J.; Ribeiro, Paulo R. V.; Oda, Fernando B.; Pereira, Juhan A. S.; Santos, André G. dos; Bauab, Taís M.; Almeida, Margarete T. G. de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    The essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus, citronella, has been extensively studied. However, the chemical and biological properties of the ethanolic extract (EE) of C. nardus have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of the EE of C. nardus and its active fraction (FrD). Moreover, the cytotoxic and antifungal properties of these extracts against Candida species with different resistance profiles to conventional drugs were evaluated. The compounds identified in EE were mono-C- and di-C-glycosyl flavones and phenylpropanoid glycosides. Phenylpropanoid glycosides were identified in FrD. EE showed antifungal activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 62. 5 to 500 µg mL-1. FrD was more effective against C. glabrata, as evidenced by the lowest MIC value (15. 6 µg mL-1). EE inhibited yeast growth similar to amphotericin-B, as demonstrated by similar time-kill curves. EE inhibited C. albicans hyphae formation and mature biofilm of C. albicans, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis. The results of the chemical and biological analyses of EE and its fractions provided novel information and may contribute to control of infections caused by Candida species.
  • Lignocellulosic Residues from the Brazilian Juice Processing Industry as Novel Sustainable Sources for Bioenergy Production: Preliminary Assessment Using Physicochemical Characteristics Article

    Alves, José L. F.; Trindade, Emmely O. da; Silva, Jean C. G. da; Mumbach, Guilherme D.; Alves, Ricardo F.; Barbosa Filho, José M.; Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F. de; Sena, Rennio F. de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    This work aims to investigate the energy-related characteristics of apple bagasse, orange bagasse and cashew-apple bagasse to identify their potential as bioenergy feedstocks. For this, a detailed characterization was performed, including proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, atomic molar ratio, heating values, chemical composition, bulk density, bioenergy density, fuel-value-index (FVI), fossil fuel equivalence and potential CO2 retention. Proximate composition revealed moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash contents in the range of 7.8-9.3%, 67.1-74.2%, 16.2-22.0% and 1.6-5.7%, respectively. Typical values for carbon (44.8-49.9 wt.%), hydrogen (5.5-6.6 wt.%) and oxygen (40.1-44.2 wt.%), with low sulfur (< 0.1 wt.%) and nitrogen (< 2.7 wt.%) contents were found. In regard to bulk density (237.7-554 kg m−3) and bioenergy density (3.93-10.1 GJ m−3), juice processing residues have substantial values when compared with well-known lignocellulosic residues. Recoverable energy potential from the juice processing residues varied from 15.24 to 17.03 MJ kg−1. From FVI analysis, apple bagasse is expected to be more suitable for thermochemical processing. Orange bagasse, on the other hand, has the highest equivalent in fossil fuel volume. Consequently, its use as solid fuel may lead to a decrease in CO2 emissions from reference fuels.
  • Polyurethanes Obtained by Reacting 1,6-HDI with Monoglycerides from Babassu Oil: A DFT Study Article

    Silva, Francisco I. da; Sá, Égil; Matos, José M. E. de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    This is a density functional theory (DFT)-based (M06) study on the polyurethane formation from 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate (1,6-HDI) reacting with the monoacylglycerol obtained from the babassu oil. As the lauric acid is the most abundant fatty acid in the vegetable oil, the 2-monolaurin was chosen to scrutinize the polyurethane formation. An analysis of two different mechanisms (stepwise and concerted) showed the concerted pathway as the most favorable, which involves the transference of the hydrogen in the 2-monolaurin to a nitrogen atom in the 1,6-HDI. Finally, the dimerization process takes place by coupling of urethane blocks, instead of growing the chain by adding 1,6-HDI after 2-monolaurin (or vice versa).
  • Evaluation of Brazilian Monovarietal Extra Virgin Olive Oils Using Digital Images and Independent Component Analysis Short Report

    Gonçalves, Thays R.; Rosa, Larissa N.; Março, Paulo H.; Silva, Luiz F. O. da; Gomes, Sandra T. M.; Matsushita, Makoto; Valderrama, Patrícia

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Digital images associated with chemometric tools, in a non-destructive approach, have been applied for the evaluation of the Brazilian monovarietal extra virgin olive oil. Independent component analysis (ICA) was employed in the image data evaluation of olive oils produced from distinctive olive varieties, and it was successful in highlighting the natural grouping among the samples based on the color histograms (red, green and blue (RGB) channels). The study’s proposal indicates the ability of accurate separation of the twenty-four samples considering their color. To conclude and support the hypothesis, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied in the visible spectra of the Brazilian monovarietal extra virgin olive oil, to observe the similarities between the samples, and the results are in agreement with those obtained by image analysis coupled with ICA. This method demonstrates the possibility for the characterization of olive oils respecting the principles of Green Chemistry.
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