Kidney function estimate among subjects aged 18-59 years in Tubarão, Santa Catarina: A population-based study

João Carlos Fantini Schaefer Mariana Soares Pereira Clovisa Reck de Jesus Fabiana Schuelter-Trevisol Daisson José Trevisol About the authors

Resumo

Introdução:

O aumento das doenças crônico-degenerativas projetou a doença renal crônica (DRC) como um dos maiores desafios à saúde pública deste século.

Objetivos:

Estimar a função renal a partir de cálculos da taxa de filtração glomerular pela fórmula CKD-EPI em adultos de uma amostra populacional em Tubarão (SC) e identificar fatores associados com a taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG).

Métodos:

Estudo transversal de base populacional de adultos realizado no período de novembro de 2011 a março de 2012. Foram avaliados 371 indivíduos por amostragem aleatória simples. Foram coletados dados sociodemográficos, antropométricos, e clínicos, além de exames laboratoriais. Para se verificar associação entre as variáveis, foi aplicado o teste de qui-quadrado de Pearson e comparação entre as médias pelo teste t-Student, o nível de significância adotado foi de 95%.

Resultados:

Foram estudados 371 adultos, sendo 63,8% mulheres e 86,3% brancos, a média de idade foi de 40,4 anos (DP ± 12,3). Do total, 76,8% tinha TFG normal, 21,8% discreta diminuição, 1,1% moderada diminuição e 0,3% grave diminuição da TFG. Verificou-se diferença significativa relacionada à idade e obesidade, sendo que quanto maior a idade ou quanto maior o índice de massa corporal, menor a TFG dos participantes. Indivíduos com hipertensão arterial sistêmica apresentaram tendência à queda da TFG em relação aos não hipertensos (p < 0,06).

Conclusão:

O presente estudo concluiu que a maior parte dos indivíduos estudados tinha TFG normal e que apenas 1,4% (IC 95% = 0,3 - 2,4) tinha disfunção de grau moderado ou superior.

Palavras-chave:
taxa de filtração glomerular; creatinina; insuficiência renal; testes de função renal

Abstract

Introduction:

Among the increasing chronic degenerative diseases, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health challenge facing the 21st century.

Objectives:

To estimate the GFR by using the CKD-EPI formula among subjects aged 18-59 years, and to identify factors associated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

Methods:

A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on adults between November 2011 and March 2012. We collected sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory tests to build a database. The Pearson's chi-square test was used to assess the association between variables, and the Student's t -test was used for mean comparison at 95% confidence level.

Results:

A cohort of 371 adults was surveyed (63.8% women; 86.3% Whites). The mean age was 40.4 years (SD ± 12.3). Of the total, 76.8% had normal GFR; 21.8% showed a slight decline, 1.1% a moderate decline, and 0.3% a significant decline in GFR. There were significant differences related to age and obesity, because the greater the age or the higher the body mass index, the lower the GFR of participants. Individuals with systemic hypertension showed a tendency towards a reduction in GFR compared to non-hypertensive population (p < 0.06).

Conclusion:

This study concluded that the vast majority of the surveyed subjects had normal GFR levels, and that only 1.4% (95% CI: 0.3 - 2.4) had moderate or severe dysfunction.

Keywords:
creatinine; glomerular filtration rate; kidney function tests; renal insufficiency

Introduction

We have seen changes in the morbidity and mortality profile of the world population in recent decades, with a significant increase in chronic diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), which remains a public health challenge in world, due to its economic and social implications.11 Lessa I. Níveis séricos de creatinina: hipercreatininemia em segmento da população adulta de Salvador, Brasil. Rev Bras Epidemiol 2004;7:176-86. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2004000200007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2004...
,22 Bastos RMR, Bastos MG, Ribeiro LC, Bastos RV, Teixeira MT. Prevalência da doença renal crônica nos estágios 3, 4 e 5 em adultos. Rev Assoc Med Bras 2009;55:40-4. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-42302009000100013

CKD is a silent disease in most cases, although diagnosis is easy with clinical history and inexpensive laboratory tests. However, in the absence of early detection, the disease has a progressive course that sometimes leads to complete loss of kidney function, which may cause death.33 Katharina-Susanne S, Kollerits B, Ritz E, Hersberger M, Kronenberg F, Eckardstein AV. Creatinina sérica, cistatina C e proteína ß-traço no estadiamento diagnóstico e na predição da progressão da doença renal crônica não diabética. J Bras Patol Med Lab 2011;47:13-23.

To properly measure kidney function is important not only to make the diagnosis and proceed to treatment of renal diseases, but, among other applications, to administer adequate doses of drugs, define prognosis, interpret possible uremic symptoms and make decisions regarding the onset of renal replacement therapy.33 Katharina-Susanne S, Kollerits B, Ritz E, Hersberger M, Kronenberg F, Eckardstein AV. Creatinina sérica, cistatina C e proteína ß-traço no estadiamento diagnóstico e na predição da progressão da doença renal crônica não diabética. J Bras Patol Med Lab 2011;47:13-23.,44 Kirsztajn GM. Avaliação do ritmo de filtração glomerular. J Bras Patol Med Lab 2007;43:257-64. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-24442007000400007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-24442007...
It is based on these observations that laboratory tests are recommended, and these should ideally be low-cost and widely available in most laboratories.55 Kirsztajn GM, Bastos MG, Andriolo A. Dia Mundial do Rim 2011. Proteinúria e creatinina sérica: testes essenciais para diagnóstico de doença renal crônica. J Bras Patol Med Lab 2011;47:100-3. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-24442011000200002
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-24442011...
,66 Bastos MG, Kirsztajn GM. Doença renal crônica: importância do diagnóstico precoce, encaminhamento imediato e abordagem interdisciplinar estruturada para melhora do desfecho em pacientes ainda não submetidos à diálise. J Bras Nefrol 2011;33:93-108. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002011000100013
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002011...

In everyday clinical practice, qualitative assessment of the kidney's excretory capacity is usually carried out by measuring plasma creatinine concentration.77 Silva ABT, Molina MDCB, Rodrigues SL, Pimentel EB, Baldo MP, Mill JG. Correlação entre a depuração plasmática de creatinina utilizando urina coletada durante 24 horas e 12 horas. J Bras Nefrol 2010;32:165-72. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002010000200005
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002010...
This is because of the method's simplicity, compared to the difficulties inherent to the technique of endogenous creatinine clearance with 24-hour urine collection - a more accurate method, but more laborious execution and subject to errors.88 Burmeister JE, Agnolin R, Costa MG, Miltersteiner DR, Campos BM. Creatinina plasmática normal significa função renal normal? Rev AMRIGS 2007;51:114-20.,99 Santos EM, França AKTC, Salgado JVL, Brito DJA, Calado IL, Santos AM, et al. Valor da equação Cockcroft-Gault na triagem de função renal reduzida em pacientes com hipertensão arterial sistêmica. J Bras Nefrol 2011;33:313-21. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002011000300007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002011...

However, normal plasma creatinine (PCr) values is not synonymous with normal renal function, and several studies have shown that a significant portion of individuals, despite having normal PCr values may have impaired kidney function.1010 Duncan L, Heathcote J, Djurdjev O, Levin A. Screening for renal disease using serum creatinine: who are we missing? Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001;16:1042-6.,1111 Pinto PS, Silva FJ, Munch ECSM, Chaboubah A, Bastos RV, Andrade LCF, et al. Inadequabilidade da creatinina sérica na identificação precoce da disfunção renal. J Bras Nefrol 2004;26:196-201. Burmeister et al . found that up to 15% of individuals with normal PCr values had renal function levels below 60 ml/Min.88 Burmeister JE, Agnolin R, Costa MG, Miltersteiner DR, Campos BM. Creatinina plasmática normal significa função renal normal? Rev AMRIGS 2007;51:114-20.

Formulas for estimating GFR have been created and published in order to overcome some of the limitations encountered in establishing the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by measuring plasma creatinine. These formulas use demographic and clinical variables known as surrogates for the physiological factors that were not measured and that impact the level of serum creatinine. The most commonly used formulas are the Cockcroft and Gault (CG), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), and more recently, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI).1212 Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Zhang YL, Castro AF 3rd, Feldman HI, et al.; CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration). A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 2009;150:604-12. PMID: 19414839 DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-150-9-200905050-00006
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-150-...

The CG formula was the first of these equations to gain acceptance and to estimate creatinine clearance; however, it systematically overestimates GFR because creatinine tubular secretion and weight gain due to obesity or fluid overload are not taken into account.1313 Lim WH, Lim EM, McDonald S. Lean body mass-adjusted Cockcroft and Gault formula improves the estimation of glomerular filtration rate in subjects with normal-range serum creatinine. Nephrology (Carlton) 2006;11:250-6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1797.2006.00560.x
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1797.20...

The MDRD equation to estimate GFR was originally developed based on the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease in CKD patients study data and did not include healthy individuals. In its original version, the MDRD equation requires establishing serum albumin and nitrogen urea.1414 Stevens LA, Coresh J, Feldman HI, Greene T, Lash JP, Nelson RG, et al. Evaluation of the modification of diet in renal disease study equation in a large diverse population. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;18:2749-57. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2007020199
http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2007020199...
Currently, the abbreviated MDRD formula with “four variables” has been recommended, for its performance is as good as that of the original one.1414 Stevens LA, Coresh J, Feldman HI, Greene T, Lash JP, Nelson RG, et al. Evaluation of the modification of diet in renal disease study equation in a large diverse population. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;18:2749-57. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2007020199
http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2007020199...
GFR calculated from the MDRD equation and the actual GFR are very close to results < 60 mL/min/1.73m2, while the true GFR exceeds the estimated rate by a small value when the GFR is > 60 mL/min/1.73m2.1414 Stevens LA, Coresh J, Feldman HI, Greene T, Lash JP, Nelson RG, et al. Evaluation of the modification of diet in renal disease study equation in a large diverse population. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;18:2749-57. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2007020199
http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2007020199...
,1515 Levey AS, Coresh J, Greene T, Stevens LA, Zhang YL, Hendriksen S, et al.; Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. Using standardized serum creatinine values in the modification of diet in renal disease study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 2006;145:247-54. PMID: 16908915 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-145-4-200608150-00004
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-145-...

The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration group recently developed, from a cohort that included patients with and without CKD, a new equation which is a variation of the MDRD formula. The equation, called CKD-EPI, uses the same four variables of the MDRD equation, but in comparison, it has better performance and better risk prediction. Higher accuracy and lower bias associated with the CKD-EPI equation, particularly for GFR in ranges > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, of the MDRD study are of routine clinical use.1515 Levey AS, Coresh J, Greene T, Stevens LA, Zhang YL, Hendriksen S, et al.; Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. Using standardized serum creatinine values in the modification of diet in renal disease study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 2006;145:247-54. PMID: 16908915 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-145-4-200608150-00004
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-145-...
,1616 Lin J, Knight EL, Hogan ML, Singh AK. A comparison of prediction equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate in adults without kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003;14:2573-80. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ASN.0000088721.98173.4B
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ASN.0000088...

The aim of this study was to estimate renal function from GFR calculations made by the CKDEPI formula in adults from a population sample from Tubarão (SC), and to pinpoint factors that may alter normal GFR values.

Methods

This study is linked to the ESATU project (Health Study of Adults from Tubarão), a partnership between the Center for Clinical Research of the Our Lady of Conception Hospital, University of Southern Santa Catarina and Department of Health of the city of Tubarão. This study received financial aid from the Support to Research and Innovation Foundation of the State of Santa Catarina (FAPESC) and was approved by Ethics Committee of UNISUL under protocol # 11.130.4.01.III.

Tubarão is a coastal town in the southern portion of Santa Catarina state. The resident population is made up of 97,235 people, 51.5% are females. We chose the minimum age of 18 years (when adults come of age in Brazil) to 59, which corresponded to 66.7% of the population, since in Brazil people 60 years of age and older are considered elderly. In addition, a previous study was published with the elderly of this town.1717 Dutra MC, Uliano EJM, Machado DFGP, Martins T, Schuelter-Trevisol F, Trevisol DJ. Avaliação da função renal em idosos: um estudo de base populacional. J Bras Nefrol 2014;36:297-303.

We did a cross-sectional study that evaluated individuals between 18 and 59 years of age, living in Tubarão, SC. Considering that the adult population of Tubarão was of 64,849 people (2010 census), we used the estimated prevalence of 10.8% of chronic kidney disease,11 Lessa I. Níveis séricos de creatinina: hipercreatininemia em segmento da população adulta de Salvador, Brasil. Rev Bras Epidemiol 2004;7:176-86. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2004000200007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2004...
with a significance level of 5% and margin of error of 1%, resulting in a minimum sample of 138 individuals for a 95% confidence level.

The study included all participants from the ESATU study who underwent laboratory determinations of serum creatinine and who agreed to participate by signing the Term of Consent.

Participants were selected from simple random sampling, according to the numbers of homes registered in each of the 250 micro areas of the city, recorded in 27 family health strategy units (ESF). Each micro-area has a community health worker to make periodic home visits, and the coverage rate is estimated at about 90% of the resident population.

Data collection took place on Saturday mornings, on the premises of Our Lady of Conception Hospital, in pre-scheduled appointments of randomly selected participants. The patients were asked to fast for 12 hours, and to avoid drinking alcohol within 72 hours prior to the appointment.

The participant was interviewed so that we could collect demographic and socioeconomic data (age, gender, skin color, marital status, and educational level), behavioral data (physical activity, alcohol use, and cigarette) and clinical condition (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obese).

We considered as smokers those individuals who smoked 100 or more cigarettes during his life. We used the CAGE questionnaire for those adults who reported drinking alcohol currently or in the past.

To measure physical activity we used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - short version. We considered physically active those individuals who performed at least 30 minutes of physical activity five days a week or more, and ≥ 150 minutes of weekly physical activity was the cutoff point.

To define obesity among the adults studied, we used the cutoff point for the body mass index (BMI) proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) - individuals with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 are considered obese at any age (general obesity).

To assess systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels, we used the criteria proposed by the Brazilian Society of Cardiology in its Hypertension Guidelines of 2010, which consists of checking three blood pressure measurements within one-minute intervals between measurements, with the patient seated. Patients with mean blood pressure values ≥ 140/90 mmHg or those using antihypertensive medications were considered hypertensive.

Diabetes mellitus diagnose was based on the medical history of diabetes and/or use of hypoglycemic agents, and by serum determination of blood glucose ≥ 126 mg/dl.

We collected 10 ml of peripheral venous blood for serum creatinine and fasting blood sugar levels, done by a technically skilled professional.

Kidney function was assessed by serum creatinine and GFR estimated by the CKD-EPI formula (GFR = 141 X min (SCR/κ of 1) α X max (SCR/κ of 1) -1.209 X 0.993 X 1.018 Age [if female] X 1,159 [if black]).

GFR was found to be normal or abnormal when the calculated values were seen to be above or below 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 . This criterion was used to classify individuals into two groups: with normal GFR (> 60 min/ml/1.73 m2) and abnormal GFR (< 60 min/ml/1.73 m2); and into the five stages of kidney dysfunction according to the chronic kidney disease guide:1818 National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis 2002;39:S1-266.,1919 Magacho EJC, Pereira AC, Mansur HN, Bastos MG. Nomograma para a estimação da taxa de filtração glomerular baseado na Fórmula CKD-EPI. J Bras Nefrol 2012;34:313-5. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0101-2800.20120017
http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0101-2800.2012...
Normal kidney function: > 90 ml/min/1.73 m2; Mild kidney damage: 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m2; Moderate kidney impairment: 30 - 59 ml/min/1.73 m 2; Severe kidney damage: 15-29 ml/min/1.73 m 2; Kidney failure: < 15 ml/min/1.73 m2.

We entered the data in the Epidata software, version 3.1 (EpiData Association, Odense, Denmark) and statistical analysis was performed with the Statistical Software Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) version 20.0 (SPSS Statistics, Chicago, Illinois, USA). The qualitative variables were described in absolute and relative numbers. For associations between variables we applied the Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and the Student t -test for comparison of mean values in the normal distribution of quantitative variables. The confidence interval was set at 95%.

Results

Three hundred and seventy one adults were studied in a population-based study of the city of Tubarão. Of these, 237 were women (63.8%). Most of the adults were white (86.3%) and their mean age was 40.4 years (SD = 12.3).

Table 1 shows the sociodemographic variables and their comparison among participants with normal or decreased GFR.

Table 1
Comparison between variables of patients with gfr < 60ml/min and gfr > 60 ml/min. (n = 371)

Individuals with reduced GFR had higher mean age (52.4 ± 6.3 years) than those with normal GFR (40.3 ± 12.3 years) (p = 0.028). Table 2 depicts the clinical variables and comparisons among participants with normal or decreased GFR.

Table 2
Comparisons between variables of patients with gfr < 60 ml/min and gfr > 60 ml/min. (n = 371)

There was a significant difference as far as obesity was concerned, and the higher the BMI the lower the GFR in adults. In addition, individuals with hypertension diagnosis tended to have lower GFR compared to their non-hypertensive counterparts ( p < 0.06).

Table 3 depicts the sample distribution as to the classification of the GFR estimated by the CKD-EPI.

Table 3
Distribution and classification of the glomerular filtration rate estimated by the CKD-EPI formula, based on the chronic kidney disease guide

Figure 1 shows the prevalence of individuals with GFR < 60 ml/min calculated by different formulas in the literature.

Figure 1
Prevalence of patients with TFG < 60 ml/min/m2 calculated by different formulas. (n = 371).

We found that MDRD overestimated GFR as compared to the other formulas.

Discussion

In the present study we found a prevalence of 1.4% of subjects with GFR < 60 ml/min. Matsushita et al .2020 Matsushita K, Selvin E, Bash LD, Astor BC, Coresh J. Risk implications of the new CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation compared with the MDRD Study equation for estimated GFR: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am J Kidney Dis 2010;55:648-59. PMID: 20189275 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.12.016
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.12...
found a prevalence of 14.3%; however, there was a large proportion of elderly individuals in the sample, and old age is related to renal disorder and causes a higher percentage of GFR < 60.

There was no significant difference in GFR < 60 ml/min with respect to age, obesity; and we found a trend towards hypertension in the study population.

Studies have shown that advanced age is directly related to decreased GFR. Kidney function tends to decrease with increasing age, being an independent factor of the aforementioned comorbidities, confirming data in the literature,2121 Hasegawa E, Tsuchihashi T, Ohta Y. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and blood pressure control status in elderly hypertensive patients. Intern Med 2012;51:1473-8. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.51.7285
http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedici...

22 Grewal GS, Blake GM. Reference data for 51Cr-EDTA measurements of the glomerular filtration rate derived from live kidney donors. Nucl Med Commun 2005;26:61-5. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006231-200501000-00010
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006231-20050...
-2323 Imai E, Horio M, Watanabe T, Iseki K, Yamagata K, Hara S, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the Japanese general population. Clin Exp Nephrol 2009;3:621-30. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10157-009-0199-x
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10157-009-019...
that can be explained by the physiological and structural changes that occur in the renal system. In addition, epidemiological evidence shows that the prevalence of hypertension increases with idade.99 Santos EM, França AKTC, Salgado JVL, Brito DJA, Calado IL, Santos AM, et al. Valor da equação Cockcroft-Gault na triagem de função renal reduzida em pacientes com hipertensão arterial sistêmica. J Bras Nefrol 2011;33:313-21. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002011000300007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002011...
,2020 Matsushita K, Selvin E, Bash LD, Astor BC, Coresh J. Risk implications of the new CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation compared with the MDRD Study equation for estimated GFR: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am J Kidney Dis 2010;55:648-59. PMID: 20189275 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.12.016
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.12...

Regarding anthropometric indicators, patients considered obese had altered glomerular filtration rates when compared to otherwise normal individuals. It is quite settled in the literature that obesity is a major risk factor for glomerular hyperfiltration and progression to chronic kidney disease.66 Bastos MG, Kirsztajn GM. Doença renal crônica: importância do diagnóstico precoce, encaminhamento imediato e abordagem interdisciplinar estruturada para melhora do desfecho em pacientes ainda não submetidos à diálise. J Bras Nefrol 2011;33:93-108. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002011000100013
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002011...
,2424 Gerchman F, Tong J, Utzschneider KM, Zraika S, Udayasankar J, McNeely MJ, et al. Body mass index is associated with increased creatinine clearance by a mechanism independent of body fat distribution. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:3781-8. PMID: 19584179 DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2008-2508
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2008-2508...

The studied subjects who had hypertension diagnosed tended to have decreased GFR, a fact proven by Zhang et al., 2525 Zhang L, Wang F, Wang L, Wang W, Liu B, Liu J, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in China: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet 2012;379:815-22. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60033-6
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)...
who pointed out that the main factors associated with kidney damage were: hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

Although the literature shows an association between diabetes mellitus and kidney damage, this study did not find statistical significance in this parameter, possibly due to the small number of individuals with DM in the sample. Some studies involving only diabetic patients showed high prevalence of GFR < 60 and association between diabetes and kidney injury.2626 Ravera M, Noberasco G, Re M, Filippi A, Gallina AM, Weiss U, et al. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk in hypertensive type 2 diabetics: a primary care perspective. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009;24:1528-33. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfn692
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfn692...
,2727 Villarroel RP, Parra LX, Ardiles AL. Frequency of chronic kidney disease among ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. Rev Med Chil 2012;140:287-94.

In this study there was no significant difference in renal function as far as gender is concerned, which corroborates data found in the literature.11 Lessa I. Níveis séricos de creatinina: hipercreatininemia em segmento da população adulta de Salvador, Brasil. Rev Bras Epidemiol 2004;7:176-86. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2004000200007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2004...
,22 Bastos RMR, Bastos MG, Ribeiro LC, Bastos RV, Teixeira MT. Prevalência da doença renal crônica nos estágios 3, 4 e 5 em adultos. Rev Assoc Med Bras 2009;55:40-4. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-42302009000100013,2828 Ma YC, Zuo L, Chen L, Su ZM, Meng S, Li JJ, et al. Distribution of measured GFR in apparently healthy Chinese adults. Am J Kidney Dis 2010;56:420-1. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.05.005
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.05...

In the study there was no statistically significant difference between race and renal function. Similar data has been reported by Levey et al .;1515 Levey AS, Coresh J, Greene T, Stevens LA, Zhang YL, Hendriksen S, et al.; Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. Using standardized serum creatinine values in the modification of diet in renal disease study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 2006;145:247-54. PMID: 16908915 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-145-4-200608150-00004
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-145-...
however, authors such as Peralta et al .2929 Peralta CA, Katz R, DeBoer I, Ix J, Sarnak M, Kramer H, et al. Racial and ethnic differences in kidney function decline among persons without chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011;22:1327-34. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2010090960
http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2010090960...
pointed out that African-descendants had higher rates of decline in renal function regardless of sociodemographic or traditional risk factors.

As for the habits adopted by the sample, this studied showed no positive association between smoking and alcoholism and decreased GFR; however, it is well documented that smoking is a risk factor associated with decline in kidney function.3030 Rezende Neta DS, Brandão DB, Silva KCO, Santos TMMG, Silva GRF. Avaliação renal de hipertensos pela clearance de creatinina num centro de saúde de Teresina-PI, Brasil. Rev Enf Ref 2012;3:25-31. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12707/RIII1165
http://dx.doi.org/10.12707/RIII1165...

The major criticism over the CKD-EPI paradigm and using the MDRD equation is that the underestimation of GFR measured by the MDRD leads to false positive diagnoses, as per depicted on Figure 1. When calculated by the MDRD, the prevalence of abnormal GFR was above 70% when compared to other formulas. This fact overestimates the risks and therefore increases healthcare costs.3131 Stevens LA, Li S, Kurella Tamura M, Chen SC, Vassalotti JA, Norris KC, et al. Comparison of the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equations: risk factors for and complications of CKD and mortality in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP). Am J Kidney Dis 2011;57:S9-16. PMID: 21338849 DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.11.007
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.11...

Although GFR < 60 ml/min prevalence rates were calculated by all formulas, we chose to use the CKD-EPI formula for comparative analyzes of individuals from the ESATU study due to the results found in this study and in several papers.22 Bastos RMR, Bastos MG, Ribeiro LC, Bastos RV, Teixeira MT. Prevalência da doença renal crônica nos estágios 3, 4 e 5 em adultos. Rev Assoc Med Bras 2009;55:40-4. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-42302009000100013,1818 National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis 2002;39:S1-266.,3232 Miller G. Current status of reporting eGFR. College of American Pathologists. 2010 [Acesso 21 Out. 2013]. Disponível em: http://www.cap.org/apps/docs/committees/chemistry/current_status_reporting_egfr_09.pdfw
http://www.cap.org/apps/docs/committees/...

We concede to the methodological limitations in this study. For instance, we found no elements to differentiate between transient decrease in glomerular filtration rate and incipient CKD. Because it is a population sample, mainly involving healthy people and young adults, the prevalence of hypertension and DM was low; consequently, there was a low prevalence of CKD. The ESATU study limited the sample to individuals between 18 and 59 years of age, because the ESITU1717 Dutra MC, Uliano EJM, Machado DFGP, Martins T, Schuelter-Trevisol F, Trevisol DJ. Avaliação da função renal em idosos: um estudo de base populacional. J Bras Nefrol 2014;36:297-303. study had already been carried out for individuals aged 60 years or more. Thus, this resulted in lower prevalence of CKD, as evidence shows that older age is directly related to TFG.

Data does not enable us to infer that the 1.4% individuals found with GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 mm2 have CKD or not, since the CKD definition proposed by the K/DOQI and endorsed by the National Kidney Foundation/Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) takes into account the presence of kidney damage (especially persistent proteinuria) with or without decreased GFR for a period of three months or more. Data on lifestyle (such as smoking, alcohol use, diet, physical activity) were self-reported by respondents, which can lead to low accuracy information. Another limiting factor is that the CKD-EPI formula is relatively recent, with only a few studies in other populations

Conclusions

We concluded that most individuals in the sample had normal GFR and that only 1.4% had moderate or severe degree of dysfunction. Older age and obesity were positively associated with decreased GFR and individuals with hypertension had a tendency towards reduced GFR. The literature remains scarce as to studies involving the adult population with the new CKDEPI formula. It is known that the CKD-EPI is not the best marker of renal function; it is, nonetheless, a good predictor of changes in GFR in the general population, it is of low cost and it must be used in clinical practice.

  • Foundation for Research and Innovation Support of the State of Santa Catarina (FAPESC).

References

  • 1
    Lessa I. Níveis séricos de creatinina: hipercreatininemia em segmento da população adulta de Salvador, Brasil. Rev Bras Epidemiol 2004;7:176-86. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2004000200007
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-790X2004000200007
  • 2
    Bastos RMR, Bastos MG, Ribeiro LC, Bastos RV, Teixeira MT. Prevalência da doença renal crônica nos estágios 3, 4 e 5 em adultos. Rev Assoc Med Bras 2009;55:40-4. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-42302009000100013
    »
  • 3
    Katharina-Susanne S, Kollerits B, Ritz E, Hersberger M, Kronenberg F, Eckardstein AV. Creatinina sérica, cistatina C e proteína ß-traço no estadiamento diagnóstico e na predição da progressão da doença renal crônica não diabética. J Bras Patol Med Lab 2011;47:13-23.
  • 4
    Kirsztajn GM. Avaliação do ritmo de filtração glomerular. J Bras Patol Med Lab 2007;43:257-64. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-24442007000400007
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-24442007000400007
  • 5
    Kirsztajn GM, Bastos MG, Andriolo A. Dia Mundial do Rim 2011. Proteinúria e creatinina sérica: testes essenciais para diagnóstico de doença renal crônica. J Bras Patol Med Lab 2011;47:100-3. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-24442011000200002
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1676-24442011000200002
  • 6
    Bastos MG, Kirsztajn GM. Doença renal crônica: importância do diagnóstico precoce, encaminhamento imediato e abordagem interdisciplinar estruturada para melhora do desfecho em pacientes ainda não submetidos à diálise. J Bras Nefrol 2011;33:93-108. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002011000100013
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002011000100013
  • 7
    Silva ABT, Molina MDCB, Rodrigues SL, Pimentel EB, Baldo MP, Mill JG. Correlação entre a depuração plasmática de creatinina utilizando urina coletada durante 24 horas e 12 horas. J Bras Nefrol 2010;32:165-72. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002010000200005
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002010000200005
  • 8
    Burmeister JE, Agnolin R, Costa MG, Miltersteiner DR, Campos BM. Creatinina plasmática normal significa função renal normal? Rev AMRIGS 2007;51:114-20.
  • 9
    Santos EM, França AKTC, Salgado JVL, Brito DJA, Calado IL, Santos AM, et al. Valor da equação Cockcroft-Gault na triagem de função renal reduzida em pacientes com hipertensão arterial sistêmica. J Bras Nefrol 2011;33:313-21. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002011000300007
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002011000300007
  • 10
    Duncan L, Heathcote J, Djurdjev O, Levin A. Screening for renal disease using serum creatinine: who are we missing? Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001;16:1042-6.
  • 11
    Pinto PS, Silva FJ, Munch ECSM, Chaboubah A, Bastos RV, Andrade LCF, et al. Inadequabilidade da creatinina sérica na identificação precoce da disfunção renal. J Bras Nefrol 2004;26:196-201.
  • 12
    Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Zhang YL, Castro AF 3rd, Feldman HI, et al.; CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration). A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 2009;150:604-12. PMID: 19414839 DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-150-9-200905050-00006
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-150-9-200905050-00006
  • 13
    Lim WH, Lim EM, McDonald S. Lean body mass-adjusted Cockcroft and Gault formula improves the estimation of glomerular filtration rate in subjects with normal-range serum creatinine. Nephrology (Carlton) 2006;11:250-6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1797.2006.00560.x
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1797.2006.00560.x
  • 14
    Stevens LA, Coresh J, Feldman HI, Greene T, Lash JP, Nelson RG, et al. Evaluation of the modification of diet in renal disease study equation in a large diverse population. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;18:2749-57. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2007020199
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2007020199
  • 15
    Levey AS, Coresh J, Greene T, Stevens LA, Zhang YL, Hendriksen S, et al.; Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. Using standardized serum creatinine values in the modification of diet in renal disease study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 2006;145:247-54. PMID: 16908915 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-145-4-200608150-00004
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-145-4-200608150-00004
  • 16
    Lin J, Knight EL, Hogan ML, Singh AK. A comparison of prediction equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate in adults without kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003;14:2573-80. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ASN.0000088721.98173.4B
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ASN.0000088721.98173.4B
  • 17
    Dutra MC, Uliano EJM, Machado DFGP, Martins T, Schuelter-Trevisol F, Trevisol DJ. Avaliação da função renal em idosos: um estudo de base populacional. J Bras Nefrol 2014;36:297-303.
  • 18
    National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis 2002;39:S1-266.
  • 19
    Magacho EJC, Pereira AC, Mansur HN, Bastos MG. Nomograma para a estimação da taxa de filtração glomerular baseado na Fórmula CKD-EPI. J Bras Nefrol 2012;34:313-5. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0101-2800.20120017
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0101-2800.20120017
  • 20
    Matsushita K, Selvin E, Bash LD, Astor BC, Coresh J. Risk implications of the new CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation compared with the MDRD Study equation for estimated GFR: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am J Kidney Dis 2010;55:648-59. PMID: 20189275 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.12.016
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.12.016
  • 21
    Hasegawa E, Tsuchihashi T, Ohta Y. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and blood pressure control status in elderly hypertensive patients. Intern Med 2012;51:1473-8. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.51.7285
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.51.7285
  • 22
    Grewal GS, Blake GM. Reference data for 51Cr-EDTA measurements of the glomerular filtration rate derived from live kidney donors. Nucl Med Commun 2005;26:61-5. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006231-200501000-00010
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006231-200501000-00010
  • 23
    Imai E, Horio M, Watanabe T, Iseki K, Yamagata K, Hara S, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the Japanese general population. Clin Exp Nephrol 2009;3:621-30. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10157-009-0199-x
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10157-009-0199-x
  • 24
    Gerchman F, Tong J, Utzschneider KM, Zraika S, Udayasankar J, McNeely MJ, et al. Body mass index is associated with increased creatinine clearance by a mechanism independent of body fat distribution. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:3781-8. PMID: 19584179 DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2008-2508
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2008-2508
  • 25
    Zhang L, Wang F, Wang L, Wang W, Liu B, Liu J, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in China: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet 2012;379:815-22. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60033-6
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60033-6
  • 26
    Ravera M, Noberasco G, Re M, Filippi A, Gallina AM, Weiss U, et al. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk in hypertensive type 2 diabetics: a primary care perspective. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009;24:1528-33. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfn692
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfn692
  • 27
    Villarroel RP, Parra LX, Ardiles AL. Frequency of chronic kidney disease among ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes. Rev Med Chil 2012;140:287-94.
  • 28
    Ma YC, Zuo L, Chen L, Su ZM, Meng S, Li JJ, et al. Distribution of measured GFR in apparently healthy Chinese adults. Am J Kidney Dis 2010;56:420-1. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.05.005
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.05.005
  • 29
    Peralta CA, Katz R, DeBoer I, Ix J, Sarnak M, Kramer H, et al. Racial and ethnic differences in kidney function decline among persons without chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011;22:1327-34. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2010090960
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2010090960
  • 30
    Rezende Neta DS, Brandão DB, Silva KCO, Santos TMMG, Silva GRF. Avaliação renal de hipertensos pela clearance de creatinina num centro de saúde de Teresina-PI, Brasil. Rev Enf Ref 2012;3:25-31. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12707/RIII1165
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.12707/RIII1165
  • 31
    Stevens LA, Li S, Kurella Tamura M, Chen SC, Vassalotti JA, Norris KC, et al. Comparison of the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equations: risk factors for and complications of CKD and mortality in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP). Am J Kidney Dis 2011;57:S9-16. PMID: 21338849 DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.11.007
    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.11.007
  • 32
    Miller G. Current status of reporting eGFR. College of American Pathologists. 2010 [Acesso 21 Out. 2013]. Disponível em: http://www.cap.org/apps/docs/committees/chemistry/current_status_reporting_egfr_09.pdfw
    » http://www.cap.org/apps/docs/committees/chemistry/current_status_reporting_egfr_09.pdfw

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Apr-Jun 2015

History

  • Received
    08 Aug 2014
  • Accepted
    09 Dec 2014
Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia Rua Machado Bittencourt, 205 - 5ºandar - conj. 53 - Vila Clementino - CEP:04044-000 - São Paulo SP, Telefones: (11) 5579-1242/5579-6937, Fax (11) 5573-6000 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: bjnephrology@gmail.com