A case of renal recovery in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome treated with eculizumab

João Samuel de Holanda João Pedro Pereira da Cunha Caio Cesar Cervi Lagana Maíra Carvalho Gallucci Domingos Candiota Chula Maria Fernanda Soares Marcelo Mazza Nascimento About the authors

Resumo

A síndrome hemolítico-urêmica atípica (SHUa) é uma doença grave, pouco prevalente, com acometimento em qualquer idade e apresentação esporádica ou familiar. A SHUa é causada por uma ativação descontrolada do sistema complemento. A plasmaférese foi o tratamento padronizado por anos, com resultados desfavoráveis, levando à doença renal crônica terminal ou morte em aproximadamente 40% dos pacientes durante as primeiras manifestações clínicas. O Eculizumab é um anticorpo monoclonal humanizado contra o componente C5 do complemento e nos últimos anos vem sendo utilizado como novo arsenal terapêutico com resultados promissores. O presente caso descreve uma paciente adulta tratada com eculizumab em que se obteve resultados satisfatórios evitando-se potenciais riscos e aumento da morbidade com o procedimento de plasmaférese.

Palavras-chave:
lesão renal aguda; microangiopatias trombóticas; síndrome hemolítico-urêmica

ABSTRACT

Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, life-threatening disease that can occur at any age and be sporadic or familial. aHUS is caused by an uncontrolled activation of the complement system. Plasma Exchange (PE) has been the standard treatment for years with poor results, leading approximately 40% of patients to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death during the first clinical manifestation. Eculizumab, an humanized monoclonal antibody directed against complement component C5, has emerged in the last few years as a new therapheutic aproach with promising results. Our goal is to present a case of an adult patient where eculizumab was sucessfully used as upfront therapy avoiding the potential significant morbidity of PE.

Keywords:
acute kidney injury; hemolyticuremic syndrome; thrombotic microangiopathies

Introduction

The thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) syndromes are extremely diverse in its presentation, could be acquired or hereditary and may affect children and adults.11 George JN, Nester CM. Syndromes of thrombotic microangiopathy. N Engl J Med 2014;371:654-66. PMID: 25119611DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353...
The pathological process of microangiopathic haemolytic anemia (MAHA), consumptive thrombocytopenia and microvascular thrombosis are the cardinal clinical features present in this condition, leading to organ injury. Patients mostly have acute kidney disease and brain dysfunction; cardiac, gastrointestinal and other organ injury may be present though.11 George JN, Nester CM. Syndromes of thrombotic microangiopathy. N Engl J Med 2014;371:654-66. PMID: 25119611DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353...
,22 Barbour T, Johnson S, Cohney S, Hughes P. Thrombotic microangiopathy and associated renal disorders. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012;27:2673-85. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279...
The histological features are vascular damage that comprise arteriolar and capillary thrombosis, altered vessel walls and endothelium surfaces.11 George JN, Nester CM. Syndromes of thrombotic microangiopathy. N Engl J Med 2014;371:654-66. PMID: 25119611DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353...

2 Barbour T, Johnson S, Cohney S, Hughes P. Thrombotic microangiopathy and associated renal disorders. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012;27:2673-85. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279...
-33 Tsai HM. A mechanistic approach to the diagnosis and management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Transfus Med Rev 2014;28:187-97. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.08.004
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.08...

There are primary thrombotic microangiopathy disorders classified based on their probable causes such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), complemente-mediated TMA, also known as atypical haemolytical uraemic syndrome (aHUS), shiga toxin-mediated hemolytic-uremic syndrome (ST-HUS), drug-mediated TMA, metabolism-mediated TMA, coagulation-mediated TMA.11 George JN, Nester CM. Syndromes of thrombotic microangiopathy. N Engl J Med 2014;371:654-66. PMID: 25119611DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353...
Many patients have microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia that are manifestation of an underlying disease (Table 1).11 George JN, Nester CM. Syndromes of thrombotic microangiopathy. N Engl J Med 2014;371:654-66. PMID: 25119611DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353...
,22 Barbour T, Johnson S, Cohney S, Hughes P. Thrombotic microangiopathy and associated renal disorders. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012;27:2673-85. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279...

Table 1
Differential diagnosis of MAHA and thrombocytopenia

Atypical haemolytical uraemic syndrome is a complement-mediated TMA caused by and uncontrolled terminal complement activation of the alternative pathway.11 George JN, Nester CM. Syndromes of thrombotic microangiopathy. N Engl J Med 2014;371:654-66. PMID: 25119611DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353...

2 Barbour T, Johnson S, Cohney S, Hughes P. Thrombotic microangiopathy and associated renal disorders. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012;27:2673-85. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279...

3 Tsai HM. A mechanistic approach to the diagnosis and management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Transfus Med Rev 2014;28:187-97. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.08.004
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.08...
-44 Thajudeen B, Sussman A, Bracamonte E. A case of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome successfully treated with eculizumab. Case Rep Nephrol Urol 2013;3:139-46. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520...
Mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) approaches 33-40% of acute phase aHUS cases.44 Thajudeen B, Sussman A, Bracamonte E. A case of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome successfully treated with eculizumab. Case Rep Nephrol Urol 2013;3:139-46. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520...
Despite plasma exchange or plasma infusion, 65% of all patients have at least one of these complications in the first year after the diagnosis: requirement of dialysis, ESRD or death.33 Tsai HM. A mechanistic approach to the diagnosis and management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Transfus Med Rev 2014;28:187-97. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.08.004
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.08...
,55 Nguyen MH, Mathew JJ, Denunzio TM, Carmichael MG. Diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and response to eculizumab therapy. Hawaii J Med Public Health 2014;73:22-4. PMID: 25285252

Anticomplement therapy is an important tool currently available for management of aHUS.11 George JN, Nester CM. Syndromes of thrombotic microangiopathy. N Engl J Med 2014;371:654-66. PMID: 25119611DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353...

2 Barbour T, Johnson S, Cohney S, Hughes P. Thrombotic microangiopathy and associated renal disorders. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012;27:2673-85. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279...

3 Tsai HM. A mechanistic approach to the diagnosis and management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Transfus Med Rev 2014;28:187-97. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.08.004
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.08...

4 Thajudeen B, Sussman A, Bracamonte E. A case of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome successfully treated with eculizumab. Case Rep Nephrol Urol 2013;3:139-46. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520...

5 Nguyen MH, Mathew JJ, Denunzio TM, Carmichael MG. Diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and response to eculizumab therapy. Hawaii J Med Public Health 2014;73:22-4. PMID: 25285252

6 Tschumi S, Gugger M, Bucher BS, Riedl M, Simonetti GD. Eculizumab in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: long-term clinical course and histological findings. Pediatr Nephrol 2011;26:2085-8. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-011-1989-4
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-011-198...

7 Fakhouri F, Frémeaux-Bacchi V. Thrombotic microangiopathy: eculizumab for atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome: what next? Nat Rev Nephrol. 2013;9(9):495-6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2013.150
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2013.15...

8 Nayer A, Asif A. Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A Clinical Review. Am J Ther. 2014. [Epub ahead of print]
-99 Vaisbich MH, Henriques LS, Watanabe A, Pereira LM, Metran CC, Malheiros DA, et al. Uso do eculizumab na síndrome hemolítica urêmica atípica - relato de caso e revisão da literatura. J Bras Nefrol 2013;35:237-41. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0101-2800.20130037
http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0101-2800.2013...
Eculizumab is the first recombinant humanized monoclonal anti-C5 antibody that prevents the activation of the terminal complement pathway, preserving the proximal pathway.11 George JN, Nester CM. Syndromes of thrombotic microangiopathy. N Engl J Med 2014;371:654-66. PMID: 25119611DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353...

2 Barbour T, Johnson S, Cohney S, Hughes P. Thrombotic microangiopathy and associated renal disorders. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012;27:2673-85. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279...

3 Tsai HM. A mechanistic approach to the diagnosis and management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Transfus Med Rev 2014;28:187-97. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.08.004
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.08...

4 Thajudeen B, Sussman A, Bracamonte E. A case of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome successfully treated with eculizumab. Case Rep Nephrol Urol 2013;3:139-46. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520...

5 Nguyen MH, Mathew JJ, Denunzio TM, Carmichael MG. Diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and response to eculizumab therapy. Hawaii J Med Public Health 2014;73:22-4. PMID: 25285252

6 Tschumi S, Gugger M, Bucher BS, Riedl M, Simonetti GD. Eculizumab in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: long-term clinical course and histological findings. Pediatr Nephrol 2011;26:2085-8. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-011-1989-4
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-011-198...

7 Fakhouri F, Frémeaux-Bacchi V. Thrombotic microangiopathy: eculizumab for atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome: what next? Nat Rev Nephrol. 2013;9(9):495-6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2013.150
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2013.15...

8 Nayer A, Asif A. Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A Clinical Review. Am J Ther. 2014. [Epub ahead of print]
-99 Vaisbich MH, Henriques LS, Watanabe A, Pereira LM, Metran CC, Malheiros DA, et al. Uso do eculizumab na síndrome hemolítica urêmica atípica - relato de caso e revisão da literatura. J Bras Nefrol 2013;35:237-41. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0101-2800.20130037
http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0101-2800.2013...
It is an effective therapy and it emerges as a first-line treatment for aHUS.11 George JN, Nester CM. Syndromes of thrombotic microangiopathy. N Engl J Med 2014;371:654-66. PMID: 25119611DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353...

2 Barbour T, Johnson S, Cohney S, Hughes P. Thrombotic microangiopathy and associated renal disorders. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012;27:2673-85. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279...

3 Tsai HM. A mechanistic approach to the diagnosis and management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Transfus Med Rev 2014;28:187-97. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.08.004
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.08...

4 Thajudeen B, Sussman A, Bracamonte E. A case of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome successfully treated with eculizumab. Case Rep Nephrol Urol 2013;3:139-46. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520...

5 Nguyen MH, Mathew JJ, Denunzio TM, Carmichael MG. Diagnosis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and response to eculizumab therapy. Hawaii J Med Public Health 2014;73:22-4. PMID: 25285252

6 Tschumi S, Gugger M, Bucher BS, Riedl M, Simonetti GD. Eculizumab in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: long-term clinical course and histological findings. Pediatr Nephrol 2011;26:2085-8. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-011-1989-4
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-011-198...

7 Fakhouri F, Frémeaux-Bacchi V. Thrombotic microangiopathy: eculizumab for atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome: what next? Nat Rev Nephrol. 2013;9(9):495-6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2013.150
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2013.15...

8 Nayer A, Asif A. Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A Clinical Review. Am J Ther. 2014. [Epub ahead of print]
-99 Vaisbich MH, Henriques LS, Watanabe A, Pereira LM, Metran CC, Malheiros DA, et al. Uso do eculizumab na síndrome hemolítica urêmica atípica - relato de caso e revisão da literatura. J Bras Nefrol 2013;35:237-41. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0101-2800.20130037
http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0101-2800.2013...
Here, we report a case of aHUS successfully treated with eculizumab as upfront therapy.

Case report

Female, 35 years-old, presented complaining with dyspnea, nausea and oliguria initiated 6 days before admission. She referred flu-like symptoms 15 days before. Her past medical history was unremarkable. At admission into the Emergency Department the patient's vital signs was a blood pressure of 160/90 mmHg, pulse rate of 120 beats/min, respiratory rate of 26 breaths/min, oxygen saturation in room air of 94%, axillary temperature of 36,5 °C. On physical examination, she presented jaundice in sclera, pale mucous membranes and a mild edema in legs bilaterally. The cardiac and pulmonary auscultation were normal. The laboratory tests on admission are illustrated at Table 2.

Table 2
Laboratory tests on admission

Acute renal failure was managed with hemodialysis and clinical support was maintained. Laboratory tests collected to investigate viral hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus, pregnancy, ANA (antinuclear antibody), direct Coombs, lupus anticoagulante, anticardiolipin antibodies, ANCA (anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies), anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies, leptospirosis IgG and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and stool cultures were negative. The quantitative dosage of the complemente fractions (C3- Beta 1C e C4-Beta 1E) was at normal range. An abdominal ultrasound evidenced normal morphology of the kidneys, diffuse increased echogenicity of renal parenchyma billaterally and loss of corticomedullary differentiation, signs suggestive of parenchymal nephropathy and the renal artery doppler ultrasound was normal. In view of the clinical and laboratory data, this case suggested the diagnosis of thrombotic microangiopathy. The sequencial investigation included serum ADAMTS13 activity - disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 - and renal biopsy. The result of ADAMTS 13 activity was 55% (reference value > 70%) and the histological findings on renal biopsy was thrombotic microangiopathy), presence of crescents in two of the thirteen glomerulus and absence of chronic tubule-interstitial damage (Figure 1 and 2). The immunofluorescence staining panel revealed granular and diffuse segmental IgM deposits in glomerular capillary loops. IgA, IgG and C3 analysis was negative.

Figure 1
Glomerulus showing mesangiolysis and peripheral loops containing fragmented erythrocytes and luminal microthrombi. There is proliferation of parietal epithelium with incipient crescent formation.
Figure 2
Arteriole showing intense fragmentation of erythrocytes in the lumen and wall and signs of mucinous degeneration of media.

Supported by the diagnosis workup the patient received the diagnosis of aHUS and we choose to use eculizumab as upfront therapy. After meningococcal prophylaxis, we started the patient on eculizumab1200 mg weekly for 4 weeks and after 900 mg every 15 days. During the first months of treatment there was complete hematological remission and continuous improvement of the renal function (Figure 3). The patient discontinued hemodialysis and the current estimated glomerular filtration rate is 73.2 mL/min per 1.73 m2. She maintains outpatient treatment with eculizumab 900 mg every 15 days.

Figure 3
Melhora na função renal durante o tratamento.

Discussion

There is no objective diagnostic criteria for aHUS and this disease could share clinical manifestations with other TMA syndromes.11 George JN, Nester CM. Syndromes of thrombotic microangiopathy. N Engl J Med 2014;371:654-66. PMID: 25119611DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353...
,1010 Cataland SR, Wu HM. Diagnosis and management of complement mediated thrombotic microangiopathies. Blood Rev 2014;28:67-74. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2014.01.003
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2014.01...
The promptly recognition of a suspected case is essential to the specific management of aHUS and it modifies clinical outcomes for patients.44 Thajudeen B, Sussman A, Bracamonte E. A case of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome successfully treated with eculizumab. Case Rep Nephrol Urol 2013;3:139-46. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520...
,1010 Cataland SR, Wu HM. Diagnosis and management of complement mediated thrombotic microangiopathies. Blood Rev 2014;28:67-74. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2014.01.003
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2014.01...
Recent studies reported that some laboratory data can accurately predict patient's pretreatment ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) activity, severely deficiente in most cases of acquired TTP, which helps in the differentiation between aHUS and TTP.1010 Cataland SR, Wu HM. Diagnosis and management of complement mediated thrombotic microangiopathies. Blood Rev 2014;28:67-74. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2014.01.003
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2014.01...
The findings of platelet count < 30 X 109/L and serum creatinine ≤ 2.25 mg/dL have been associated with severe deficient ADAMTS 13 activity.1010 Cataland SR, Wu HM. Diagnosis and management of complement mediated thrombotic microangiopathies. Blood Rev 2014;28:67-74. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2014.01.003
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2014.01...

It remains useful to obtain pretreatment ADAMTS 13 activity, because it helps clinicians in the correct management of patients in the majority of cases. However, this exam should not be used alone to guide treatment.1010 Cataland SR, Wu HM. Diagnosis and management of complement mediated thrombotic microangiopathies. Blood Rev 2014;28:67-74. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2014.01.003
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2014.01...
The current management of aHUS consists in plasma exchange (PE), eculizumab, liver and kidney transplant.1111 Kaplan BS, Ruebner RL, Spinale JM, Copelovitch L. Current treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Intractable Rare Dis Res 2014;3:34-45. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/irdr.2014.01001
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/irdr.2014.0100...
Historically, PE has been the standard of care in patients with aHUS, but PE proved beneficial for short term hematologic remissions in aHUS, however end stage renal disease rates still high.77 Fakhouri F, Frémeaux-Bacchi V. Thrombotic microangiopathy: eculizumab for atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome: what next? Nat Rev Nephrol. 2013;9(9):495-6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2013.150
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2013.15...
,1212 Vaisbich MH. Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome in childhood. J Bras Nefrol 2014;36:208-20. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0101-2800.20140032
http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0101-2800.2014...
,1313 Verhave JC, Wetzels JF, van de Kar NC. Novel aspects of atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome and the role of eculizumab. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014;29:iv131-41. It remains a treatment option which brings to the patient possible serious morbidities such as transfusion related adverse events and usually requires a central venous line that raises the rates of sepsis and thrombosis in patients submitted to the procedure.

Recently, the physiopathological basis of many kidney diseases is linked to complement cascade dysregulation and the complement system is now recognized as an important mediator of transplant injury. Blocking the complement cascade in kidney transplant recipientes could be an option to improve graft and patient survival rate. Some pathogenetic similarities with aHUS indicate anti-C5 therapy as treatment option for C3 glomerulopathies.1414 Salvadori M, Rosso G, Bertoni E. Complement involvement in kidney diseases: From physiopathology to therapeutical targeting. World J Nephrol 2015;4:169-84. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5527/wjn.v4.i2.169
http://dx.doi.org/10.5527/wjn.v4.i2.169...

Eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the proinflammatory and the cytolytic effects of terminal complement activation. It binds to complement C5, block the cleavage of C5 into C5b, hinders the generation of proinflammatory C5a and the potentially lytic C5b-9 (membrane attack) complex.11 George JN, Nester CM. Syndromes of thrombotic microangiopathy. N Engl J Med 2014;371:654-66. PMID: 25119611DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1312353...

2 Barbour T, Johnson S, Cohney S, Hughes P. Thrombotic microangiopathy and associated renal disorders. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012;27:2673-85. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs279...

3 Tsai HM. A mechanistic approach to the diagnosis and management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Transfus Med Rev 2014;28:187-97. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.08.004
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2014.08...
-44 Thajudeen B, Sussman A, Bracamonte E. A case of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome successfully treated with eculizumab. Case Rep Nephrol Urol 2013;3:139-46. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520...

The anticomplement therapy with eculizumab in aHUS proved to achieve hematological remission, promoted stabilization or improvement in renal function with reported cases of discontinuation of dialysis, increased the TMA event-free status for patients and it reduced mortality.77 Fakhouri F, Frémeaux-Bacchi V. Thrombotic microangiopathy: eculizumab for atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome: what next? Nat Rev Nephrol. 2013;9(9):495-6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2013.150
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2013.15...
,1111 Kaplan BS, Ruebner RL, Spinale JM, Copelovitch L. Current treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Intractable Rare Dis Res 2014;3:34-45. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/irdr.2014.01001
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/irdr.2014.0100...
,1313 Verhave JC, Wetzels JF, van de Kar NC. Novel aspects of atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome and the role of eculizumab. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014;29:iv131-41. The most frequently reported adverse reactions with this treatment were headache, hypertension, cough, upper respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, anemia and leukopenia.88 Nayer A, Asif A. Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A Clinical Review. Am J Ther. 2014. [Epub ahead of print],1111 Kaplan BS, Ruebner RL, Spinale JM, Copelovitch L. Current treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Intractable Rare Dis Res 2014;3:34-45. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/irdr.2014.01001
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/irdr.2014.0100...
Eculizumab therapy augment the risk of meningococal infections and the vaccination against Neisseria meningitidis should be done at least two weeks prior the treatment. Patients usually need promptly therapy and a 2-week course of antibiotics may be administered.88 Nayer A, Asif A. Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A Clinical Review. Am J Ther. 2014. [Epub ahead of print],1111 Kaplan BS, Ruebner RL, Spinale JM, Copelovitch L. Current treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Intractable Rare Dis Res 2014;3:34-45. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/irdr.2014.01001
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/irdr.2014.0100...
The optimal duration of long-term treatment with eculizumab remais to be definied.77 Fakhouri F, Frémeaux-Bacchi V. Thrombotic microangiopathy: eculizumab for atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome: what next? Nat Rev Nephrol. 2013;9(9):495-6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2013.150
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2013.15...
,88 Nayer A, Asif A. Atypical Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A Clinical Review. Am J Ther. 2014. [Epub ahead of print],1010 Cataland SR, Wu HM. Diagnosis and management of complement mediated thrombotic microangiopathies. Blood Rev 2014;28:67-74. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2014.01.003
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2014.01...
The very high probability of aHUS in this case, even without results of genetic tests, guide us to initiate eculizumab as first-line therapy without previous plasmapheresis.1515 Christmann M, Hansen M, Bergmann C, Schwabe D, Brand J, Schneider W. Eculizumab as first-line therapy for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatrics 2014;133:e1759-63. PMID: 24843059 DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-1787
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-1787...
The anticomplement therapy needs to be started as soon as possible to stop TMA progression and to avoid irreversible organ damage, improving patient's prognosis.44 Thajudeen B, Sussman A, Bracamonte E. A case of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome successfully treated with eculizumab. Case Rep Nephrol Urol 2013;3:139-46. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357520...
,77 Fakhouri F, Frémeaux-Bacchi V. Thrombotic microangiopathy: eculizumab for atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome: what next? Nat Rev Nephrol. 2013;9(9):495-6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2013.150
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2013.15...
,1010 Cataland SR, Wu HM. Diagnosis and management of complement mediated thrombotic microangiopathies. Blood Rev 2014;28:67-74. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2014.01.003
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2014.01...
,1515 Christmann M, Hansen M, Bergmann C, Schwabe D, Brand J, Schneider W. Eculizumab as first-line therapy for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatrics 2014;133:e1759-63. PMID: 24843059 DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-1787
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-1787...

In conclusion, eculizumab clearly modified the clinical course of the disease, with improvement of hematological and renal dysfunctions, without severe adverse effects. The anticomplement therapy was a landmark in aHUS management and more studies have to be done with eculizumab as initial treatment for aHUS.

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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-1787

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Jan-Mar 2016

History

  • Received
    18 Aug 2015
  • Accepted
    04 Oct 2015
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