Selenium plasma levels in hemodialysis patients: Comparison between North and Southeast of Brazil

Milena Barcza Stockler-Pinto Olaf Malm Suellen Regina Geraldo Azevedo Najla Elias Farage Paulo Renato Dorneles Silvia Maria Franciscato Cozzolino Denise Mafra About the authors

Abstracts

Introduction:

Patients with chronic kidney disease present selenium (Se) plasma deficiency which is an essential trace element with important biological functions and, the best known biological role is attributed to its presence in the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The Se content of foods depends on soil and some authors have suggested that Amazon soil (North Brazilian region) has high Se concentrations when compared to other regions of Brazil.

Objective:

The objective of this work was to compare the Se status in hemodialysis (HD) patients from North and Southeast of Brazil.

Methods:

Thirty-eight patients from Southeast region (22 men and 16 women, 15% diabetic, 53.5 ± 26.4 yrs) were compared to 40 patients from North region (28 men and 12 women, 22.5% diabetic, 63.5 ± 11.9 yrs). Se in plasma was determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometry with hydride generation.

Results:

The plasma Se levels in patients from Southeast region were significantly lower (17.5 ± 11.9 μg/L) when compared to patients from the North (37.1 ± 15.8 μg/L) (p < 0.001). However, both patient groups presented low Se plasma levels when compared to recommended values (60- 120 μg/L). There was no correlation between plasma Se levels and analyzed parameters.

Conclusion:

We concluded that patients from North (Amazon) region present higher plasma Se levels when compared to the patients from Southeast of Brazil. However, independently of the region, HD patients presented Se deficiency.

Brazil; hemodialysis; selenium


Introdução:

Pacientes com Doença Renal Crônica apresentam deficiência de selênio (Se), um elemento essencial, com importantes funções biológicas, como a de ser componente da enzima antioxidante glutationa peroxidase (GPx). A concentração de Se nos alimentos depende de sua concentração no solo e autores relatam que o solo da Amazônia possui elevados níveis de Se.

Objetivo:

O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar o estado nutricional do Se em pacientes em hemodiálise (HD) das regiões Norte e Sudeste do Brasil.

Métodos:

Trinta e oito pacientes da região Sudeste (22 homens e 16 mulheres, 15% diabéticos, 53,5 ± 26,4 anos) foram comparados com 40 pacientes da região Norte (28 homens e 12 mulheres, 22,5% diabéticos, 63,5 ± 11,9 anos). O Se no plasma foi determinado por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica por geração de hidretos acoplados a cela de quartzo.

Resultados:

Os níveis de Se dos pacientes em HD da região Sudeste foram significativamente menores (17,5 ± 11,9 μg/L) comparados aos pacientes da região Norte (37,1 ± 15,8 μg/L) (p < 0,001). Entretanto, ambos os grupos apresentaram níveis de Se abaixo da recomendação (60-120 μg/L). Não houve associação entre os níveis de Se e os parâmetros analisados.

Conclusão:

Com base nos resultados, concluímos que os pacientes da região Norte apresentaram elevados níveis de Se quando comparados com os pacientes da região Sudeste do Brasil. Entretanto, independentemente da região, ambos os grupos apresentaram deficiência com relação ao estado nutricional do Se.

Brasil; hemodiálise; selênio


Introduction

Selenium (Se) is believed to exert a number of beneficial health effects on immunocompetence, reproductive capacity, as well as cardio and neuro-protective properties and prevention of cancer.1Fairweather-Tait SJ, Bao Y, Broadley MR, Collings R, Ford D, Hesketh JE, et al. Selenium in human health and disease. Antioxid Redox Signal 2011;14:1337-83. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ars.2010.3275
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ars.2010.3275...
The best known biological role of Se is attributed to its presence in glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which is one of the enzymes that protect membrane lipids and other cellular and extracellular components from oxidative damage.2Zachara BA, Gromadzińska J, Wasowicz W, Zbróg Z. Red blood cell and plasma glutathione peroxidase activities and selenium concentration in patients with chronic kidney disease: a review. Acta Biochem Pol 2006;53:663-77.

Margis R, Dunand C, Teixeira FK, Margis-Pinheiro M. Glutathione peroxidase family - an evolutionary overview. FEBS J 2008;275:3959-70. PMID: 18616466 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06542.x
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.20...
-4Thomson CD. Assessment of requeriments for selenium and adequacy of selenium status: a review. Eur J Nutr 2004;58:391-402. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601800
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.160180...

In Brazilian Amazon, Se status of communities ranges from normal to very high, varying between 142 and 2447 µg/L in blood. Important local dietary Se sources, such as Brazil nut (the seed of Bertholletia excelsa), chicken, meat and certain fish species, have been identified. The Se content of these foods depends on soil Se concentration and bioavailability as well as the ability of plants to accumulate Se from soils5Lemire M, Philibert A, Fillion M, Passos CJ, Guimarães JR, Barbosa F Jr, et al. No evidence of selenosis from a selenium-rich diet in the Brazilian Amazon. Environ Int 2012;40:128-36. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2011.07.005
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2011....
and, some authors have suggested that Amazon soil has high concentrations of Se.6Chang JC, Gutenmann WH, Reid CM, Lisk DJ. Selenium content of Brazil nuts from two geographic locations in Brazil. Chemosphere 1995;30:801-2. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(94)00409-N
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(94)0...

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) commonly present Se deficiency and, low dietary intake, increased urinary and dialytic loss, impaired intestinal absorption, abnormal binding to Se transport proteins, and drug therapy could explain this deficiency.7Ortaç E, Ozkaya O, Saraymen R, Yildiz N, Bedir A, Buyan N, et al. Low hair selenium and plasma glutathione peroxidase in children with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 2006;21:1739-45. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-006-0245-9
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-006-024...
,8Zachara BA, Włodarczyk Z, Masztalerz M, Adamowicz A, Gromadzinska J, Wasowicz W. Selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activities in blood of patients before and after allogenic kidney transplantation. Biol Trace Elem Res 2004;97:1-13. PMID: 14742896 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/BTER:97:1:1
http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/BTER:97:1:1...
It has been reported in the literature the presence of oxidative stress and deficiency in the Se antioxidant mechanisms in the hemodialysis (HD) patients, and is it known that oxidative stress is a classical risk for cardiovascular events. Decreased serum Se levels may have a role in endothelial dysfunction, disruption of coronary flow and accelerated atherosclerosis.9Atakan A, Macunluoglu B, Kaya Y, Ari E, Demir H, Asicioglu E, et al. Decreased serum selenium levels are correlated with diminished coronary flow reserve among hemodialysis patients. Biol Trace Elem Res 2013;155:333-8. PMID: 24178732 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-013-9803-8
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-013-980...
Furthermore, serum Se levels are inversely associated with mortality risk in HD patients.1010 Fujishima Y, Ohsawa M, Itai K, Kato K, Tanno K, Turin TC, et al. Serum selenium levels are inversely associated with death risk among hemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011;26:3331-8. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfq859
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfq859...

In fact, our previous studies have shown that HD patients from Southeast Brazilian region present Se deficiency.1111 Stockler-Pinto MB, Mafra D, Farage NE, Boaventura GT, Cozzolino SM. Effect of Brazil nut supplementation on the blood levels of selenium and glutathione peroxidase in hemodialysis patients. Nutrition 2010;26:1065-9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2009.08.006
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2009.08....
,1212 Stockler-Pinto MB, Lobo J, Moraes C, Leal VO, Farage NE, Rocha AV, et al. Effect of Brazil nut supplementation on plasma levels of selenium in hemodialysis patients: 12 months of follow-up. J Ren Nutr 2012;22:434-9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2011.08.011
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2011.08....
This region is characterized by having low concentrations of Se in soil when compared to North (Amazon) region;6Chang JC, Gutenmann WH, Reid CM, Lisk DJ. Selenium content of Brazil nuts from two geographic locations in Brazil. Chemosphere 1995;30:801-2. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(94)00409-N
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(94)0...
however, there is no study comparing Se status in CKD patients between these regions. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the Se status in HD patients from North and Southeast Brazilian regions.

Materials and methods

Subjects

Thirty-eight HD patients were enrolled from RenalCor Clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazilian region, and 40 HD patients were enrolled from CDR Clinic in Manaus, North Brazilian (Amazon) region. Inclusion criteria were: age higher than 18 yr, dialysis duration of 3-4.5 h/session thrice weekly, blood flow greater than 250 ml/min, dialysate flow of 500 ml/ min and bicarbonate buffer, being on maintenance dialysis for at least 6 months. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine of the Fluminense Federal University (nº 018/09) and all the patients gave the informed consent.

Analytical procedures and sample processing

Blood samples were drawn from each subject in the morning before the dialysis session. EDTA (1 mg/ml) was used as anticoagulant. Plasma was separated (15 min, 3000 x g, 4 ºC) and stored in -80 ºC until analysis. Serum albumin, creatinine, phosphorus, potassium and calcium were measured by routine procedures with automatic analysers. Dialysis dose and the adequacy were measured through the Kt/V values. The Kt/v was calculated from values of blood urea nitrogen, pre and post-dialysis, weight, and dialysis duration using the Daugirdas formula.1313 Daugirdas JT. Second generation logarithmic estimates of single-pool variable volume Kt/V: an analysis of error. J Am Soc Nephrol 1993;4:1205-13. Body mass index (BMI) was computed as weight (kg) divided by squared height (m2) according to World Health Organization.1414 Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.

Determination of selenium concentrations

Plasma Se concentrations were determined through hydride generation atomic-absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) according Hao et al.,1515 Hao DQ, Xie GH, Zhang YM, Tian GJ. Determination of serum selenium by hydride generation flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 1996;43:595-600. PMID: 18966524 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0039-9140(95)01786-0
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0039-9140(95)0...
using a HITACHI® Z-500 spectrometer. Samples (300 ml) were digested with nitric acid, followed by a hydrochloric acid reduction. After acid digestion, the sample was made up to 25 mL with high purity deionised water (18.2 M Ω cm) from a Milli-Q system. Blanks were carried through the procedure in the same way as the sample. All chemicals used were of analytical reagent grade. Standard solutions were prepared in the working range for adequate calibration curves. Reference material, SERONORM® Trace Elements Serum (Sero AS, Billingstad, Norway), was treated and analysed in the same way. Our analytical results (in µg/L) for the determination of Se in SERONORM® (61.4 µg/L, n = 3) were in good agreement with certified value (53.6-64.8 µg/L).

Statistical analysis

Results were expressed as mean ± SD (Standard Deviation) or percentage change or median, maximum and minimum values, as applicable. Depending on data normality (Shapiro-Wilk's W test), parametric (Student's t-test and Pearson's (r) correlation test) or non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman's correlation test) were used. Statistical significance was accepted as p < 0.05. The statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 19.0 software (Chicago, IL, USA).

Results

Clinical characteristics of patients are shown in Table 1. According to BMI, 35% and 27.5% of patients presented values above 25 kg/m2, in Southeast and North regions, respectively. Plasma Se levels in HD patients from Southeast region were significantly lower (17.5 ± 1.9 µg/L) compared with patients from the North (37.1 ± 15.8 µg/L) (p < 0.001) (Figure 1). However, despite this difference, all patients presented Se plasma level deficiency when compared to normal values (60- 120 µg/L)1616 Ortuño J, Ros G, Periago MJ, Martínez C, López G, Rodrigo J. Nutritional importance of selenium. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1997;47:6-13. PMID: 9429634,1717 Van Dael P, Deelstra H. Selenium. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1993;63:312-6. PMID: 8157441 and when compared with the healthy subjects from the Southeast region (54.1 ± 22.5 µg/L) and North region (83.9 ± 18.0 µg/L).1818 Donadio JLS, Cozzolino SMF. Doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis e estado nutricional relativo ao selênio em população adulta de São Paulo. Nutrire Supl 2012;37:45-5.,1919 Bortoli MC. Avaliação dos níveis sanguíneos do hormônio tireoidiano ativo (T3) e do estado nutricional relativo ao selênio de mulheres residentes em área de exposição ao mercúrio. [Tese de doutorado]. São Paulo: Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo; 2010. p.130.

Table 1
Clinical characteristics of HD patients
Figure 1
Comparison of plasma Se levels in HD patients from the North and Southeast region of Brazil.

Significant difference between Kt/v levels was found between patients of Southeast and North region (p < 0.0001). However, there was no correlation between plasma Se concentrations and age, HD time, routine parameters (creatinine, urea, phosphorus, potassium and calcium levels) or Kt/v. Furthermore, we did not found significant differences between women and men.

Discussion

Our study has compared Se plasma levels in HD patients from different Brazilian regions (North and Southeast). We showed that patients from North (Amazon) region presented higher Se levels when compared to patients from Southeast; however, all HD patients presented Se deficiency.

Several studies have shown Se deficiency in HD patients.2020 Zachara BA, Adamowicz A, Trafikowska U, Pilecki A, Manitius J. Decreased plasma glutathione peroxidase activity in uraemic patients. Nephrol 2000;84:278-81.

21 Zachara BA, Trafikowska U, Adamowicz A, Nartowicz E, Manitius J. Selenium, glutathione peroxidases, and some other antioxidant parameters in blood of patients with chronic renal failure. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2001;15:161-6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0946-672X(01)80061-4
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0946-672X(01)...
-2222 Zachara BA, Salak A, Koterska D, Manitius J, Wasowicz W. Selenium and glutathione peroxidases in blood of patients with different stages of chronic renal failure. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2004;17:291-9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0946-672X(04)80031-2
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0946-672X(04)...
A meta-analysis that collected 128 studies of trace elements in HD patients and control healthy showed that, levels of Se were lower in HD compared with controls in 46 studies. Most studies used absorption spectrometry to measure de trace elements levels and were conducted in Europe (47%), Asia (30%) and North America (14%).2323 Yang CY, Wu ML, Chou YY, Li SY, Deng JF, Yang WC, et al. Essential trace element status and clinical outcomes in long-term dialysis patients: a two-year prospective observational cohort study. Clin Nutr 2012;31:630-6. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2012.02.008
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2012.02...

The Se deficiency is related to oxidative stress in these patients which have an increased pro-oxidant activity (advanced age, high frequency of diabetes, chronic inflammatory state, uremic syndrome, bioincompatibility of dialysis membranes) and of a reduced antioxidant system (vitamin C levels, intracellular levels of vitamin E, glutathione system, and Se).2424 Tonelli M, Wiebe N, Hemmelgarn B, Klarenbach S, Field C, Manns B, et al. Trace elements in hemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Med 2009;19;7:25. PMID: 19454005 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-7-25
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-7-25...

Low Se intake and low Se soil concentration are also an important cause of this deficiency; however, it has been indicated that Se deficiency might occur in HD patients in nonspecific areas where environmental Se is sufficient.2525 Guo CH, Chen PC, Hsu GS, Wang CL. Zinc supplementation alters plasma aluminum and selenium status of patients undergoing dialysis: a pilot study. Nutrients 2013;5:1456-70. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu5041456
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu5041456...
,2626 Salehi M, Sohrabi Z, Ekramzadeh M, Fallahzadeh MK, Ayatollahi M, Geramizadeh B, et al. Selenium supplementation improves the nutritional status of hemodialysis patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2013;28:716-23. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs170
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfs170...

Diet represents, by far, the principal route of Se intake and levels in food reflect soil Se concentrations. Bioavailability of Se in soils varies greatly in different regions. Fish and mammal organs, such as kidney and liver, are known to accumulate significant levels of Se and are, potentially, good dietary sources of this essential element for humans. In general, fruits and vegetables contain low Se levels, however, depending on Se bioavailability; cereals may constitute an important source of Se.2727 Mehdi Y, Hornick JL, Istasse L, Dufrasne I. Selenium in the environment, metabolism and involvement in body functions. Molecules 2013;18:3292-311. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033292
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033...

In North (Amazon) Brazilian region, high Se concentrations were found in chicken and meat, and their regular consumption contributed substantially to Se intake. Brazil nuts from the Amazon region are mostly consumed as such and they constitute the richest known food source of Se.2828 Lemire M, Fillion M, Barbosa F Jr, Guimarães JR, Mergler D. Elevated levels of selenium in the typical diet of Amazonian riverside populations. Sci Total Environ 2010;408:4076-84. PMID: 20646739 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.05.022
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.20...
Recently, our research group showed that Brazilian HD patients present Se deficiency, as well as that supplementation with one Brazil nut (290 mg of Se) from Amazon region a day during 3 months was effective to improve the Se status.1111 Stockler-Pinto MB, Mafra D, Farage NE, Boaventura GT, Cozzolino SM. Effect of Brazil nut supplementation on the blood levels of selenium and glutathione peroxidase in hemodialysis patients. Nutrition 2010;26:1065-9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2009.08.006
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2009.08....
,1212 Stockler-Pinto MB, Lobo J, Moraes C, Leal VO, Farage NE, Rocha AV, et al. Effect of Brazil nut supplementation on plasma levels of selenium in hemodialysis patients: 12 months of follow-up. J Ren Nutr 2012;22:434-9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2011.08.011
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2011.08....

According to Donadio & Cozzolino,1818 Donadio JLS, Cozzolino SMF. Doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis e estado nutricional relativo ao selênio em população adulta de São Paulo. Nutrire Supl 2012;37:45-5. healthy subjects from Southeast Brazilian region present low plasma Se levels (54.1 ± 22.5 µg/L) due the low concentrations of Se in the soil from the Southeasth region. In addition, Shaltout et al.2929 Shaltout AA, Castilho IN, Welz B, Carasek E, Martens IB, Martens A, et al. Method development and optimization for the determination of selenium in bean and soil samples using hydride generation electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 2011;85:1350-6. PMID: 21807194 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2011.06.015
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2011...
found significant higher Se concentrations in Amazon soil than in the same matrix from the South Brazilian region.

In the world several places presented richest soil in Se, for example, some plains in Canada and some states in the United States of America, such as, Nebraska, Dakota, Utah and Wyoming. In China there are regions where the selenium content is excessively high enough to cause intoxication and others where it is so low enough to cause deficiency.2727 Mehdi Y, Hornick JL, Istasse L, Dufrasne I. Selenium in the environment, metabolism and involvement in body functions. Molecules 2013;18:3292-311. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033292
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18033...

Selenium deficiency is a serious problem that commonly occurs in a very restricted area where there is environmental depletion of Se. In 2011, Gibson et al.3030 Gibson RS, Bailey KB, Romano AB, Thomson CD. Plasma selenium concentrations in pregnant women in two countries with contrasting soil selenium levels. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2011;25:230-5. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2011.10.001
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2011.1...
demonstrated that Se concentrations in pregnant women were significantly different in countries with low (Malawi) and high soil Se levels (Philippines).

A public health recommendation to include as few as one Brazil nut/day in the diet would avoid the need for fortification of food supplements to improve the Se status. The European Best Practice Guideline (EBPG) on Nutrition recommend a daily intake of 55 mg of Se for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, being the same value for healthy males and females3131 Fouque D, Vennegoor M, ter Wee P, Wanner C, Basci A, Canaud B, et al. EBPG guideline on nutrition. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007;22:ii45-87. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfm020
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfm020...
,3232 National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2000. and one Brazil nut contains about 240 mg of Se.1111 Stockler-Pinto MB, Mafra D, Farage NE, Boaventura GT, Cozzolino SM. Effect of Brazil nut supplementation on the blood levels of selenium and glutathione peroxidase in hemodialysis patients. Nutrition 2010;26:1065-9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2009.08.006
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2009.08....

Studies have observed an increase in the levels of plasma Se and improve the oxidative stress after Se supplementation.3333 Zachara BA, Gromadzinska J, Palus J, Zbrog Z, Swiech R, Twardowska E, et al. The effect of selenium supplementation in the prevention of DNA damage in white blood cells of hemodialyzed patients: a pilot study. Biol Trace Elem Res 2011;142:274-83. PMID: 20661660 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-8776-0
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-877...

34 Zachara BA, Gromadzinska J, Zbrog Z, Swiech R, Wasowicz W, Twardowska E, et al. Selenium supplementation to chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis does not induce the synthesis of plasma glutathione peroxidase. Acta Biochim Pol 2009;56:183-7.
-3535 Adamowicz A, Trafikowska U, Trafikowska A, Zachara B, Manitius J. Effect of erythropoietin therapy and selenium supplementation on selected antioxidant parameters in blood of uremic patients on long-term hemodialysis. Med Sci Monit 2002;8:CR202-5. In fact, Zachara et al.3333 Zachara BA, Gromadzinska J, Palus J, Zbrog Z, Swiech R, Twardowska E, et al. The effect of selenium supplementation in the prevention of DNA damage in white blood cells of hemodialyzed patients: a pilot study. Biol Trace Elem Res 2011;142:274-83. PMID: 20661660 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-8776-0
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-877...
observed that DNA damage decreased significantly in HD patients after Se supplementation (200 µg as Se-rich yeast). The same authors did not show that Se supplementation improved the plasma GPx in HD pantients.3434 Zachara BA, Gromadzinska J, Zbrog Z, Swiech R, Wasowicz W, Twardowska E, et al. Selenium supplementation to chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis does not induce the synthesis of plasma glutathione peroxidase. Acta Biochim Pol 2009;56:183-7. Adamowicz et al.3535 Adamowicz A, Trafikowska U, Trafikowska A, Zachara B, Manitius J. Effect of erythropoietin therapy and selenium supplementation on selected antioxidant parameters in blood of uremic patients on long-term hemodialysis. Med Sci Monit 2002;8:CR202-5. also showed that GPx activity did not respond to Se supplementation in HD patients (300 µg as Se-rich yeast). Few data describe the impact of Se supplementation on clinical outcomes in HD patients, however, this supplementation may be of benefit to the antioxidant defense mechanisms.

Although the Kt/V values were lower in patients from the North when compared to patients from the Southeast, Se levels were not correlated to Kt/V and, in contrast, Ochi et al.3636 Ochi A, Ishimura E, Tsujimoto Y, Kakiya R, Tabata T, Mori K, et al. Trace elements in the hair of hemodialysis patients. Biol Trace Elem Res 2011;143:825-34. PMID: 21234813 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-8948-y
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-894...
observed a significant positive correlation between Se concentrations and Kt/V in HD patients, as higher of Kt/V levels as higher Se levels.

It is important to note that our study presented several limitations. First, the sample sizes were small. Second, we did not have a control with healthy subjects, and we did not have meaning data from the diet of patients, because it is very difficult to compare the consumption in two areas where the foods have different concentrations of Se and there is no accurate software to calculate the diets. Besides, one of the major problems in dietary assessment is the inaccuracy in reporting dietary intake. Underreporting has been shown prevalent in CKD. In 2012, Mafra et al.3737 Mafra D, Moraes C, Leal VO, Farage NE, Stockler-Pinto MB, Fouque D. Underreporting of energy intake in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study. J Ren Nutr 2012;22:578-83. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2011.10.037
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2011.10....
described a high prevalence of underreporting of energy intake in patients in HD with high BMI. Third, the results are not representative of the population with CKD on HD in the North and Southeast regions.

Based on these results we concluded that HD patients presented Se deficiency, regardless of the region. Thus, more attention should be paid to Se deficiency, recommending Se supplementation for HD patients.

Acknowledgement

The authors give thanks to the Renal Cor Clinic, Rio de Janeiro, and CDR Clinic, Amazon, for allowing their patients to participate in this study. This study was supported by the Carlos Chagas Filho Research Foundation of Rio de Janeiro state (FAPERJ), and Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq).

References

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Oct-Dec 2014

History

  • Received
    31 Mar 2014
  • Accepted
    28 Aug 2014
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