Neuropsychiatric disorders and renal diseases: an update

Janaina Matos Moreira Silvia Mendonça da Matta Arthur Melo e Kummer Izabela Guimarães Barbosa Antônio Lúcio Teixeira Ana Cristina Simões e Silva About the authors

Abstracts

Sintomas neuropsiquiátricos se associam com frequência à disfunção renal, e podem comprometer negativamente tanto a evolução clínica quanto qualidade de vida e capacidade funcional dos pacientes. Os transtornos neuropsiquiátricos associados à doença renal podem tomar formas diversas, de acordo com a história natural da doença, e persistem subdiagnosticados e subtratados. Há ainda poucos dados na literatura quanto à abordagem terapêutica desses pacientes. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever os transtornos neuropsiquiátricos mais frequentemente encontrados nos pacientes com doenças renais.

ansiedade; depressão; insuficiência renal crônica; lesão renal aguda


Neuropsychiatric symptoms are frequently associated to renal dysfunction and may compromise negatively the clinical course as well as the quality of life, and the functional status of the patients. The neuropsychiatric disorders associated with renal disease may present various forms according to the natural history of the disease, and remain underdiagnosed and undertreated. There are few data in the literature regarding the treatment of these patients, and a lot of controversies still exist. The objective of this paper is to describe the most frequent neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with renal diseases.

acute kidney injury; anxiety; depression; kidney diseases


Introduction

The psychiatric disorders associated with kidney disease take many forms, depending on the natural history of the disease. Classically, uremia has been cited as the cause of delirium.1Menninger KA. Paranoid psychosis with uremia. J Nerv Ment Disord 1924:60:26-34. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-192407000-00003
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-19240...
Symptoms such as somnolence and psychomotor agitation may be present among the clinical signs of acute kidney injury (AKI).2Yu L, Santos BFC, Burdmann EA, Suassuna JHR, Batista PBP. Diretrizes da Associação Médica Brasileira- Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia - Insuficiência Renal Aguda 2007 [Acesso 04 de maio de 2013]. Disponível em: www.nefrologiaonline.com.br/Diretrizes/DiretrizesIRAnovo.doc
www.nefrologiaonline.com.br/Diretrizes/D...
Drug regimens should also be considered as a potential source of psychiatric disorders. Steroids and cyclosporine, used in the treatment of various glomerulopathies and administered subsequently to renal transplantation, have been associated with depression, mania and psychotic symptoms.3Butler J. Renal disease. In: Lloyd G & Guthrie E, editors. Handbook of Liaison Psychiatry. 1st ed. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2007. p.506-26.

As in every chronic condition, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may suffer from limited functional capacity, impaired productivity, and reduced quality of life.4Wyszynski AA. The patient with kidney disease. In: Wyszynski AA, Wyszynski B, eds. Manual of Psychiatric Care for the Medically III. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2005. p.69-84. Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent in patients with CKD. Kimmel et al.5Kimmel PL, Thamer M, Richard CM, Ray NF. Psychiatric illness in patients with end-stage renal disease. Am J Med 1998;105:214-21. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(98)00245-9
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(98)...
showed that patients with CKD had to be hospitalized for psychiatric disorders (particularly depression, dementia, and substance abuse) 1.5 to three times more than individuals with other chronic diseases. Yet, they are still underdiagnosed and undertreated.6Finkelstein FO, Finkelstein SH. Depression in chronic dialysis patients: assessment and treatment. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2000;15:1911-3. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/15.12.1911
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/15.12.1911...

This paper discusses some of the neuropsychiatric disorders often associated with kidney disease.

Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with kidney disease

Delirium

Delirium is an acute behavioral disorder caused by impaired brain activity, leading to cognitive impairment usually secondary to a systemic disorder.7Wacker P, Nunes PV, Forlenza OV. Delirium: uma perspectiva histórica. Rev Psiq Clín 2005;32:97-103. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-60832005000300001
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-60832005...
It is a condition of abrupt onset, characterized mainly by decreases in the affected subject's level of consciousness, attention disorders, temporal/spatial disorientation, disorganized thinking, and fluctuation of symptoms throughout the day. Agitation, delusion, visual hallucinations, and mood swings may also occur. Changes in the patient's EEG are usually observed within the first 48 hours of onset of renal failure and anomalous findings may persist for up to three weeks after the cessation of dialysis.4Wyszynski AA. The patient with kidney disease. In: Wyszynski AA, Wyszynski B, eds. Manual of Psychiatric Care for the Medically III. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2005. p.69-84.

Many are the predisposing factors for delirium in renal diseases. The causes of delirium may be common to other patients, and may include fever, hemodynamic instability, polypharmacy, hypo/hypernatremia, acid-base disorders, hypercalcemia, hyper/hypoglycemia, anemia and vitamin deficiency (thiamine and cyanocobalamin).3Butler J. Renal disease. In: Lloyd G & Guthrie E, editors. Handbook of Liaison Psychiatry. 1st ed. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2007. p.506-26. However, in patients with renal failure, some specific causes must be considered, such as uremia, aluminum toxicity, subdural hematoma (associated with anticoagulants and platelet dysfunction), and dialysis disequilibrium syndrome.8Polycarpou P, Anastassiades E, Antoniades L. From the heart to the soul. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007;22:945-8. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfl726
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfl726...

Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is caused by a sudden correction in azotemia and a consequent change in pH and osmotic pressure, which produce a pressure gradient between the central nervous system and plasma, leading to cerebral edema. DDS may set in 3-4 hours after the start of dialysis and may last for 8-48 hours after the end of dialysis. It is a transient condition characterized by headaches, nausea, cramps, delirium, epileptic seizures, and coma.4Wyszynski AA. The patient with kidney disease. In: Wyszynski AA, Wyszynski B, eds. Manual of Psychiatric Care for the Medically III. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2005. p.69-84.

Early detection of delirium is of paramount importance, and treatment must be individualized for each patient.9De Sousa A. Psychiatric issues in renal failure and dialysis. Indian J Nephrol 2008;18:47-50. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-4065.42337
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-4065.4233...
Prevention is the first step when it comes to dealing with delirium. This can be done by identifying and treating predisposing factors and with early patient immobilization. There is no evidence to support the use of drugs in the prevention of delirium.

First-line treatment includes non-pharmacological approaches such as sleep facilitation, constant reorientation, sensory deprivation control, and pain management. Antipsychotics are commonly used to treat delirium both in hospital and intensive care unit settings. However, the scientific evidence to support the use of drug regimens to treat delirium is limited, and no medication has been approved to that end.1010 Devlin JW, Al-Qadhee NS, Skrobik Y. Pharmacologic prevention and treatment of delirium in critically ill and non-critically ill hospitalised patients: a review of data from prospective, randomised studies. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2012;26:289-309. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2012.07.005
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2012.07....
Although the pathophysiological models of delirium describe a dysregulation in cholinergic neurotransmission, the use of anticholinesterases is not recommended. In 2010, a trial on the use of an anticholinesterase to treat delirium had to be discontinued, as the drug failed to benefit patients and possibly caused them harm, as a tendency for higher mortality was observed in the treatment group.1111 van Eijk MM, Roes KC, Honing ML, Kuiper MA, Karakus A, van der Jagt M, et al. Effect of rivastigmine as an adjunct to usual care with haloperidol on duration of delirium and mortality in critically ill patients: a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial. Lancet 2010;376:1829-37. PMID: 21056464 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61855-7
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)...

Uremic encephalopathy

The term uremia was first used in 1840 by Piorry and l'Heritier, to relay the view that the clinical signs of renal failure were related to toxicity by urea. Currently, uremia is described as a clinical syndrome associated with renal failure and accumulation of nitrogen compounds. However, no specific substance has been implicated to date.1212 Wills MR. Uremic toxins, and their effect on intermediary metabolism. Clin Chem 1985;31:5-13. Factors such as hormonal disorders, oxidative stress, accumulation of metabolites (such as guanidine compounds, kynurenine pathway metabolites), imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, and disorders of intermediary metabolism have been identified as possible contributing factors.1313 Scaini G, Ferreira GK, Streck EL. Mecanismos básicos da encefalopatia urêmica. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva 2010;22:206-11. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-507X2010000200016
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-507X2010...
Uremic encephalopathy is more severe and progresses more rapidly in patients with acute deterioration of renal function.1414 Burn DJ, Bates D. Neurology and the kidney. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;65:810-21. PMID: 9854955 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.65.6.810
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.65.6.810...

In addition to the symptoms present in delirium, in uremic encephalopathy symptoms may progress along a continuum, from mildly altered levels of consciousness to deep coma. Headache, visual disturbances, tremor, multifocal myoclonus, and epileptic seizures are frequently present. Clinical signs also fluctuate over hours or days.1313 Scaini G, Ferreira GK, Streck EL. Mecanismos básicos da encefalopatia urêmica. Rev Bras Ter Intensiva 2010;22:206-11. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-507X2010000200016
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-507X2010...
Patients may experience progressive cognitive impairment over days to the day of diálise.1515 Cohen LM, Levy NB, Tessier EG, Germain, MJ. Renal Disease. In: Levenson JL, ed. The American Psychiatric Publishing textbook of psychosomatic medicine. 1st ed. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2005 p.483-90. However, levels of azotemia (nitrogen compounds) have been poorly correlated with neurological disorders.1414 Burn DJ, Bates D. Neurology and the kidney. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;65:810-21. PMID: 9854955 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.65.6.810
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.65.6.810...

Most symptoms resolve with renal replacement therapy - dialysis or transplantation.1616 Brouns R, De Deyn PP. Neurological complications in renal failure: a review. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2004;107:1-16. PMID: 15567546 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2004.07.012
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.200...

Cognitive alterations

Cognitive deficits in patients with chronic kidney disease are common but poorly recognized. The identification of deficits may have a positive impact on patient outcome, especially when they are secondary to depression or delirium, potentially treatable conditions that must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cognitive impairment.1717 Kurella Tamura M, Yaffe K. Dementia and cognitive impairment in ESRD: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Kidney Int 2011;79:14-22. PMID: 20861818 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2010.336
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2010.336...
,1818 Cohen SD, Norris L, Acquaviva K, Peterson RA, Kimmel PL. Screening, diagnosis, and treatment of depression in patients with end-stage renal disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;2:1332-42. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.03951106
http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.03951106...
Alzheimer's and vascular dementia in particular are commonly seen in patients with CKD, the latter due to comorbidities with hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis.1919 Finger G, Pasqualotto FF, Marcon G, Medeiros GS, Abruzzi-Junior J, May WS. Sintomas depressivos e suas características em pacientes submetidos à hemodiálise. Rev AMRIGS 2011;55:333-8. Dementia has been associated with greater levels of disability, more deaths and hospitalizations, and interruption of dialysis.5Kimmel PL, Thamer M, Richard CM, Ray NF. Psychiatric illness in patients with end-stage renal disease. Am J Med 1998;105:214-21. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(98)00245-9
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(98)...
,1717 Kurella Tamura M, Yaffe K. Dementia and cognitive impairment in ESRD: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Kidney Int 2011;79:14-22. PMID: 20861818 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2010.336
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2010.336...

Patients on dialysis for more than a year may suffer from a progressive neurological syndrome called 'dialysis dementia', characterized by dysarthria, dysphagia, and global dementia with preservation of the level of consciousness. Individuals with dialysis dementia may die within 6-12 months if not treated properly. The most widely accepted pathophysiology of dialysis dementia revolves around toxicity of the aluminum salts found in dialysis fluids. The introduction of preventive measures (discontinuation of the use of aluminum salts in dialysis fluids and phosphate binders containing aluminum) led to a significant reduction in the number of cases.4Wyszynski AA. The patient with kidney disease. In: Wyszynski AA, Wyszynski B, eds. Manual of Psychiatric Care for the Medically III. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2005. p.69-84.

Major depressive disorder, recurrent depressive disorder, and suicide

Depressive disorder is the most frequently described psychiatric condition in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).6Finkelstein FO, Finkelstein SH. Depression in chronic dialysis patients: assessment and treatment. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2000;15:1911-3. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/15.12.1911
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/15.12.1911...
Prevalence can be as high as 100%, depending on the criteria utilized and the population analyzed.1818 Cohen SD, Norris L, Acquaviva K, Peterson RA, Kimmel PL. Screening, diagnosis, and treatment of depression in patients with end-stage renal disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;2:1332-42. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.03951106
http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.03951106...
Two studies carried out in Brazil with patients on hemodialysis reported prevalences of major depressive disorder of 44.8% when the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used and of 7.8% when the 10-item screening questionnaire of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was applied.1919 Finger G, Pasqualotto FF, Marcon G, Medeiros GS, Abruzzi-Junior J, May WS. Sintomas depressivos e suas características em pacientes submetidos à hemodiálise. Rev AMRIGS 2011;55:333-8.,2020 Santos PR. Depression and quality of life of hemodialysis patients living in a poor region of Brazil. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2011;33:332-7.

In a recent meta-analysis, patients on dialysis were reported to have higher rates of depression and increased risk of hospitalization due to psychiatric disorders than individuals undergoing conservative treatment and post-transplant patients.5Kimmel PL, Thamer M, Richard CM, Ray NF. Psychiatric illness in patients with end-stage renal disease. Am J Med 1998;105:214-21. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(98)00245-9
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(98)...
,2121 Palmer S, Vecchio M, Craig JC, Tonelli M, Johnson DW, Nicolucci A, et al. Prevalence of depression in chronic kidney disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Kidney Int 2013;84:179-91. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2013.77
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2013.77...

Among dialysis patients, subjects on peritoneal dialysis had a lower prevalence of depression, anxiety symptoms, and sleep disorders than individuals on hemodialysis.2222 Panagopoulou A, Hardalias A, Berati S, Fourtounas C. Psychosocial issues and quality of life in patients on renal replacement therapy. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2009;20:212-8.,2323 Masoumi M, Naini AE, Aghaghazvini R, Amra B, Gholamrezaei A. Sleep quality in patients on maintenance hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Int J Prev Med 2013;4:165-72.

Notably, the presence of depression symptoms may adversely affect the outcome of patients with ESRD.2424 Marciano RC. Transtornos mentais e qualidade de vida em crianças e adolescentes com doença renal crônica e em seus cuidadores [Dissertação de mestrado]. Belo Horizonte: Univer sidade Federal de Minas Gerais; 2009. Possible consequences are reduced compliance to treatment, nutritional status deterioration, impaired immune system function, and higher death rates.1818 Cohen SD, Norris L, Acquaviva K, Peterson RA, Kimmel PL. Screening, diagnosis, and treatment of depression in patients with end-stage renal disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;2:1332-42. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.03951106
http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.03951106...
,2525 Kimmel PL, Peterson RA, Weihs KL, Simmens SJ, Alleyne S, Cruz I, et al. Multiple measurements of depression predict mortality in a longitudinal study of chronic hemodialysis outpatients. Kidney Int 2000;57:2093-8. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1755.2000.00059.x
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1755.20...

Despite the significant prevalence of depression and the associated morbidity, most cases remain underdiagnosed and undertreated.6Finkelstein FO, Finkelstein SH. Depression in chronic dialysis patients: assessment and treatment. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2000;15:1911-3. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/15.12.1911
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/15.12.1911...
,1515 Cohen LM, Levy NB, Tessier EG, Germain, MJ. Renal Disease. In: Levenson JL, ed. The American Psychiatric Publishing textbook of psychosomatic medicine. 1st ed. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2005 p.483-90. A significant portion of the somatic complaints associated with CKD - fatigue, anorexia, weight and sleep disorders - may mimic depression symptoms. It has been suggested that the presence of non-vegetative symptoms (depressed mood, suicidal thoughts, pessimism, hopelessness, guilt, and aboulia) would be more adequate in the characterization of depression.4Wyszynski AA. The patient with kidney disease. In: Wyszynski AA, Wyszynski B, eds. Manual of Psychiatric Care for the Medically III. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2005. p.69-84. Diagnostic screening scales such as the BDI and the CES-D appear to be useful for patients with CKD, given the high prevalence of depression and morbidities affecting this group of individuals.2626 Hedayati SS, Minhajuddin AT, Toto RD, Morris DW, Rush AJ. Prevalence of major depressive episode in CKD. Am J Kidney Dis 2009;54:424-32. PMID: 19493599 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.03.017
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.03...

Patients with CKD are at a significantly higher risk of committing suicide than the general population, particularly in subgroups of subjects aged over 75 years, individuals suffering from alcohol and substance abuse, and patients recently hospitalized for psychiatric disorders.2727 Kurella M, Kimmel PL, Young BS, Chertow GM. Suicide in the United States end-stage renal disease program. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005;16:774-81. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2004070550
http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2004070550...

Few studies have looked into the treatment of depressive disorders for patients with CKD. Efficacy has been attributed to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in terms of compliance to treatment and management of depression symptoms in patients with CKD. CBT has been recommended as an alternative or a complement to drug therapy.1515 Cohen LM, Levy NB, Tessier EG, Germain, MJ. Renal Disease. In: Levenson JL, ed. The American Psychiatric Publishing textbook of psychosomatic medicine. 1st ed. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2005 p.483-90.,2626 Hedayati SS, Minhajuddin AT, Toto RD, Morris DW, Rush AJ. Prevalence of major depressive episode in CKD. Am J Kidney Dis 2009;54:424-32. PMID: 19493599 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.03.017
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.03...
Drug interactions and side effects (especially in transplant patients and subjects on immunosuppressants) must be considered when patients are offered medication for depression.3Butler J. Renal disease. In: Lloyd G & Guthrie E, editors. Handbook of Liaison Psychiatry. 1st ed. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2007. p.506-26. A more favorable side effect profile has turned Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) into the drug class of choice. Caution is needed when SSRIs are prescribed. Patients are usually started on a dose equivalent to 30% of what would be considered the usual dosage and must be monitored closely for response and signs of toxicity.4Wyszynski AA. The patient with kidney disease. In: Wyszynski AA, Wyszynski B, eds. Manual of Psychiatric Care for the Medically III. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2005. p.69-84.,1818 Cohen SD, Norris L, Acquaviva K, Peterson RA, Kimmel PL. Screening, diagnosis, and treatment of depression in patients with end-stage renal disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;2:1332-42. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.03951106
http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.03951106...

Anxiety disorders

Anxiety is one of the most frequently diagnosed symptoms in patients with chronic disease.1515 Cohen LM, Levy NB, Tessier EG, Germain, MJ. Renal Disease. In: Levenson JL, ed. The American Psychiatric Publishing textbook of psychosomatic medicine. 1st ed. Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2005 p.483-90. However, the literature on the presence of anxiety disorders in CKD patients is still scarce.

Forty-five percent of 50 ESRD patients on dialysis were diagnosed with some form of anxiety disorder; 30% of them were not treated and had persisting symptoms 16 months into follow-up.2828 Cukor D, Coplan J, Brown C, Peterson RA, Kimmel PL. Course of depression and anxiety diagnosis in patients treated with hemodialysis: a 16-month follow-up. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008;3:1752-8. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.01120308
http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.01120308...
Patients on hemodialysis have anxiety symptoms more frequently than individuals on peritoneal dialysis.2323 Masoumi M, Naini AE, Aghaghazvini R, Amra B, Gholamrezaei A. Sleep quality in patients on maintenance hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Int J Prev Med 2013;4:165-72.

A study carried out in Brazil with individuals diagnosed with familial glomerulonephritis and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease reported that this group of individuals had higher anxiety scores than subjects with other chronic conditions.2929 Barros BP, Nishiura JL, Heilberg IP, Kirsztajn GM. Ansiedade, depressão e qualidade de vida em pacientes com glomerulonefrite familiar ou doença renal policística autossômica dominante. J Bras Nefrol 2011;33:120-8. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002011000200002
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002011...
Another Brazilian study with 244 patients on hemodialysis reported that 5.3% of the subjects had social phobia.3030 Junior JAM, Souza CAM, Oliveira IR, Miranda RO. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients in hemodialysis in the state of Bahia. J Bras Psiquiatr 2006;55:178-83.

Very little has been said or written about the treatment of anxiety symptoms in patients with CKD. Thus, proposed therapies have been extrapolated from treatments offered to patients with anxiety disorders alone. CBT and SSRIs have surfaced as the treatments of choice.3131 Bandelow B, Sher L, Bunevicius R, Hollander E, Kasper S, Zohar J, et al.; WFSBP Task Force on Mental Disorders in Primary Care; WFSBP Task Force on Anxiety Disorders, OCD and PTSD. Guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 2012;16:77-84. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13651501.2012.667114
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13651501.2012....
Benzodiazepines should be avoided and used only in acute situations and for the shortest possible time, given their potential to cause dependence and associating with clinical complications such as delirium. 3131 Bandelow B, Sher L, Bunevicius R, Hollander E, Kasper S, Zohar J, et al.; WFSBP Task Force on Mental Disorders in Primary Care; WFSBP Task Force on Anxiety Disorders, OCD and PTSD. Guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 2012;16:77-84. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13651501.2012.667114
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13651501.2012....
When needed, drugs with inactive metabolites, such as lorazepam and oxazepam, should be preferred. The cited benzodiazepines may have their half-lives quadrupled in ESRD patients and cannot be removed by dialysis. Thus, extreme caution is required when these medications are prescribed to patients with ESRD.3232 Robinson MJ, Owen JA. Psychopharmacology. In: Levenson JL, ed. The American Psychiatric Publishing textbook of psychosomatic medicine. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2005. p.903-6.

Fatigue

Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms seen in patients with chronic disease, and may be observed in about 50% of adults and 25% of children and adolescents with CKD.3333 Joshwa B, Khakha DC, Mahajan S. Fatigue and depression and sleep problems among hemodialysis patients in a tertiary care center. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2012;23:729-35. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.98149
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.9814...
,3434 Roumelioti ME, Wentz A, Schneider MF, Gerson AC, Hooper S, Benfield M, et al. Sleep and fatigue symptoms in children and adolescents with CKD: a cross-sectional analysis from the chronic kidney disease in children (CKiD) study. Am J Kidney Dis 2010;55:269-80. PMID: 20034719 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.09.021
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.09...
Among the factors possibly related to the development of fatigue are circulating endotoxins, inflammatory cytokines, and increased oxidative stress.3333 Joshwa B, Khakha DC, Mahajan S. Fatigue and depression and sleep problems among hemodialysis patients in a tertiary care center. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2012;23:729-35. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.98149
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.9814...
Fatigue has been positively correlated with depression, sleep disorders, and poor quality of life.3333 Joshwa B, Khakha DC, Mahajan S. Fatigue and depression and sleep problems among hemodialysis patients in a tertiary care center. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2012;23:729-35. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.98149
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.9814...
,3434 Roumelioti ME, Wentz A, Schneider MF, Gerson AC, Hooper S, Benfield M, et al. Sleep and fatigue symptoms in children and adolescents with CKD: a cross-sectional analysis from the chronic kidney disease in children (CKiD) study. Am J Kidney Dis 2010;55:269-80. PMID: 20034719 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.09.021
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.09...
Moreover, fatigue has also been established as a predictor for cardiovascular events, independently from other known risk factors.3535 Koyama H, Fukuda S, Shoji T, Inaba M, Tsujimoto Y, Tabata T, et al. Fatigue is a predictor for cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010;5:659-66. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.08151109
http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.08151109...
The approach to fatigue in CKD patients includes aggressive treatment of anemia, introduction of physical activity, and screening and treatment for depression.3636 O'Connor NR, Corcoran AM. End-stage renal disease: symptom management and advance care planning. Am Fam Physician 2012;85:705-10. PMID: 22534347

Conclusion

Despite the growing attention given to the psychiatric disorders of individuals with renal disease, patients still remain underdiagnosed and undertreated. Very few studies have been published on the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders in this population, and doubts still hover over treatment effectiveness and safety. Early diagnosis is essential to enhance patient quality of life and improve the outcome of renal disease. Therefore, having a multidisciplinary team to care for patients with kidney disease is becoming increasingly important.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Jul-Sep 2014

History

  • Received
    08 Oct 2013
  • Accepted
    11 Oct 2013
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