The antiphospholipid syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease defined by recurrent vascular and/or obstetrical morbidity that occurs in patients with persistent antiphospholipid antibodies.
A patient on hemodialysis with a primary antiphospholipid syndrome presented with recurrent vascular access thrombosis, obstetrical complications, and positive lupus anticoagulant. The patient had multiple arteriovenous fistulas that failed due to thrombosis. The obstetrical morbidity was defined by one miscarriage at the 7th week of gestation and a pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia with preterm delivery at the 28th week of gestation. A thorough thrombophilia screening confirmed the presence of antiphospholipid antibody. Lupus anticoagulant was present in plasma, measured on two occasions 12 weeks apart.
Thrombophilias are inherited or acquired predispositions to vascular thrombosis and have been associated with thrombosis of the arteriovenous fistula. Patients on hemodialysis with recurrent vascular access thrombosis and presence of thrombophilia should be evaluated about the need for anticoagulant therapy with a vitamin K antagonist.
Antiphospholipid Syndrome; Thrombophilia; Renal Dialysis; Arteriovenous Fistula; Thrombosis; Pre-Eclampsia; Anticoagulants