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Serum lymphocytes and cytokines: diagnostic value and influence on the immune status in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

ABSTRACT

Objective:

To determine the absolute number of serum T lymphocytes and cytokine levels and the characteristics of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and to assess their effect on the immune status of these patients and their diagnostic and predictive value for tuberculosis.

Methods:

We included 1,069 patients with active tuberculosis, 51 patients with latent tuberculosis infection, and 600 health individuals. Absolute serum T-lymphocyte counts and cytokine levels were quantified.

Results:

T lymphocytes were significantly reduced in patients with active tuberculosis when compared with healthy individuals. The immune function of patients gradually decreased with age and was stronger in female patients than in males. Th1 cells expressed higher levels of cytokines than did Th2 cells. Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced CD3+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cell counts, as well as reduced IL-4 and IFN-g expression, were independent influencing factors for active tuberculosis. ROC analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of absolute CD3+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts and combined factors were significantly higher than were those of IL-4 and IFN-g for diagnosing active tuberculosis.

Conclusions:

Serum T-lymphocyte counts and cytokine levels can assess the immune status of tuberculosis patients; they are also useful biomarkers for predicting and diagnosing tuberculosis.

Keywords:
Lymphocytes; Cytokines; Tuberculosis; Immunity

RESUMO

Objetivo:

Determinar o número absoluto de linfócitos T séricos e os níveis de citocinas séricas, bem como as características, de pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar ativa e avaliar o efeito desses no estado imunológico desses pacientes e seu valor diagnóstico e preditivo para tuberculose.

Métodos:

Foram incluídos 1.069 pacientes com tuberculose ativa, 51 pacientes com tuberculose latente e 600 indivíduos saudáveis. Foram realizadas a contagem absoluta de linfócitos T séricos e a quantificação de citocinas séricas.

Resultados:

Os linfócitos T estavam significativamente reduzidos nos pacientes com tuberculose ativa em comparação com os indivíduos saudáveis. A função imunológica dos pacientes diminuiu gradativamente com a idade e mostrou-se mais forte nas mulheres do que nos homens. As células Th1 expressaram maiores níveis de citocinas do que as células Th2. A análise de regressão logística mostrou que contagens reduzidas de células T CD3+, T CD8+ e NK e expressão reduzida de IL-4 e IFN-g foram fatores de influência independentes para tuberculose ativa. A análise ROC mostrou que a sensibilidade e especificidade dos valores absolutos de linfócitos T CD3+ e T CD8+ e de fatores combinados foram significativamente maiores do que as da IL-4 e do IFN-g para o diagnóstico da tuberculose ativa.

Conclusões:

A contagem de linfócitos T séricos e os níveis de citocinas séricas podem avaliar o estado imunológico de pacientes com tuberculose; também são biomarcadores úteis na predição e diagnóstico da tuberculose.

Descritores:
Linfócitos; Citocinas; Tuberculose; Imunidade

INTRODUCTION

Tuberculosis is an inflammatory disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, and pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common form of clinical presentation.11 Netea MG, Crevel RV. BCG-induced protection: effects on innate immune memory. Semin Immunol. 2014;26(6):512-517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smim.2014.09.006
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smim.2014.09.0...
The WHO Global Tuberculosis Report 202222 World Health Organization [homepage on the Internet]. Geneva: WHO; c2022 [updated 22 Oct 27; cited 2022 Nov 1]. Global Tuberculosis Report 2022. Available from: https://www.who.int/teams/global-tuberculosis-programme/tb-reports
https://www.who.int/teams/global-tubercu...
reported 10.6 million new cases of tuberculosis globally in 2021, with an incidence rate of 134 per 100,000 population. Although antituberculosis drugs are available and the number of related deaths has decreased globally in recent years, tuberculosis is still the leading cause of death from a single infectious disease.33 La Manna MP, Shekarkar-Azgomi M, Badami GD, Tamburini B, Dieli C, Di Carlo P, et al. Impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection on Human B Cell Compartment and Antibody Responses. Cells. 2022;11(18):2906. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11182906
https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11182906...

Efficacious CD4+ T lymphocytes can be divided into at least three distinct subpopulations: Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells. These subpopulations are functionally controlled by regulatory CD4+ T cells and have a high degree of specialization. Moreover, IFN-γ produced by Th1 cells plays an essential role in host resistance to primary infection with Mtb. In addition, IFN-γ enhances the antibacterial activity of macrophages and promotes the production of reactive nitrogen intermediates, which can eliminate bacteria intracellularly.44 Ritter K, Behrends J, Erdmann H, Rousseau J, Hölscher A, Volz J, et al. Interleukin-23 instructs protective multifunctional CD4 T cell responses after immunization with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis subunit vaccine H1 DDA/TDB independently of interleukin-17A [published correction appears in J Mol Med (Berl). 2021 Sep 27;:]. J Mol Med (Berl). 2021;99(11):1585-1602. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00109-021-02100-3
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00109-021-02100...
,55 Pearl JE, Saunders B, Ehlers S, Orme IM, Cooper AM. Inflammation and lymphocyte activation during mycobacterial infection in the interferon-gamma-deficient mouse. Cellular Immunol. 2001;211(1):43-50. https://doi.org/10.1006/cimm.2001.1819
https://doi.org/10.1006/cimm.2001.1819...
Both animal models and human trials have shown that IFN-γ expression levels do not provide relevant and reliable protection against Mtb infection.33 La Manna MP, Shekarkar-Azgomi M, Badami GD, Tamburini B, Dieli C, Di Carlo P, et al. Impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection on Human B Cell Compartment and Antibody Responses. Cells. 2022;11(18):2906. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11182906
https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11182906...

Analysis of the number of T lymphocytes and levels of cytokines, such as IL-2, IL-4, TNF-α, IFN-α, and IFN-γ, can provide a precious research base for disease through noninvasive methods to study the state of the immune system in patients.66 Kumar NP, Moideen K, Banurekha VV, Nair D, Babu S. Plasma Proinflammatory Cytokines Are Markers of Disease Severity and Bacterial Burden in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019;6(7):ofz257. https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz257
https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz257...
,77 Talat N, Shahid F, Perry S, Dawood G, Hussain R. Th1/Th2 cytometric bead array can discriminate cytokine secretion from endogenously activated cells in pulmonary disease, recent and remote infection in tuberculosis. Cytokine. 2011;54(2):136-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2011.01.012
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2011.01.0...
In this study, we analyzed the absolute number of T lymphocytes and cytokine levels in the serum of patients with active tuberculosis (ATB) and patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), as well as those of healthy individuals (HI), to provide a reference for diagnosing tuberculosis and assessing the immune status of the participants.

METHODS

In this study, we included 1,069 patients with ATB, 600 HI, and 51 patients with LTBI. According to the WHO report,22 World Health Organization [homepage on the Internet]. Geneva: WHO; c2022 [updated 22 Oct 27; cited 2022 Nov 1]. Global Tuberculosis Report 2022. Available from: https://www.who.int/teams/global-tuberculosis-programme/tb-reports
https://www.who.int/teams/global-tubercu...
the diagnosis of ATB is based on clinical evaluation, microbiology, molecular testing (such as GeneXpert Ultra), and imaging findings. LTBI is defined as a positive IFN- γ release assay result with no other clinical manifestations or with negative microbiological, molecular, and imaging results (Table 1).

Table 1
Characteristics of the study participants.a

Exclusion criteria were as follows: autoimmune diseases or concomitant immune disorders; AIDS; glucocorticoid therapy; concomitant heart, liver, kidney, or other important organ diseases; severe hypertension; poor mental condition; concomitant diabetes mellitus; pregnancy or lactation; and drug-resistant tuberculosis. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Third People’s Hospital of Kunming (protocol no. KSLL20230320007).

Peripheral blood specimens from HI, patients with ATB, and those with LTBI were collected in 3 mL blood collection tubes. For cytokine assays, the blood samples were centrifuged at 1,000 × g for 10 min, and the serum was tested using cytokine assay kits (Risskell Bio, Qingdao, China) in order to determine the levels of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-α, and IFN-γ) in accordance with the manufacturer instructions, We used the MR Flow Analysis software (AZE Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) for the analysis of results. For flow cytometry assays, the blood specimens were mixed and a flow cytometry kit (DIALAB GmbH, Wiener Neudorf, Austria) was used for determining CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, CD4+/CD8+, CD19+B, NK, and NKT lymphocyte counts in accordance with the manufacturer instructions. We used the LEGENDplex software (BioLegend, San Diego, CA, USA) for result analysis. Both cytokine and flow cytometer assays were performed using a BriCyte E6 flow cytometer (Mindray, Shenzhen, China).

Statistical analyses were performed and plotted using the IBM SPSS Statistics software package, version 24.0 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) and GraphPad Prism, version 8.0 (GraphPad Software Inc., San Diego, CA, USA), respectively. Quantitative data were described as mean ± SD when they conformed to a normal distribution using a t-test, whereas those with non-normal distribution were described as median [IQR] using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Comparisons between multiple groups were made using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and differences between multivariate models were determined using the nested t-test. The analysis of the relevant influencers was performed by logistic regression analysis. The diagnostic value of these variables was analyzed using ROC curves. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

RESULTS

The number of CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells was lower in patients with ATB when compared with HI, and this difference reached statistical significance. In addition, the absolute number of CD3+ T cells in the LTBI group was lower and significantly different than in the HI group, whereas the absolute numbers of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells were higher, but not statistically significant. In the ATB group, the levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-8, and IL-17 were higher, and those of IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were lower than those in the HI group. As for the LTBI group, the levels of IL-1β, IL-5, and IFN-γ were lower, and those of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17, and TNF-α were higher than those in the HI group. All of these differences reached statistical significance, which suggested that inflammatory factors are differentially expressed in ATB and LTBI (Figure 1).

Figure 1
Expression of lymphocytes and cytokines by study group showing that the absolute numbers of CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells in the active tuberculosis (ATB) group were all lower than normal. The latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) group had a higher-than-normal number of lymphocytes, except for the absolute number of CD3+ T cells. The ATB group had higher levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-8 and IL-17, but lower levels of IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, than did the healthy individual (HI) group. pcs: pieces. *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01.

We analyzed the expression of indicators associated with statistically significant differences between the ATB and HI groups by sex and age. In the ATB group, the number of CD3+ T, CD4+ T, and CD8+ T cells was lower in men than in women; the difference was statistically significant, indicating that female patients with ATB are more immunocompetent than are males (Figure 2A). The expression of CD3+ T, CD4+ T, and CD8+ T cell numbers gradually decreased with age, this difference reaching statistical significance. This suggests that older ATB patients have poorer immune function than do adolescent patients. Cytokine IFN-γ expression was significantly lower in men than in women, while the remaining expression levels did not differ significantly across age and sex (Figure 2B).

Figure 2
In A, absolute numbers of CD3+ T, CD4+ T, and CD8+ T lymphocytes in active tuberculosis patients showing significant differences between men and women, except for NK cells. There were no significant differences in cytokines levels between male and female patients, except for IFN-γ levels. In B, the absolute numbers of CD3+ T, CD4+ T, and CD8+ T lymphocytes showing significant differences among the age groups (in years) of patients with active tuberculosis. The overall cytokine levels did not significantly differ among the age groups. pcs: pieces. *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01.

To determine the effect of ATB on the frequency of Th1/Th2 cells, we analyzed the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10 in that group. As shown in Figure 3, those with ATB exhibited significant Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-1β) expression, while only IL-6 levels were increased (Th2 cells). In contrast, Th1 cells expressed higher levels of cytokines than did Th2 cells, and the difference was statistically significant, suggesting that the levels of cytokines expressed by Th1 cells in ATB may be specific for Mtb.

Figure 3
In the active tuberculosis group, Th1-type cytokine levels were higher than were Th2-type cytokine levels. The dot plot shows the mean and standard error of each cytokine level. Differences between overall Th1/Th2 cytokine levels were analyzed by nested t-test. *p < 0.05.

To investigate the factors associated with the influence of T lymphocytes and cytokines on ATB and LTBI, we screened for statistically different factors between the ATB, LTBI, and HI groups to be included in the impact factor analysis (Figure 1). Logistic regression results showed that reduced absolute numbers of CD3+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells, as well as reduced expression levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ, were independent influencing factors for ATB (Figure 4A). Reduced expression levels of IL-1, IL-5, and IFN-γ and increased expression levels of IL-12p70 were independent influencing factors for LTBI (Figure 4B). These influencing factors are a guide to the diagnosis and differentiation of ATB and LTBI.

Figure 4
In A, logistic regression analysis shows that reduced absolute numbers of CD3+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells, and reduced expression levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ were independent influencing factors for active tuberculosis (p < 0.05). In B, the analysis shows that reduced expression levels of IL-1, IL-5, and IFN-γ and increased expression levels of IL-12p70 were independent influencing factors for latent tuberculosis infection (p < 0.05).

To assess the diagnostic and predictive value of the associated factors that have an impact on ATB and LTBI, we performed ROC analyses of the associated factors. The results showed that the absolute CD3+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts and combined factors (sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 0.955 and 0.993; 0.774 and 0.955; and 0.951 and 0.977) were significantly more valuable for the diagnosis of ATB than were the absolute number of NK cells and the levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ (Figure 5A). As for the ROC analysis for LTBI, IL-12p70 and IFN-γ expression levels, as well as combined factors, showed diagnostic value (sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 0.568 and 0.862; 0.493 and 0.908; and 0.649 and 0.725), and combined factors had the highest diagnostic value (Figure 5B).

Figure 5
In A, ROC curves for active tuberculosis (ATB). Absolute CD3+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts, as well as those of combined factors, showed a high diagnostic value for ATB (p < 0. 01). In B, ROC curves for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Expression levels of IL-12p70, IFN-γ, and combined factors showed diagnostic value for LTBI assessment. Combined factors had the highest diagnostic value (p < 0. 01).

DISCUSSION

Tuberculosis is an inflammatory disease whose progression or cure is largely determined by the relative strength of Mtb against the host immune system and is therefore considered to be caused by an unbalanced immune response to Mtb infection.88 Vyas SP, Goswami R. Striking the right immunological balance prevents progression of tuberculosis. Inflamm Res. 2017;66(12):1031-1056. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00011-017-1081-z
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00011-017-1081-...
Immunity in tuberculosis patients is dominated by cellular immunity, in which T cells are believed to play a vital role in the containment of Mtb infection for controlling the infection directly or indirectly. The cytokines of the organism are a vital part of the immune system as messengers, and their role in the fight against the invasion of Mtb is complex and multifaceted and is influenced by different host states.99 Lewinsohn DM, Lewinsohn DA. The Missing Link in Correlates of Protective Tuberculosis Immunity: Recognizing the Infected Cell. Front Immunol. 2022;13:869057. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.869057
https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.86905...
Therefore, a comprehensive and systematic exploration of the relationship of lymphocytes and cytokines with Mtb infection is needed to provide a theoretical basis for a better understanding of the immune status of tuberculosis patients by immunology-based detection and diagnosis.

The present study showed that the absolute number of T lymphocytes was lower in patients with ATB than in HI. The difference was statistically significant, ATB patients having a poorer immune status than the healthy population. The absolute numbers of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells were higher in LTBI patients when compared with HI, although this difference was not significant; however, the number of T cells available from peripheral blood can help assess the progression of the infection.1010 Urdahl KB, Shafiani S, Ernst JD. Initiation and regulation of T-cell responses in tuberculosis. Mucosal Immunol. 2011;4(3):288-293. https://doi.org/10.1038/mi.2011.10
https://doi.org/10.1038/mi.2011.10...
This study also showed that female patients with ATB are more immunocompetent than males. This is also consistent with findings of a previous study on sex differences and immune function.1111 Takahashi T, Iwasaki A. Sex differences in immune responses. Science. 2021;371(6527):347-348. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abe7199
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abe7199...
In addition, the immune function of the patient gradually decreases with age. In contrast, as for cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses, the differences in expression in regard to age and sex were not significant. Our results showed that the levels of some cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, differed in ATB and LTBI. The reason for this phenomenon is that the cytokines produced in response to Mtb infection may reduce their immune response to limit tissue damage, and overproduction of cytokines may lead to failure to control the infection.1212 Kaplan G, Freedman VH. The role of cytokines in the immune response to tuberculosis. Res Immunol. 1996;147(8-9):565-572. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0923-2494(97)85223-6
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0923-2494(97)85...
This can provide us with ideas for identifying ATB and LTBI.

An essential factor in the control of tuberculosis is the characteristics of CD4+ T cells that react after infection.1313 O'Garra A, Redford PS, McNab FW, Bloom CI, Wilkinson RJ, Berry MP. The immune response in tuberculosis. Annu Rev Immunol. 2013;31:475-527. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-032712-095939
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-...
Usually, CD4+ T cells produce more than one cytokine, especially Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF-α), which are thought to be associated with protective immune responses and play an essential role in antituberculosis immunity.1414 Marshall NB, Swain SL. Cytotoxic CD4 T cells in antiviral immunity. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:954602. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/954602
https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/954602...
Our data showed that ATB has significantly elevated Th1-type cytokine (IFN-γ) levels. These are cytokines specific for Mtb antigens.1515 Kathamuthu GR, Moideen K, Sridhar R, Baskaran D, Babu S. Enhanced Mycobacterial Antigen-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Lymph Node Tuberculosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019;100(6):1401-1406. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0834
https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0834...
) Thus, our study confirms the vital role of Th1 cells in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and suggests that Th1 cell occurrence may be specific for Mtb. However, higher amounts of Th1 cytokines may lead to a more severe disease that could reflect an increased bacterial load.1616 Kathamuthu GR, Moideen K, Baskaran D, Banurekha VV, Nair D, Sekar G. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Is Associated with Enhanced Baseline and Antigen-Specific Induction of Type 1 and Type 17 Cytokines and Reduced Interleukin-1b (IL-1b) and IL-18 at the Site of Infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017;24(5):e00045-17. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00045-17
https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00045-17...
In conclusion, our study suggests that cytokines expressed by Th1 play a vital role in the pathogenesis of ATB.

We can speculate on the correlates of risk of ATB by the absolute number of T lymphocyte subpopulations and the levels of some cytokines. Logistic regression analysis showed that significantly lower absolute CD3+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cell counts, as well as significant lower IL-4 and IFN-γ expression levels, had an independent influence on ATB and they could be used as evidence of potential biomarkers for tuberculosis surveillance. To identify LTBI, we also analyzed its influencing factors, and the results suggest that influencing factors of related diseases are mostly different; this may be a reference for the differential diagnosis of ATB and LTBI. To assess the diagnostic and predictive value of these influencers, we performed a ROC analysis. The results showed that the absolute CD3+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts and combined factors were significantly more valuable, sensitive, and specific for the diagnosis of ATB than were IL-4, IL-12p70, and IFN-γ expression levels, and that combined factors are valuable in the diagnostic evaluation of LTBI. The diagnostic value of these biomarkers can also be assessed from the sensitivity and specificity of the ROC curves. When these factors are considered together, they have a better value in the diagnosis of Mtb infection or ATB.

In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that serum T lymphocytes and cytokines are essential reference indicators for assessing the immune status of patients with ATB. The absolute numbers of CD3+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells, as well as the expression levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ, can be useful biomarkers for predicting and diagnosing tuberculosis. These markers, especially the combined factors, play a reference role in diagnosing and treating tuberculosis.

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Netea MG, Crevel RV. BCG-induced protection: effects on innate immune memory. Semin Immunol. 2014;26(6):512-517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smim.2014.09.006
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smim.2014.09.006
  • 2
    World Health Organization [homepage on the Internet]. Geneva: WHO; c2022 [updated 22 Oct 27; cited 2022 Nov 1]. Global Tuberculosis Report 2022. Available from: https://www.who.int/teams/global-tuberculosis-programme/tb-reports
    » https://www.who.int/teams/global-tuberculosis-programme/tb-reports
  • 3
    La Manna MP, Shekarkar-Azgomi M, Badami GD, Tamburini B, Dieli C, Di Carlo P, et al. Impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection on Human B Cell Compartment and Antibody Responses. Cells. 2022;11(18):2906. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11182906
    » https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11182906
  • 4
    Ritter K, Behrends J, Erdmann H, Rousseau J, Hölscher A, Volz J, et al. Interleukin-23 instructs protective multifunctional CD4 T cell responses after immunization with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis subunit vaccine H1 DDA/TDB independently of interleukin-17A [published correction appears in J Mol Med (Berl). 2021 Sep 27;:]. J Mol Med (Berl). 2021;99(11):1585-1602. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00109-021-02100-3
    » https://doi.org/10.1007/s00109-021-02100-3
  • 5
    Pearl JE, Saunders B, Ehlers S, Orme IM, Cooper AM. Inflammation and lymphocyte activation during mycobacterial infection in the interferon-gamma-deficient mouse. Cellular Immunol. 2001;211(1):43-50. https://doi.org/10.1006/cimm.2001.1819
    » https://doi.org/10.1006/cimm.2001.1819
  • 6
    Kumar NP, Moideen K, Banurekha VV, Nair D, Babu S. Plasma Proinflammatory Cytokines Are Markers of Disease Severity and Bacterial Burden in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019;6(7):ofz257. https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz257
    » https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz257
  • 7
    Talat N, Shahid F, Perry S, Dawood G, Hussain R. Th1/Th2 cytometric bead array can discriminate cytokine secretion from endogenously activated cells in pulmonary disease, recent and remote infection in tuberculosis. Cytokine. 2011;54(2):136-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2011.01.012
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2011.01.012
  • 8
    Vyas SP, Goswami R. Striking the right immunological balance prevents progression of tuberculosis. Inflamm Res. 2017;66(12):1031-1056. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00011-017-1081-z
    » https://doi.org/10.1007/s00011-017-1081-z
  • 9
    Lewinsohn DM, Lewinsohn DA. The Missing Link in Correlates of Protective Tuberculosis Immunity: Recognizing the Infected Cell. Front Immunol. 2022;13:869057. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.869057
    » https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.869057
  • 10
    Urdahl KB, Shafiani S, Ernst JD. Initiation and regulation of T-cell responses in tuberculosis. Mucosal Immunol. 2011;4(3):288-293. https://doi.org/10.1038/mi.2011.10
    » https://doi.org/10.1038/mi.2011.10
  • 11
    Takahashi T, Iwasaki A. Sex differences in immune responses. Science. 2021;371(6527):347-348. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abe7199
    » https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abe7199
  • 12
    Kaplan G, Freedman VH. The role of cytokines in the immune response to tuberculosis. Res Immunol. 1996;147(8-9):565-572. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0923-2494(97)85223-6
    » https://doi.org/10.1016/S0923-2494(97)85223-6
  • 13
    O'Garra A, Redford PS, McNab FW, Bloom CI, Wilkinson RJ, Berry MP. The immune response in tuberculosis. Annu Rev Immunol. 2013;31:475-527. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-032712-095939
    » https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-032712-095939
  • 14
    Marshall NB, Swain SL. Cytotoxic CD4 T cells in antiviral immunity. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:954602. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/954602
    » https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/954602
  • 15
    Kathamuthu GR, Moideen K, Sridhar R, Baskaran D, Babu S. Enhanced Mycobacterial Antigen-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Lymph Node Tuberculosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019;100(6):1401-1406. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0834
    » https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0834
  • 16
    Kathamuthu GR, Moideen K, Baskaran D, Banurekha VV, Nair D, Sekar G. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Is Associated with Enhanced Baseline and Antigen-Specific Induction of Type 1 and Type 17 Cytokines and Reduced Interleukin-1b (IL-1b) and IL-18 at the Site of Infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017;24(5):e00045-17. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00045-17
    » https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00045-17
  • Financial support:

    This study received financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (protocol no. 82260408), the Health Research Project of Kunming Health Care Commission (protocol nos. 2022-11-01-011 and 2022-11-01-004), and the “Thousands” Project of Kunming Health Science and Technology Talent Training [protocol nos. 2020-SW(Reserve)-60, 2022-SW(Reserve)-70 and 2022-SW(Reserve)-85].
  • 2
    Study carried out at The Third People’s Hospital of Kunming, Kunming, China.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    30 Oct 2023
  • Date of issue
    2023

History

  • Received
    11 May 2023
  • Accepted
    15 July 2023
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E-mail: jbp@sbpt.org.br