Abstract in English:Abstract Objective To assess the survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer at Hospital Universitário Alzira Vellano, in the municipality of Alfenas, state of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil, from 2007 to 2016. Methodology A search was conducted in the laboratory files and medical records of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer and cared for during the aforementioned period. Results In total, 128 cases were found: 52.3% were men, and 47.7% were women, with ages ranging from 25 to 91 years. The most common types of cancer in both genders were of the colon, rectum and sigmoid. The most common stages were T3N1Mx, followed by T3N0Mx and T3N2Mx. Patients with T1 or T2 cancers had a 100% survival rate, whereas the rate for those with grade 4 (T4) was of 0%. An association (p<0.05) of the location of the tumor with the survival rate was confirmed. Conclusion There was a high mortality rate among patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer at Hospital Universitário Alzira Vellano from 2007 to 2016.
Abstract in English:Abstract Purpose To describe the English-to-Spanish translation process and preliminary psychometric analysis (face validity, cultural adaptation, and test-retest reliability) of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Bowels Module (ICIQB) among Chilean colorectal cancer patients. Materials and Methods The face validity was studied with 10 colorectal cancer patients, and the test-retest reliability, with 15 patients, 1 month before and 6 months after cancer surgery. Results Two rounds of translation/back translation resulted in a Spanish version. The English expression open your bowels was translated as defecar, as it is easily understandable in Spanish. The patients reported that the instrument was easy to answer, with clear instructions, and that it was adequate to appraise their health condition. The testretest reliability was good (Spearman rho [ρ] ≥ 0.842); only item 15a, the Bristol Stool Scale, obtained a moderate correlation (ρ=0.639). The patients reported a variety of symptoms, including increased bowel movements, nocturnal bowel movements, fecal urgency, and incontinence. Conclusions The first Spanish version of the ICIQ-B was culturally adapted for Chilean colorectal cancer patients, and showed good test-retest reliability. It might be a reference for other Spanish-speaking countries and for patients with other conditions. The ICIQ-B is a robust comprehensive questionnaire for bowel function.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background In transanalminimally-invasive surgery (TAMIS), the closure of the rectal defect is controversial, and endoluminal suture is one of the most challenging aspects. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the short- andmedium-term complications of a consecutive series of patients with extraperitoneal rectal injuries who underwent TAMIS without closure of the rectal defect. Materials and Methods A prospective, longitudinal, descriptive study conducted between August 2013 and July 2019 in which all patients with extraperitoneal rectal lesions, who were operated on using the TAMIS technique, were consecutively included. The lesions were: benign lesions ≥ 3 cm; neuroendocrine tumors ≤ 2 cm; adenocarcinomas in stage T1N0; and adenocarcinomas in stage T2N0, with high surgical risk, or with the patients reluctant to undergo radical surgery, and others with doubts about complete remission after the neoadjuvant therapy. Bleeding, infectious complications, rectal stenosis, perforations, and death were evaluated. Results A total of 35 patients were treated using TAMIS without closure of the defect. The average size of the lesionswas of 3.68±2.1 cm(95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.7cmto 9 cm), their average distance from the anal margin was of 5.7±1.48cm, and the average operative time was of 39.2±20.5 minutes, with a minimum postoperative follow-up of 1 year. As for the pathologies, they were: 15 adenomas; 3 carcinoid tumors; and 17 adenocarcinomas. In all cases, the rectal defect was left open. The overall morbidity was of 14.2%. Two patients (grade II in the Clavien-Dindo classification) were readmitted for pain treatment, and three patients (grade III in the Clavien-Dindo classification) were assisted due to postoperative bleeding, one of whom required reoperation. Conclusion The TAMIS technique without closure of the rectal defect yields good results, and present a high feasibility and low complication rate.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Fistula in ano is a very common perianal condition seen in outpatient departments. Fistulotomy and fistulectomy are two conventional options of surgery. The present study is designed to observe wound healing time and mean postoperative pain score in the comparison of outcome of the fistulectomy to fistulotomy with marsupialization. Methods This prospective randomized trial was conducted in the surgical department of the Civil Hospital Karachi for a period of 12 months, in which 60 patients with low anal fistula were divided into 2 groups. Thirty patients in group A were treated with fistulectomy, and 30 in group B were treated with fistulotomy with marsupialization. The postoperative pain severity was assessed after 24 hrs through a visual analogue scale and on weekly and fortnightly follow-ups for 6 weeks. Wound healing was assessed by clinical examination on weekly and fortnightly follow-ups for 6 weeks to estimate the mean healing time. Results The mean pain score was significantly lower in group B in comparison to group A (3.6±1.99 versus 2.40±1.52; p=0.01). The mean wound healing time was shorter in group B in comparison to group A (4.23±0.77 versus 5.80±0.41 weeks; p=0.0005). Conclusion Fistulotomy with marsupialization is a simple, easy, and more effective method than fistulectomy for the treatment of simple perianal fistula.
Abstract in English:Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly transmittable through contact with respiratory droplets. The virus is also shed in fecal matter. Some patients may present with effects in more than one system; however, there are no defined biomarkers that can accurately predict the course or progression of the disease. The present study aimed to estimate the severity of the disease, to correlate the severity of the disease with biochemical predictors, to identify valuable biomarkers indicative of gastrointestinal disease, and to determine the cutoff values. A cross-sectional study was conducted on COVID-19 patients admitted to the Kafrelsheikh University Hospital (isolation unit) between July 10, 2020, and October 30, 2020. The diagnosis of COVID- 19 was confirmed via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which was employed for the detection of the viral RNA. We conclude that lymphopenia, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and liver enzymes were among the most important laboratory findings in COVID-19 patients. Statistically significant differences in platelet count, neutrophil count, D-dimer level, and fecal calprotectin levels were observed among patients presenting with chest symptoms only and patients with both chest and gastrointestinal symptoms (p=0.004;<0.001; 0.010; 0.003; and<0.001, respectively). C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and fecal calprotectin levels positively correlated with disease severity. The cutoff value for fecal calprotectin that can predict gastrointestinal involvement in COVID-19 was 165.0, with a sensitivity of 88.1% and a specificity of 76.5%.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The prolonged or incorrect use of facial masks, respirators and glasses or visors results in friction, pressure and shear forces that constantly act on the facial skin, leading to lesions and dermatitis. Objective To develop and validate algorithms to guide health professionals in the correct use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and indicate preventive measures against skin injuries caused by inappropriate use during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods For the develoment of the algorithms, an integrative literature review was performed using the following databases: PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS. The algorithms were evaluated by 59 health professionals (nurses, doctors, and physiotherapists), using the Delphi technique. A content validity index (CVI) was used for the statistical analysis. Results The experts classified the items of the algorithms from fully inadequate to fully adequate in the first round of consultations, and from partially adequate to fully adequate in the second round. The overall CVI values were of 0.83 and 1.0 in the first and second rounds respectively. Conclusion The algorithms validated by the expert panel can be used by health professionals when donning and doffing PPE, and to prevent the facial-skin lesions caused by their use.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction The literature converges regarding the use of C-reactive protein (CRP) tests between postoperative days (PODs) 3 and 5 of elective procedures. In this period, they have great sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) for severe and anastomotic complications about two days before the first clinical sign. The few studies on colorectal urgency suggest that, despite the different initial values according to the surgical indication, following POD 3, the level of CRP is similar to that of elective procedures. However, given the heterogeneity of the studies, there is no consensus on the cutoff values for this use. Objective To validate the use and propose a PO CRP cut-off value in urgent colorectal procedures as an exclusion criterion for complications of anastomosis or the abdominal cavity. Method Retrospective analysis of the medical records of 308 patients who underwent urgent colorectal surgical procedures between January 2017 andDecember 2019. The following data were considered: age, gender, surgical indication, type of procedure performed, complications, CRP levels preoperatively and from POD 1 to 4, and the severity of the complications. We compared the CRP levels and the percentage variations between the preoperative period and PODs 1 to 4 as markers of severe complications using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results The levels of CRP on POD4, and their percentage drops between PODs 2 to 4 and PODs 3 to 4, were better to predict severe complications. A cutoff of 7.45mg/dL on POD 4 had 91.7% of sensitivity and NPV. A 50% drop between PODs 3 and 4 had 100% of sensitivity and NPV. Conclusion Determining the level of CRP is useful to exclude severe complications, and it could be a criterion for hospital discharge in POD 4 of emergency colorectal surgery.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives The present study aimed to develop an application to guide healthcare professionals on using personal protective equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 pandemic and prevent and treat skin lesions caused by these devices. Methods This is a study on technological production. The framework for application development consisted in the following phases: Phase 1-“Design: identification of application development requirements;” Phase 2-“Application prototype development”: including an integrative literature review in major databases; Phase 3-“Application construction”: elaboration of the decision tree, algorithm, database structuring, and software development; Phase 4-“Transition”: application functionality test. Result Our application Simplifica EPI is an innovative technology; this software is a tool to assist healthcare professionals in using PPE. In addition, it describes how to prevent and care for skin lesions caused by PPE. Simplifica EPI has 25 screens and 32 images. It will be available on the Google Play Store after its registration with the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property. Conclusions After an integrative literature review, the application Simplifica EPI was developed as an innovative technology with great potential for use by healthcare professionals.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Anatomopathological staging is the primary method to determine the prognosis of patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, new tools have been developed that can complement it, such as the analysis of the elevation of systemic inflammatory markers. Objective To evaluate the impact of the elevation of scores based on inflammatory markers (the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio [NLR], the Glasgow Prognostic Score [GPS], and isolated C-reactive protein [CRP]) in the prognosis of patients diagnosed with CRC and submitted to potentially curative surgery in Hospital de Braga, Portugal, between January 1st, 2005, and December 31st, 2010. Methods A retrospective analysis of the data of 426 patients was performed, with a collection of several clinico-pathological variables, as well as the levels of lymphocytes, neutrophils, albumin and CRP, in the pre- and postoperative periods, to apply the different scores to the sample. Results From the analysis of the survival curves, we concluded that patients with increased NLR in the pre- and postoperative periods present a lower cancer-related survival than patients with normal NLR (preoperative period: 93.7 versus 122 months; p<0.001; postoperative period: 112 versus 131 months; p=0.002). Patients with increased NLR in the pre- and postoperative periods also had a lower disease-free survival (preoperative period: 88.0 versus 122 months; p<0.001; postoperative period: 111 versus 132 months; p=0.002). In addition, increased pre- and postoperative NLR was associatedwith a higher risk of death due to CRC (preoperatively: hazard ratio [HR]=2.25; p<0.001; postoperatively: HR=2.18; p=0.003). However, the multivariate analysis shows that only postoperative NLR (ajusted HR =2.66; p=0.002) does so independently of the remaining variables. Conclusion Regarding the scores applied to the sample, the NLR was the one that most consistently related to the prognosis of the patients. However, it would be useful to develop a prospective study that could confirm this relationship.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Fistula-in-ano is one of the most common clinical condition encountered in a surgical outpatient department. Many treatment modalities have been described with variable outcomes but gold standard surgical treatment is yet to be agreed upon. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the treatment outcomes of ligature of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) technique in the treatment of simple and complex fistula-in-ano with the primary objective of recurrence rate and broad objective of other postoperative complications during the period of study and after long-term follow-up. Methods It is a retrospective study of prospectively collected data from the patients who havebeen operated for fistula-in-ano using the LIFT technique at our institute from February 2018 to March 2020 and followed-up until September 2020. Results A total of 56 patients with fistula-in-ano were treated with the LIFT procedure during the study period, of which 20 patients had simple fistula and 36 had complex fistula. A success rate of 83% was obtained with completely healed fistulas in 46 patients. No patient developed postoperative incontinence. Conclusion Ligature of intersphincteric fistula tract is an effective treatmentmodality for fistula-in-ano with less procedure-related morbidity, but it is associated with a higher recurrence rate in simple fistula than in complex fistula.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) has revolutionized the surgical techniques for lower-third rectal cancer. The aim of the present study was to analyze the outcomes of quality indicators of TaTME for rectal cancer compared with laparoscopic TME (LaTME). Methods A cohort prospective study with 50 (14 female and 36male) patients, with a mean age of 67 (range: 55.75 to 75.25) years, who underwent surgery for rectal cancer. In total, 20 patients underwent TaTME, and 30, LaTME. Every TaTME procedure was performed by experienced colorectal surgeons. The sample was divided into two groups (TaTME and LaTME), and the quality indicators of the surgery for rectal cancer were analyzed. Results There were no statistically significant differences regarding the patients and the main characteristics of the tumor (age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] score, body mass index [BMI], tumoral stage, neoadjuvant therapy, and distance from the tumor to the external anal margin) between the two groups. The rates of: postoperativemorbidity (TaTME: 35%; LaTME: 30%; p=0.763);mortality (0%); anastomotic leak (TaTME: 10%; LaTME: 13%; p=0.722); wound infection (TaTME: 0%; LaTME: 3.3%; p=0.409); reoperation (TaTME: 5%; LaTME: 6.6%; p=0.808); and readmission (TaTME: 5%; LaTME: 0%; p=0.400), as well as the length of the hospital stay (TaTME: 13.5 days; LaTME: 11 days; p=0.538), were similar in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the rates of positive circumferential resection margin (TaTME: 5%; LaTME: 3.3%; p=0.989) and positive distal resection margin (TaTME: 0%; LaTME: 3.3%; p=0.400), the completeness of the TME (TaTME: 100%; LaTME: 100%), and the number of lymph nodes harvested (TaTME: 15; LaTME: 15.5; p=0.882) between two groups. Conclusion Transanal total mesorectal excision is a safe and feasible surgical procedure for middle/lower-third rectal cancer.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in almost 90% of the cases. Its incidence is alarmingly high among men who have sex with men (MSM) and continues to increase at an average rate of 2% per year. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the usefulness and performance of liquid-based anal cytology as a screening tool for prevention and early detection of SCCA in a cohort of at-risk men. Method We conducted a retrospective study including 111 MSM, aged between 22 and 62 years old, who underwent anal cytological screening with a liquid-based Pap test at our sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) clinic from January 2015 to March 2017. Results Out of 111 anal smears, 57 (51,4%) resulted negative, 42 (37,8%) abnormal, and 12 (10,8%) unsatisfactory for the cytological evaluation. Only patients with an abnormal cytology underwent anoscopy and subsequent biopsy. The histological results were as follows: negative for squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) in 5 cases, low-grade SIL (L-SIL) in 21, high-grade SIL (H-SIL) in 5, SCCA in 1. Five patients had a normal anoscopy and biopsy was not taken. Conclusion Liquid-based cytology, reducing the “darkening factors” typical for the conventional smears, has a higher positive predictive value than the traditional technique. Moreover, a cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or L-SILmay hide a severe dysplasia or even a carcinoma. Thus, all patients with an abnormal anal cytology at any grade should be considered for anoscopy.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction A therapeutic plan is elaborated based on the health needs of each user, allowing a multidisciplinary team to assess diagnoses, treatment options, bonds, and optimal hospitalization time. Objectives To identify risk management tools already used and implemented in a reference teaching hospital in the city of São Paulo and to analyze their application and risk factors in medium and large colorectal surgery. Method Observational, longitudinal, and prospective study, with 30 patients with colorectal disease hospitalized in the surgical ward of the coloproctology service and in need of surgical treatment. In the first group, the protocol was applied with the knowledge of the researcher only, and, in the second group, with the knowledge of both the researcher and the attending physicians. Results Sixty percent of the patients were female with a mean age of 60.93 years and body mass index (BMI) of 26.07 Kg/m2. After surgery, patients in the first group who did not receive venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in the first 24 hours had an increased risk of having the event compared with those who returned to prophylaxis (p<0.005), thus suggesting this prophylaxis was a protective factor against thromboembolic event (p=0.006). This group also had a higher risk of hypoglycemia when no strict control was performed (p=0.041). Conclusion The compliance to hospital protocols with applicationmonitoring, notedly in teaching places with annual admission of resident physicians, is a fundamental part of the adequate care of the patient combined with the implementation of therapeutic plans.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the most common gastrointestinal neoplasm in the world, accounting for 15% of cancer-related deaths. This condition is related to different molecular pathways, among them the recently described serrated pathway, whose characteristic entities, serrated lesions, have undergone important changes in their names and diagnostic criteria in the past thirty years. The multiplicity of denominations and criteria over the last years may be responsible for the low interobserver concordance (IOC) described in the literature. Objectives The present study aims to describe the evolution in classification of serrated lesions, based on the last three publications of theWorld Health Organization (WHO) and the reproducibility of these criteria by pathologists, based on the evaluation of the IOC. Methods A search was conducted in the PubMed, ResearchGate and Portal Capes databases, with the following terms: sessile serrated lesion; serrated lesions; serrated adenoma; interobserver concordance; andreproducibility.Articlespublished since 1990were researched. Results and Discussion The classification of serrated lesions in the past thirty years showed different denominations and diagnostic criteria. The reproducibility and IOC of these criteria in the literature, based on the kappa coefficient, varied in most studies, from very poor to moderate. Conclusions Interobserver concordance and the reproducibility of microscopic criteria may represent a limitation for the diagnosis andappropriatemanagementof these lesions. It is necessary to investigate diagnostic tools to improve the performance of the pathologist’s evaluation, for better concordance, and, consequently, adequate diagnosis and treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract Described for the first time in themedical literature in 1978 by Parks and Nicholls, total proctocolectomy with ileal-pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is nowadays the procedure of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis inwhom themedical therapy has, a selected group of patients with Crohń s disease, and for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Despite the advances in medical treatment regarding inflammatory bowel disease, up to 30% of patients still require surgery, and restorative proctocolectomy and IPAA are the mainstay of the surgical treatment. It is considered a demanding and technically-challenging procedure, with the main challenge being the performance of a tension-free IPAA; the main reason for failure of the tension-free anastomosis is a shortened mesentery. With particular attention to detail, sufficient length can be achieved to enable a safe anastomosis in most patients. Herein, we describe the available techniques to lengthen the mesentery of the ileal pouch to perform an easyto- reach tension-free anastomosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction Most cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) occur sporadically; however, ~3% to 6% of all CRCs are related to inherited syndromes, such as Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) andmutY DNA glycosylase (MUTYH) germline mutations are the main genetic causes related to colorectal polyposis. Nevertheless, in many cases mutations in these genes have not been identified. The aim of the present case report is to describe a rare case of genetic colorectal polyposis associated with the axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2) gene. Case Report The first colonoscopy screening of a 61-year-old male patient with no known family history of CRC revealed ~ 50 colorectal polyps. A histological evaluation of the resected polyps showed low-grade tubular adenomas. Germline genetic testing through a multigene panel for cancer predisposition syndromes revealed a pathogenic variant in the AXIN2 gene. In addition to colorectal polyposis, the patient had mild features of ectodermal dysplasia: hypodontia, scant body hair, and onychodystrophy. Discussion The AXIN2 gene acts as a negative regulator of the Wnt/β -catenin signaling pathway, which participates in development processes and cellular homeostasis. Further studies are needed to support the surveillance recommendations for carriers of the AXIN2 pathogenic variant.
Abstract in English:Abstract Sigmoid volvulus is a frequent cause of intestinal obstruction. Its management has evolved with the use of laparoscopic surgery, achieving an elective sigmoid resection with anastomosis after a flexible endoscopic detorsion. A female patient was admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, distention, and constipation. The abdominal computed tomography showed a whirled sigmoid mesentery in addition to dilated sigmoid loops, and coffee bean sign. The patient successfully underwent a flexible endoscopic detorsion and was scheduled for elective sigmoid colectomy with rectal superior artery preservation and primary anastomosis. During the sigmoid resection, the superior rectal artery preservation is related to a better prognostic, with less bleeding, anastomotic leakage, and hospital stay. Currently, there are few reports of the laparoscopic preservation of the superior rectal artery in patients with sigmoid volvulus.
Abstract in English:Abstract The evaluation of preventivemeasures and risk factors for anastomotic leakage has been a constant concern among colorectal surgeons. In this context, the description of a new way to perform a colorectal, coloanal or ileoanal anastomosis, known as transanal transection and single-stapled (TTSS) anastomosis, deserves an appreciation of its qualities, and a discussion about its properties and technical details. In the present paper, the authors review themost recent efforts aiming to reduce anastomotic dehiscence, and describe the TTSS technique in a patient submitted to laparoscopic total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis. Surgical perception raises important advantages such as distal rectal transection under visualization, elimination of double-stapling lines (with cost-effectiveness and potential protection against suture dehiscence), elimination of dog ears, and the opportunity to be accomplished via a transanal approach after open, laparoscopic, or robotic colorectal resections. Future studies to confirm these supposed advantages are needed.