Abstract in English:Abstract Mitochondrial respiratory chain diseases are the most prevalent group of inherited neurometabolic disorders and are clinically, biochemically, and genetically heterogeneous. They may present at any stage of life and often manifest with severe multisystem disease, although single organ involvement is characteristic of some conditions such as Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. As a result of these complexities, the diagnostic pathway is often challenging, so too is further advice, guidance, and therapy following diagnosis. Difficulties also occur with regard to genetic counseling, prognostic assessment, and treatment; there is still no cure or even agreed standards of treatment available for these debilitating diseases. Limited therapeutic options and a lack of curative treatment have led to physicians prescribing individual “trials of therapy” for which no evidence-based recommendations are available. However, new therapeutic options are the focus of active molecular genetic, biochemical, and clinical research, and some medicinal compounds have achieved international governmental approval. In this chapter, we summarize these advances and provide a broad overview of the treatment and novel approaches to preventing transmission of mitochondrial disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract To reveal the associated factors of quality of life (QoL) in children with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), their siblings, and their primary caregivers and partners, we conducted an anonymous questionnaire survey in Japan. Descriptive, correlation, and multiple regression analyses were performed. Fifty-six children with IEM, 35 siblings, 143 primary caregivers, and 86 partners completed our questionnaires. There were significant positive correlations between higher QoL in children with IEM and lower disease influence (r ¼0.46) and higher perceived emotional support (r ¼0.67). We could not find any associated factor of siblings’ QoL. Lower parental distress, higher family empowerment, and higher household income contributed to higher QoL in primary caregivers (adjusted R2 ¼ 0.636). Higher household income, lower anxiety about childrearing, and higher satisfaction in the relationship with the child and entire family contributed to higher QoL of partners (adjusted R2 ¼ 0.398). We concluded that developing effective interventions to improve QoL is needed for the entire family in future outpatient settings.
Abstract in English:Abstract Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder, caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme b-glucocerebrosidase, resulting in accumulation of glucocerebroside in tissue macrophages. HGT-GCB-068 was an open-label study designed to explore the efficacy and safety of velaglucerase alfa in children and adolescents with type 3 GD, a neuronopathic form of the disease. Six treatment-naive patients received infusions of velaglucerase alfa every other week at 60 U/kg over 12 months. Velaglucerase alfa demonstrated a favorable tolerability profile, and 1 infusion-related reaction (headache) was the only drug-related adverse event reported. Numerical increases from baseline in hematological parameters and decreases in visceral parameters were seen at 12 months. http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01685216.
Abstract in English:Abstract The mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) disorders are a group of rare, inherited lysosomal storage disorders. In each of the 11 MPS (sub)types, deficiency in a specific lysosomal enzyme (1 of 11 identified enzymes) leads to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans, resulting in cell, tissue, and multi-organ dysfunction. There is great heterogeneity in the clinical manifestations both between and within each MPS type. Somatic signs and symptoms include short stature, coarse facial features, skeletal and joint abnormalities, cardiorespiratory dysfunction, hepatosplenomegaly, and vision and hearing problems. In addition, patients with MPS I, II, III, and VII can have significant neurological manifestations, including impaired cognitive, language, and speech abilities, behavioral abnormalities, sleep problems, and/or epileptic seizures. Hydrocephalus is a frequent finding in patients with MPS I, II, and VI. Spinal cord compression can develop in almost all MPS disorders. Effective management and development of therapies that target these neurological manifestations warrant a profound understanding of their pathophysiology and progression in the different MPS types and best practices for evaluation and treatment. In order to obtain expert opinion addressing these topics we performed an online survey among an international group of experts with extensive experience in managing and treating MPS disorders. The results of this survey provide important insights into the management of neurological manifestations of MPS in clinical practice and are a valuable addition to current evidence.
Abstract in English:Abstract Many micronutrients or cofactors derived from micronutrients are highly reactive, hence their role in catalysis of reactions by enzymes. The concentration of cofactors has to be kept low to avoid unwanted reactions while allowing them to bind to the (apo)enzymes that need them. A new disorder causing B6-responsive epilepsy (proline synthetase cotranscribed bacterial homologue deficiency) is probably due to the absence of an important intracellular pyridoxal phosphate chaperone. The availability of some micronutrients varies by orders of magnitude in different geographical areas. Selenium is both essential and toxic, and during evolution, different populations have had to adapt to this differing availability. An “inborn error of metabolism (IEM)” in a low selenium area of China may be a selective advantage in a high selenium area and vice versa; the concept of nutrigenomics is an important one for micronutrients. The gut flora may make an important contribution to vitamin synthesis. This is difficult to study, but experiments can be undertaken with the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans (with or without an IEM) and a single clone of Escherichia coli (with or without an IEM) as food and gut flora. This model shows that the gut microbiome can have profound influences on the folate cycle and associated vitamins. Our innate immune system makes use of the micronutrient requirements of pathogens and can deprive a pathogen of essential micronutrient(s) or expose it to toxic levels. It is not surprising, therefore, that some mutations affecting the way the host handles micronutrients can confer an advantage in resistance to infection and this may have acted as a selective advantage during evolution. This will be discussed by reference to the relationship of inborn errors to resistance to malaria. Conversely, other inborn errors of micronutrient metabolism are likely to make it more difficult for the host to use nutritional immunity to fight infection; this probably accounts for the list of infections that are more serious in patients with hereditary haemochromatosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a progressive lysosomal storage disorder with multiorgan and multisystemic pathology. Currently, galsulfase enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is the only approved treatment for MPS VI. A crosssectional survey study of 121 patients with MPS VI conducted in 2001 to 2002 and a 10-year follow-up study of the same patients (resurvey study; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01387854) found that those receiving galsulfase at any time showed physical improvements and a lower mortality rate (16.5%) versus treatment-naive patients (50%). After *15 years, galsulfasetreated patients (n ¼ 104) continue to have a survival advantage over treatment-naive patients (n ¼ 14), as demonstrated by a 24% versus 57% mortality rate. This survival advantage is further supported by data from the commercial use of galsulfase (2005-2016), which show a 5-year mortality rate for galsulfase-treated patients of 12.5%. Together, these findings suggest that galsulfase ERT can increase life expectancies for patients with MPS VI over a period of at least 15 years.
Abstract in English:Abstract In Portugal, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-responsive patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) are identified using a loading test (LT). Phenylalanine/natural protein (Phe/NP) intake is increased to elevate blood Phe prior to the LT. In a longitudinal retrospective study, the impact of Phe/NP titration post-LT in 58 patients (19.6 + 8.2 years) with PKU during 4 study periods (SPs) was examined. In SP1 (2010-2013), patients were diet treated only; in SP2 (2014), the Phe/NP titration was followed by the LT in SP3 (2015). In SP4 (2016), patients received diet treatment only (n ¼ 49) or BH4 þdiet (n ¼ 9). The median percentage blood Phe within the target range was higher in SP1 versus SP4 (64 [28-85] vs 45 [0-66]; P < .001). Our results suggest that transient Phe/NP titration, associated with a deliberate increase in NP, may adversely affect metabolic control. Controlled studies are necessary to examine the longer term impact of temporary increased NP with BH4 LT in non-BH4-responsive patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract An innovative technology (Physiomimic Technology) has been applied to amino acids (AAs) formulated for patients with phenylketonuria, with the objective of masking AA taste and odor and prolonging AA release in the gut, allowing a physiological absorption. This technology entails that the AAs are processed with functional additives that are able to modify their release and their organoleptic features. Two prototypes, obtained using sodium alginate + ethylcellulose (engP-1) or sodium alginate + ethylcellulose + glyceryl dibehenate (engP-2), have been tested for AA prolonged release versus the same AAs (n-engP) without the application of the Physiomimic Technology. In vitro tests indicated that the technology is able to prolong the release of the engineered AAs versus the free compounds. A crossover in vivo kinetic study in pigs showed reduced peak concentrations (Cmax) and, as expected, similar areas under the concentration/time curve (up to 5 hours) for the engineered products versus the free AAs. Significantly lower Cmax values (P < .01) were attained for essential AAs, large neutral AAs, and branched-chain AAs, indicating that the technology is able to reduce the typical absorption peak of free AAs. Taste and odor masking has been obtained as a consequence of the AA coating. The Physiomimic Technology, applied to free AAs, provided AA mixes with improved organoleptic features and with modified AA kinetics sustaining a more physiological AA absorption.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1; OMIM 27670) is an inborn error of tyrosine metabolism, caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. This defect leads to accumulation of toxic products, which cause liver and kidney dysfunction. In patients with HT1, IQ, executive functioning, and social cognition are also affected. We report here a case report of a Belgian 11-year-old girl of Moroccan ethnicity with HT1. She had attention problems, which had a significant impact on her school functioning. Neuropsychological tests showed very low scores for processing speed and executive functioning. Therapies such as adaptations in the school and private tutoring were not sufficient to improve this. Treatment with methylphenidate showed a significant improvement in the neuropsychological test and school functioning. This case shows the importance of being alert for problems with executive functions in patients with HT1 and to consider psychopharmacological treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract Alpha-mannosidosis, a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-mannosidase, results in accumulation of mannose-rich glycoproteins in the tissues and sequelae leading to intellectual disability, ataxia, impaired hearing and speech, recurrent infections, skeletal abnormalities, muscular pain, and weakness. This study aimed to investigate disability, pain, and overall health using the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and the EuroQol 5 Dimension-5 Level Questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) in patients with alpha-mannosidosis participating in rhLAMAN-10, a phase III open-label, clinical trial of velmanase alfa, a recombinanthumanlysosomalalpha-mannosidase. Long-termprognosesformost patients withuntreatedalpha-mannosidosisarepoor due to progressive neuromuscular, skeletal, and intellectual deterioration, leading to increased dependence in mobility and activities of daily living and increased caregiver and health-care burden. Long-term CHAQ and EQ-5D-5L data highlight improvement trends in health-related quality of life and a reduction in disability and pain in patients receiving up to 48 months of velmanase alfa treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type-2 (CLN2) disease is a rare, autosomalrecessive,pediatric-onset,neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the TPP1 gene. Cerliponase alfa (Brineura®), a recombinant form of human tripeptidyl peptidase-1, was recently developed as a treatment for CLN2 disease. In clinical trials, the primary end point to evaluate treatment effect was the aggregate score for the motor and language (ML) domains of the CLN2 Clinical Rating Scale, an adaptation of the Hamburg scale’s component items that include anchor point definitions to allow consistent ratings in multinational, multisite, clinical efficacy studies. Psychometric analyses demonstrated that the ML score of the CLN2 Clinical Rating Scale and individual item scores are well defined and possess adequate measurement properties (reliability, validity, and responsiveness) to demonstrate a clinical benefit over time. Additionally, analyses comparing the CLN2 Clinical Rating Scale ML ratings to the Hamburg scale’s ML ratings demonstrated adequate similarity.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study described a broad clinical characterization of classical homocystinuria (HCU) in Brazil. This was a cross-sectional, observational study including clinical and biochemical data from 72 patients (60 families) from Brazil (South, n = 13; Southeast, n = 37; Northeast, n = 8; North, n = 1; and Midwest, n = 1). Parental consanguinity was reported in 42% of families. Ocular manifestations were the earliest detected symptom (53% of cases), the main reason for diagnostic suspicion (63% of cases), and the most prevalent manifestation at diagnosis (67% of cases). Pyridoxine responsiveness was observed in 14% of patients. Only 22% of nonresponsive patients on treatment had total homocysteine levels <100 mmol/L. Most commonly used treatment strategies were pyridoxine (93% of patients), folic acid (90%), betaine (74%), vitamin B12 (27%), and low-methionine diet + metabolic formula (17%). Most patients diagnosed with HCU in Brazil are late diagnosed, express a severe phenotype, and poor metabolic control. Milder forms of HCU are likely underrepresented due to underdiagnosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract X-linked ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is the most common urea cycle disorder. Hemizygous males with complete deficiency manifest neonatal acute hyperammonemia, while those with partial deficiency have a late presentation. The symptomatology of heterozygotes depends on the inactivation pattern of X chromosome. Hyperammonemic episodes can cause neurological damage and are potentially fatal. Here, we match clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings with bioinformatics analyses to report genotype-phenotype correlations in 14 Argentine patients with OTCD from 11 unrelated families: 4 hemizygotes with neonatal onset (complete OTC gene deletion, 533C > T, c.540+1G > A, c.697delG); 4 hemizygotes with late onset (c.216+1G > A, c.386G > A, c.622G > A, c.829C > T); and 6 symptomatic heterozygotes (complete OTC gene deletion, c.533C > T, c.452T > G, c.540+1G > A, dupE1-9/delE10). Three of these mutations were previously unreported: c.540+1G > A, c.697delG, and dup1-9/del10. Our data highlight the relevance of combining molecular and bioinformatics analyses for accurate diagnosis and outcome prediction in suspected patients with OTCD and the importance of carrier testing for effective genetic counseling.
Abstract in English:Abstract 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase (HMGCL, HMGCL) deficiency is a rare inborn error of ketogenesis. Even if the ketogenic enzyme is fully disrupted, an elevated signal for the ketone body acetoacetic acid is a frequent observation in the analysis of urinary organic acids, at least if derivatization is performed by methylation. We provide an explanation for this phenomenon and trace it back to degradation of the derivatized 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid and high temperature of the injector of the gas chromatograph.
Abstract in English:Abstract The clinical as well as biochemical and genetic spectrum of peroxisomal diseases has markedly increased over the last few years, thanks to the revolutionary advances in the field of genome analysis and several -omics technologies. This has led to the recognition of novel disease phenotypes linked to mutations in previously identified peroxisomal genes as well as several hitherto unidentified peroxisomal disorders. Correct interpretation of the wealth of data especially coming from genome analysis requires functional studies at the level of metabolites (peroxisomal metabolite biomarkers), enzymes, and the metabolic pathway(s) involved. This strategy is not only required to identify the true defect in each individual patient but also to determine the extent of the deficiency as described in detail in this article.
Abstract in English:Abstract As therapies are developed for rare disorders, challenges of early diagnosis become particularly relevant. This article focuses on clinical recognition of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), a group of rare genetic diseases related to abnormalities in lysosomal function. As quality of outcomes with current therapies is impacted by timing of intervention, minimizing time to diagnosis is critical. The objective of this study was to characterize how, when, and to whom patients with MPS first present and develop tools to stimulate earlier recognition of MPS. A tripartite approach was used, including a systematic literature review yielding 194 studies, an online physician survey completed by 209 physicians who described
Abstract in English:Abstract Major progress occurred in understanding inborn errors of ketone body transport and metabolism between the International Congresses on Inborn Errors of Metabolism in Barcelona (2013) and Rio de Janeiro (2017). These conditions impair either ketogenesis (presenting as episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia) or ketolysis (presenting as ketoacidotic episodes); for both groups, immediate intravenous glucose administration is the most critical and (mHGGCS, HMGCS2) effective treatment measure. Ketogenesis Deficiencies: New biomarkers were described for mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (mHGGCS, HMGCS2) deficiency. New patient series refined clinical knowledge of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HGGCL, HMGCL) deficiency. Although affected humans have not been described, two animal model phenotypes are pertinent: zebrafish deficient in monocarboxylate transporter 7 (MCT7, slc16a6) (decreased ketone body exit from hepatocytes) or mice lacking D-3-hydroxy-n-butyrate dehydrogenase (BDH1, BDH1) (isolated hyperacetoacetatemia; fatty liver). Ketolysis Deficiencies: Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1, SLC16A1) deficiency is a newly described defect of ketone body transport, joining deficiencies of succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT, OXCT1) and methylacetoacetyl-CoA thiolase (MAT, ACAT1). Some heterozygotes for MCT1 or SCOT deficiency develop ketoacidosis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II—Hunter syndrome) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in iduronate-2 sulfatase. Enzyme replacement therapy does not cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), limiting the results in neurological forms of the disease. Another treatment option for MPS, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become the treatment of choice for the severe form of MPS I since it can preserve neurocognition when performed early in the course of the disease. Even though the intravenous therapy does not cross the BBB, it has become the recommended treatment for MPS II, and HSCT was not often indicated. In an attempt to understand why this treatment modality is rejected by most specialists as a treatment option for patients with Hunter syndrome, we sought to raise all HSCT cases already reported in the scientific literature. Databases used were Medline/PubMed, Lilacs/BVS Cochrane Library, DARE, SciELO, and SCOPUS. Different combinations of the terms “mucopolysaccharidosis II,” “Hunter syndrome,” “hematopoietic stem cell transplantation,” “bone marrow transplantation,” and “umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation” were used. A total of 780 articles were found. After excluding redundant references and articles not related to the theme, 26 articles were included. A descriptive summary of each article is presented, and the main features are summed up. The clinical experience with HSCT in MPS II is small, and most of the available literature is outdated. The available data reveal poor patient selection criteria, varied conditioning regimens, distinct follow-up parameters, and post-HSCT outcomes of interest, making impossible to compare and generalize the results obtained. Recently, after the development of new conditioning protocols and techniques and the creation of bone marrow donor registries and umbilical cord banks, HSCT has become more secure and accessible. It seems now appropriate to reconsider HSCT as a treatment option for the neuronopathic form of MPS II.
Abstract in English:Abstract Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are a large and heterogeneous group of genetic diseases. In most of these conditions, the presence of variants in specific genes leads to enzyme deficiencies that affect a particular metabolic step. The number of laboratories dedicated to the study of IEM is very limited worldwide, and its multiplication is urgently required for a more effective diagnosis. With the scarcity of specialized centers, the diagnosis of affected individuals comes too late or does not happen at all. Moreover, the biological samples have to travel long distances, compromising its quality and delaying still more the diagnosis. In this work, we suggest a practical guide for a basic biochemical laboratory to get involved in the study of IEM. This proposal was based on already described metabolic tests and involves the need of just a few, simple, and affordable instruments that can give an enormous quantity of information about the possible metabolic defect faced, such as a spectrophotofluorometer and a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) instrument. The procedures proposed can be customized and adapted to particular needs and situations, which make it especially useful for developing countries.