Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Mucopolysaccharidosis is characterized by excessive accumulation of glycosaminoglycan sulfate in organs and tissues. Otorhinolaryngological and upper respiratory tract pathologies are among the earliest clinical manifestations. We realized a retrospective study of clinical and otorhinolaryngologic findings of 35 patients diagnosed with MPS type II, IV-A and VI of the Colombian southwest. As a result, we found that 64% of the patients evaluated had hearing loss, 11.3% had hypertrophy of the tonsils,17.10% short neck and macroglossia. Additionally, 47.8% of the patients presented otitis media. 20% received treatment with hearing aids. no patient reported otosclerosis or tinittus. In patients with different types of MPS, there is a high frequency and progressive tendency to suffer audiological losses and recurrent infections, so it is important an opportune diagnosis, permanent monitoring and adequate therapy to avoid the repercussion of the pathology in the quality of life of patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), responsible for the conversion of phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine (Tyr). Monitoring of patients with PKU requires the measurement of Phe in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or in dried blood spots (DBS) using different techniques to adjust treatment strategy. The objective of this study was to evaluate Phe levels in DBS measured by two different methods and compare them with Phe levels measured in plasma by HPLC. We analyzed 89 blood samples from 47 PKU patients by two different methods: fluorometric method developed in-house (method A) and the commercially available PerkinElmer® Neonatal Phenylalanine Kit (method B) and in plasma by HPLC. The mean Phe levels by method A, method B, and HPLC were 430.4±39.9μmol/L, 439.3±35.4μmol/L, and 442.2±41.6μmol/L, respectively. The correlation values between HPLC and methods A and B were 0.990 and 0.974, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). Our data suggest that methods A and B are useful alternatives for monitoring Phe levels in patients with PKU, with method A being in closer agreement with the reference standard (HPLC).
Abstract in English:Abstract The safety and efficacy of elosulfase alfa were evaluated in a multicenter, open-label, phase 3b study in Australian Morquio A patients, consisting of a 49-week initial phase and an extension phase until elosulfase alfa was government funded. Thirteen patients (1-27 years) were enrolled. No new safety concerns were identified over 138 weeks. Most drug-related adverse events were mild or moderate in severity; none led to study discontinuation. After 49 weeks of treatment, median improvements from baseline were seen in the 6-minute walk test (+41.0 m), 3-minute stair climb test (+14.0 stairs/min), forced vital capacity (+16.4%), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (+14.1%), urine keratan sulfate (-7.1 µg/mg creatinine), and pain intensity. Growth, cardiac function, sleep, and quality of life results were mixed or stable. These results provide further evidence of the acceptable safety/tolerability profile of elosulfase alfa. The improvements in endurance, pulmonary function, and pain support findings from previous studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Limited research has investigated the challenges faced by families caring for children with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2) disease. Face-to-face, mixed-method, in-depth surveys were conducted with 19 families (23 children) in the UK (n=9) and Germany (n=10) to assess the impact of caring for children with CLN2 disease, using national wellbeing and quality of life (QoL) measures. Primary (n=19) and secondary (n=10) caregivers, adult siblings (n=2), and child siblings (n=2) were included. Caregivers reported reduced health-related QoL compared with age and gender-matched controls (mean utility scores 0.08 and 0.11 lower in Germany and the UK, respectively). Hours of caregiving were significantly higher relative to that provided to a child of normal health, with stress, back pain, and reductions in sleep being recorded. Lower life satisfaction and happiness with partners were also reported, along with significant financial burden. Those caring for children in the late stage of disease were more greatly impacted than those with children in the rapidly progressive stage, or who were bereaved. The results of this study make clear the importance of emotional and practical support for caregivers and siblings coping with CLN2 disease.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are inborn errors of metabolism caused by deficient lysosomal enzymes, leading to organomegaly, hip osteonecrosis, coarse facial features, bone deformities, joint stiffness, cardiac and pulmonary symptoms (MPS VI) or hypermobility (MPS IVA). Some patients may present with non-classical forms of the disease in which osteoarticular abnormalities are the initial symptoms of non-classical forms. As orthopedists and surgeons are the specialists most frequently consulted before the diagnosis, it is critical that MPS may be considered as a differential diagnosis for patients with bone dysplasia. Experts in Latin America reviewed medical records focusing on disease onset, first symptoms and the follow-up clinical and surgical outcomes of non-classical MPS VI and IVA patients. All patients displayed orthopedic issues, which worsened over time, followed by cardiac and ophthalmological abnormalities. Our findings enlighten the necessity of including non-classical MPS as possible diagnosis for patients who report osteoarticular abnormalities in absence of inflammation.
Abstract in English:Abstract In more than 800 GLA gene mutations causing Fabry Disease (FD), renal involvement vary according to the α-GAL A mutation. The aim is to describe the genotype/phenotype variations of renal complications in two siblings with confirmed FD with the mutation p.Q279X in exon 6. We present a retrospective study of two venezuelan male siblings, ages 34 (patient 1) and 33 (patient 2), evaluated by general lab tests, renal ultrasound, renal scintigram , and renal biopsy. Fabry disease diagnose was made by α-galactosidase A activity determined in dried blood spot. Genomic DNA was sequenced by Sanger method. Patient 1 developed CKD grade 5 and high blood pressure, treated by hemodialysis during 8 years. Patient 2 showed GFR >60 ml/min, and proteinuria less than 600 mg/24H. Renal biopsy showed segmental sclerotic lesions and hypertrophic podocytes with vacuolated cytoplasm. Both patients received ERT every two weeks since 2003. Patient 1 died because dialysis complications (hyperparathyroidism, cardiomyopathy). The genotype/phenotype variation of the c.835C>T mutation (p.Gln279Ter. Q279X) in exon 6 of the GLA gene can express an important renal variation with a wide range of clinical manifestations that cannot be predicted, therefore, an early nephrological evaluation and periodic follow-up of these patients are necessary.
Abstract in English:Abstract Given the lack of standardized guidance for follow-up of patients with neuronal ceroid lipofucsinosis-2 disease in Latin-American countries and the heterogeneity of the region, an expert panel was created with the participation of 11 pediatric neurologists from Colombia, Argentina, Brazil and Chile. The aim of the expert panel was to describe a framework for standardized follow-up in patients with neuronal ceroid lipofucsinosis-2 disease, on or off therapy, that could benefit patients and treating physicians alike. Experts made recommendations in the following areas: seizures, abnormal movements and ataxia, sleep disorders and pain, cognitive function, visual function, hearing and speech, cardiac function, quality of life, and motor function. Recommendations include the most appropriate tools for use in the Latin-American context and health care systems, and provide feasible follow-up guidance, applicable in public and private healthcare facilities. They take into consideration the availability of clinical assessment resources, tools (scales, questionnaires, paraclinical tests) and access to these tools in Latin-American countries, as well as other regional and local needs defined by the participating experts.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis III (MPS III) is a rare inherited metabolic disease primarily affecting the central nervous system, leading to developmental and/or speech regression. Early diagnosis of the disease is important to introduce appropriate management measures and to optimize therapeutic outcomes. The diagnosis of MPS III is often significantly delayed due to the rarity of the disease, the more attenuated somatic presentation compared to other MPS types, and the symptom overlap with other developmental disorders. To shorten the time to diagnosis, a list of eight early signs and symptoms was identified through an expert system approach by a global, multidisciplinary working group of 13 specialists with expertise in various aspects of MPS and developmental disorders and three parents of MPS III patients. Coarse facial features and persistent hirsutism or prominent, thick eyebrows were identified as the most important MPS III early signs. The list of eight early MPS III signs and symptoms is the first step towards the development of a clinical algorithm aiming to identify neonates and infants with MPS III before the onset of neurocognitive damage, ultimately shortening the diagnostic journey of MPS III patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) should be diagnosed in early infancy and receive appropriate management promptly after the diagnosis to prevent severe complications leading to death. At present, a newborn screening (NBS) method using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) identifies suspected patients with MMA by elevated propionylcarnitine. In addition, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method using dried blood spot is effective to detect some metabolites as a second-tier test, and reduces the false-positive rate in NBS. However, these tests were only used in screening, and not applied as an examination for evaluating treatment. Herein, we describe a 57-day-old girl with MMA under treatment with cobalamin who had elevated urinary methylmalonic acid levels. We applied the LC/MS/MS method with a separation column to evaluate her cobalamin responsiveness, and discovered an insufficient cobalamin dose earlier than would have been possible using other methods. Based on the current data, this method seems to be applicable for the follow-up of the treatment of MMA patients. However, this should be confirmed with more experience with a larger number of cases and a wider spectrum of disorders.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Rare health conditions as mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) can directly influence functioning experiences. Mobility restriction, osteoarticular alterations, leads to delayed neuropsychomotor development are some of the negative impacts of MPS. Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functioning of children with MPS, from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) perspective. Methodology: It is a case series study with a sample of 15 children and adolescents with MPS with a median age of 12 years, followed in a tertiary hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results: The patients were assessed by the model ICF and results were as following: regarding body functions, most categories presented slight impairment. For mobility of joints and gait, the impairment was severe. Activity and participation with most significant limitations were "learning to read/write", "read/write", "listening" and "performing multiple tasks." In self-care, the main limitations were in "drinking", "taking care of body parts" and "taking care of one's health." Also, there were restrictions on "doing household tasks", "basic economic transactions", "community living" and "religion and spirituality". Conclusion: MPS can have a significant impact in different body systems which act as limiting activities that require body mobility.
Abstract in English:Abstract Sanfilippo syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis III (MPS III), includes a group of four autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders caused by deficient activity of enzymes involved in the catabolism of heparan sulfate. The four types of MPS III are recognized in accordance with the deficient enzyme, resulting in the accumulation of heparan sulfate with particularly deleterious effects in the central nervous system. The incidence of MPS III remains to be established in Latin American countries. We describe the journey of a patient with MPS IIIB whom, even in the presence of speech delay and deterioration, behavioral problems and motor incoordination, showed unaltered urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) levels. An investigation for MPS was undertaken and enzyme analysis indicated a deficiency of alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase, leading to the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. With the correct diagnosis, the patient’s symptoms could be properly managed, and the parents received appropriate genetic counseling. The present case report reinforces the need of investigating MPS III in patients with language delay and/or regression, neurological impairment and behavioral alterations, even when urinary GAGs are within normal range. A definitive diagnosis ends the diagnostic journey and enables the medical team and family to provide a better care for the child.
Abstract in English:Abstract Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), also referred as “Batten disease”, are a group of thirteen rare genetic conditions, which are part of the lysosomal storage disorders. CLN type 2 (CLN2) is caused by the deficient activity of the tripeptidyl peptidase I (TPP1) enzyme, encoded by the TPP1 gene, most frequently leading to the classic late infantile phenotype. Nearly 140 CLN2-causing mutations have been described. In this case report, we describe the identification of a new disease-causing mutation and highlight the importance of appropriate laboratory investigation based on clinical suspicion. The collection of dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper, which is a convenient sample, can be used to measure the TPP1 enzyme activity and detect CLN2-related mutations. Since the biochemical and genetic diagnoses are possible and as the disease progression is fast and the therapeutic window is short, the investigation of CLN2 should be always considered when this diagnostic hypothesis is raised in order to enable the patients to benefit from the specific pharmacological treatment.