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Journal of Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Screening, Volume: 10, Published: 2022
  • Hearing Impairment in Mucopolysaccharidosis: A Systems Biology Approach Original Article

    Silva, Gerda Cristal Villalba; Grefenhagen, Agnis Iohana; Borges, Pamella; Matte, Ursula

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are lysosomal diseases caused by deficiencies in lysosomal enzymes involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Sensorineural hearing impairment is a common feature in MPS patients, but there is no consensus on its etiology. For this reason, we aimed to identify genes and pathways related to hearing loss and to correlate them with gene expression data in MPS. We used HPO and Disgenet to identify candidate genes. We constructed the network with string and Cytoscape, and hub genes were identified in Cytohubba. Expression data were obtained from the MPSBase website. We found the NDUFA gene family as the major hub genes and 114 enriched pathways related to hearing loss. These genes and biological pathways may serve as potential candidates for clinical studies to better understand hearing impairment mechanisms in lysosomal storage diseases like mucopolysaccharidosis.
  • Efficacy and Safety of Taliglucerase Alfa for the Treatment of Gaucher Disease: A 9-Year Experience Original Article

    Paskulin, Livia d’Avila; Starosta, Rodrigo Tzovenos; Vairo, Filippo Pinto e; Krug, Bárbara C.; Picon, Paulo; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa Doederlein

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Gaucher disease (GD) is one of the most common lysosomal disorders, occurring in approximately 1 in 40,000 live births worldwide. Since 2014 enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with taliglucerase alfa has been the treatment of choice for adult patients with GD in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of taliglucerase alfa in a cohort of Brazilian patients treated at a referral center for inborn errors of metabolism. All patients who received at least one infusion of the enzyme at the study center were considered eligible to participate. Patients were followed for adverse reactions and events throughout the study period. Platelets, hemoglobin, chitotriosidase activity, bone marrow burden (BMB) score, bone mineral density, and the severity score index (SSI) were analyzed. For patients who were switched to taliglucerase alfa from imiglucerase, the same variables were compared before and after the switch. At 9-year follow-up, all parameters of interest had remained stable or improved. The overall rate of adverse events was lower than in other studies that evaluated long-term ERT with taliglucerase, and no serious adverse events were considered related to treatment. Based on our findings, ERT with taliglucerase alfa is an effective and safe approach for treatment of patients with GD.
  • Advances and Challenges in Classical Galactosemia. Pathophysiology and Treatment Review

    N., Amanda R. Caro; Cornejo, Verónica; Guevara-Morales, Johana M.; Echeverri-Peña, Olga Y.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Classical galactosemia is caused by the genetic deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate-urydyl-transferase resulting in clinical symptoms development during the first weeks of life including jaundice, hypotonia, lethargy, emesis, hepatomegaly, among others. Currently, dietary restriction of galactose is considered the standard for classical galactosemia management. For several years, severe dietary galactose restriction was considered necessary, implying restriction not only of dairy products, but also fruits, vegetables, legumes, and viscera. Such management failed to improve or prevent the appearance of long-term complications, by contrast, such restrictive approach may lead to nutritional deficiencies development. Thus, the last consensus suggests guidelines that are more flexible. In addition, the lack of knowledge regarding the physiopathology of the disease, and the toxicity threshold of the metabolites accumulated, make even more difficult to propose novel and more effective therapeutic approaches. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding classical galactosemia in terms of physiopathology, long-term complications, newborn screening and genetic variants and their implications on galactosemia treatment, summed to the challenges that researchers working on this disease must address in future studies including the analysis of galactose content in foods, galactose tolerance threshold and search for novel therapeutic targets.
  • Current Scenario and Future Direction of Newborn Screening and Management Program for Phenylketonuria in Bangladesh Review

    Al-Bari, Abdul Alim

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a correctable inborn error of metabolism which causes lethal intellectual delay and neurobehavioral anomalies. A screening package, especially for early recognition can support to regulate the PKU process of most patients. New-born screening program in any country focuses at the earliest detection of inheritance deficiency disorders in order to avoid the most severe repercussion by appropriate medication. This screening program needs a concomitant diagnosis and involves additional clinical research. Strategies from developed countries recommend that new-born screening should be done as soon as possible after birth before hospital/clinic discharge because if detected later, it conveys to significantly increase in disability as well as morbidity. Although exact protocol differs among different countries, testing procedures for PKU should be followed universally recognized in the developed world. Unfortunately, new-born screening program in Bangladesh is in lying-in room or possibly in pilot study in particular hospital, because the health-care system is classically targeted mortality (like childbirth complications) and transmittable morbidities (such as COVID-19) but not inborn frailties. Although policies and management of childbirth complications have been successfully lowered infant and mother mortality rates, the number of disabled babies increased tremendously. The study aims to investigate the current status of new-born screening (NBS) program of PKU in the Rajshahi Division Bangladesh, and focus on future plans to manage with life-long treatment. The primary challenges such as financial support for newborn screening, publicity, should be identified and implemented for national PKU-NBS policy as a role model of Bangladesh for developing countries.
  • Clinical and diagnostic aspects of Fabry disease management: a narrative review with a particular focus on Brazilian experts’ perspectives Review

    Giugliani, Roberto; Marques, Sandra; Andrade, Luis G. M. de; Pessoa, André; Vaisbich, Maria H.; Blum, Angélica; Tenório, Fernanda; Rosa Neto, Nilton S

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Research on the genetics, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of Fabry disease (FD) has increased significantly in recent years. However, some relevant clinical questions still need to be answered to develop better approaches to patient management. This review focuses on answering specific questions raised by Brazilian experts based on their experience in diagnosing and managing patients with FD. The questions are as follows: What is the role of globotriaosylsphingosine in diagnosis? How does one proceed with the diagnosis if there is a variant of unknown significance? What are the earliest and most reliable markers of renal, cardiac, and neurological impairment? What is the prevalence of FD in patients with cryptogenic stroke? What is the average delay in diagnosis in patients with FD? Based on these questions, our objective was to highlight epidemiological, diagnostic, and clinical aspects relating to the literature in the FD field.
Latin American Society Inborn Errors and Neonatal Screening (SLEIMPN); Instituto Genética para Todos (IGPT) Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2350, CEP: 90035-903, Porto Alegre, RS - Brasil, Tel.: 55-51-3359-6338, Fax: 55-51-3359-8010 - Porto Alegre - RS - Brazil
E-mail: rgiugliani@hcpa.edu.br