Abstract in English:In this paper, we propose a hybrid methodology based on Graph-Coloring and Genetic Algorithm (GA) to solve the Wavelength Assignment (WA) problem in optical networks, impaired by physical layer effects. Our proposal was developed for a static scenario where the physical topology and traffic matrix are known a priori. First, we used fixed shortest-path routing to attend demand requests over the physical topology and the graph-coloring algorithm to minimize the number of necessary wavelengths. Then, we applied the genetic algorithm to solve WA. The GA finds the wavelength activation order on the wavelengths grid with the aim of reducing the Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM) effect; the variance due to the XPM was used as a function of fitness to evaluate the feasibility of the selected WA solution. Its performance is compared with the First-Fit algorithm in two different scenarios, and has shown a reduction in blocking probability up to 37.14% when considered both XPM and residual dispersion effects and up to 71.42% when only considered XPM effect. Moreover, it was possible to reduce by 57.14% the number of wavelengths.
Abstract in English:In this paper, single and dual band EBG structures for wider bandwidth are proposed. In each of the discussed EBGs, a metallic patch of regular geometry is chosen for the unit element. The patch is further modified by cutting slots to get extra inductance and capacitance which results into lower cut-off frequency and larger bandwidth. The proposed EBG structures are compared with the standard mushroom type EBG with respect to surface wave attenuation. The -20 dB cut-off frequencies and bandwidths of the various EBGs are compared. The effect of unit element size, gap between unit elements and via diameter on the transmission response is presented. Among the discussed EBGs, the swastika type structure is compact, single band and has wider bandwidth. The square patch with a single disconnected loop type slot EBG and the Fractal EBG are dual band. While square patch is more compact, the fractal EBG has wider bandwidth. All the EBGs can be useful in the design of antenna and other microwave circuits.
Abstract in English:This paper presents the application of frequency selective surfaces in antenna arrays as an alternative to improve radiation parameters of the array. A microstrip antenna array between two FSS was proposed for application in WLAN and LTE 4G systems. Several parameters have been significantly improved, in particular the bandwidth, gain and radiation efficiency, compared with a conventional array. Numerical and measured results are presented.
Abstract in English:A recursive procedure is applied to the measured near-field profiles of buried optical waveguides recorded in a lithium fluoride (LiF) crystal by femtosecond laser pulses in order to estimate the core dimensions and the refractive index increase. Albeit the waveguides transversal section geometry is quite complex it is possible to obtain the horizontal and vertical widths and the average refractive index maximum increase assuming a simplified rectangular transversal section in the simulation. The procedure is validated by comparing the simulated results with the experimental near-field profiles and the maximum refractive index values of two commercial optical fibers. Typical dimensions of ~(8x10)µm² and refractive index changes of ~(2-10)x10-4 were obtained for the LiF waveguides at several wavelengths.
Abstract in English:This paper describes a simple but efficient procedure for designing electrically-equivalent microstrip antennas on FR4 sub-strates. Radiation patterns, reflection coefficient magnitude ( |Γ| ), mutual coupling and cross-polarization level of probe-fed linearly-polarized antennas are calculated and discussed. Experimental results of |Γ| and radiation patterns of rectangular, elliptical and triangular patches validate the proposed procedure.
Abstract in English:An alternative method is proposed to characterize the radiation pattern of antennas from an impulse response, based on a moment expansion together with a frequency domain near-to-far-field transformation via a FDTD/CPML solver. The approach introduced in the present work is intended for printed antenna analysis in special cases when the geometries to be modeled require a high degree of discretization in the space-time domain, which directly affects the frequency resolution when using FFT to perform the conventional NF-FF techniques. Results are compared with those obtained by a reference frequency-domain NF-FF technique and the applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated.
Abstract in English:In this article, a dual band annular ring patch antenna is theoretically investigated using the equivalent circuit concept.Two symmetrical rectangular notches are etched in radiating ring patch with respect to feed point. It is observed that the resonant frequency is directly proportional to the notch width and notch length. The bandwidth of the antenna at lower and higher ends are 134 MHz(1.815-1.681GHz) and 212MHz (2.849-2.637GHz) respectively for given antenna specifications. The calculated results are compared with the IE3D simulation software and previously reported results based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The theoretical results obtained from the proposed analysis are in good agreement with the simulated and ANN based results.
Abstract in English:Based on signal measurements carried out in the 5.8 GHz band, which is reserved for unlicensed WiMAX in Brazil, this paper evaluates narrowband and wideband characteristics on the suburban area of Tanguá city in Rio de Janeiro State. Fading statistics, coverage and adjusted prediction model such as Hata-COST 231, SUI and UFPA were used in order to find the model that best fits the measurement data before ultimately determining that the UFPA model proved to be the best one. Temporal dispersion is studied through the delay spread and coherence band calculated from the power delay profiles obtained in the sounded channel.