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Management of learning disorders and attention deficit in children

Objective: this review aims at providing pediatricians with an update on the main causes involved in low school achievement. A more detailed approach is given for the management and treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Sources: data was obtained by a systematic review of published literature in Medline, through a search on Pubmed in the last five years. The key words used were learning disability, attention deficit, dyslexia (reading disorder) and dyscalculia (mathematical disorder). Studies focusing evaluation and management were retrieved. Governmental population educational data on literacy was also included. Summary of the findings: statistical medical Brazilian data on the subject is scarce. Hearing, visual and mental deficiency, together with attention deficit hyperactive disorder and specific learning disorders should be part of the differential diagnosis of children with poor school achievement. Development should be carefully followed until school entrance, particularly in children at risk. Conclusions: therapy with stimulants, anti-depressive drugs or cloninidine with multimodal treatment improves school achievement in children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder.

attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity; dyslexia; learning disorders; diagnosis; treatment

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