Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives: Despite the global impact of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection in children, only one monoclonal antibody (Palivizumab) has been approved for clinical use. However, advances in the knowledge of RSV immunology may enable the development of safe and effective new vaccines and monoclonal antibodies in a few years. The purpose of this review is to summarize available data on approved and developing passive and active immunizations against RSV in childhood and pregnancy. Data source: A non-systematic review of RSV immunoprophylaxis in childhood and pregnancy was carried out in PubMed, path.org and clinical trial registries, without language restrictions, up to September 2022. Data synthesis: Three monoclonal antibodies and 17 active immunization candidates are under development in phase 1 to 3 clinical studies. Regarding the first group, Nirsevimab is a monoclonal antibody with a prolonged half-life whose approval for clinical use is expected in the next months. Among the vaccines under development, six techniques are being used: protein subunit, viral particles, live attenuated virus, recombinant viral vector, chimeric, and mRNA. The first two approaches are being tested primarily in pregnancy, while the others are being developed for the pediatric population. Conclusion: The approval of extended half-life monoclonal antibodies is the next expected advance in RSV prevention, although the costs may be a barrier to the implementation. Regarding active immunizations, maternal and infant vaccination are complementary strategies and there are many promising candidates in clinical studies using different platforms.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To evaluate the behavior of VCR and VCH, per municipality and per vaccines offered at the NVC, to identify priority areas for intervention. Methods: Descriptive study of a time series, using secondary data and accompanied by a narrative review of the literature evaluating VCR and VCH. Vaccines offered to children under one year and to those aged one year in the pre-pandemic period of COVID-19 (2015 to 2019) were selected and compared to those offered during the pandemic period (2020 and 2021 ). Results and discussions: The decrease in VCR and VCH is a process that precedes the COVID-19 pandemic but was intensified during this period. In 2021, the VCR was around 70% for most vaccines. This phenomenon encompasses the entire country; however, it is more intense in the states/municipalities located in the north and northeast regions, suggesting greater difficulty in accessing health services. Conclusion: Low and heterogeneous VCR requires the adoption of practices that were previously implemented, establishing partnerships with governmental and non-governmental institutions, with adequate communication, active search for non-compliance and non-adherence to the regular vaccination program, adopting intra- and extramural vaccination strategies, to reverse the current situation and reduce the risk of recurrence of diseases that have been already controlled and eliminated.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives: Since the beginning of its use for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) in 1921, other uses of BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) have been proposed, particularly in the treatment of malignant solid tumors, multiple sclerosis, and other autoimmune diseases. Its beneficial impact on other infections, by nontuberculous mycobacteria, and by viruses, has been more often studied in recent years, especially after the introduction of the concept of trained immunity. The present study’s objective was to review the possible indications of BCG and the immunological rationale for these indications. Data source: Non-systematic review carried out in the PubMed, SciELO and Google Scholar databases, using the following search terms: “BCG” and “history”, “efficacy”, “use”, “cancer”, “trained immunity”, “other infections”, “autoimmune diseases”. Data synthesis: There is epidemiological evidence that BCG can reduce overall child morbidity/mortality beyond what would be expected from TB control. BCG is able to promote cross-immunity with nontuberculous mycobacteria and other bacteria. BCG promotes in vitro changes that increase innate immune response to other infections, mainly viral ones, through mechanisms known as trained immunity. Effects on cancer, except bladder cancer, and on autoimmune and allergic diseases are debatable. Conclusions: Despite evidence obtained from in vitro studies, and some epidemiological and clinical evidence, more robust evidence of in vivo efficacy is still needed to justify the use of BCG in clinical practice, in addition to what is recommended by the National Immunization Program for TB prevention and bladder cancer treatment.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: Covid-19 had a direct impact on children’s health. The aim of this review was to analyze epidemiological and clinical data, the consequences of the pandemic, and vaccination aspects in this group. Sources of data: The searches were carried out from January 2020 to November 2022, in the MEDLINE databases (PubMed) and publications of the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics. Summary of findings: Covid-19 has a mild presentation in most children; however, the infection can progress to the severe form and, in some cases, to MIS-C. The prevalence of the so-called long Covid in children was 25.24%. Moreover, several indirect impacts occurred on the health of children and adolescents. Vaccination played a crucial role in enabling the reduction of severe disease and mortality rates. Children and adolescents, as a special population, were excluded from the initial clinical trials and, therefore, vaccination was introduced later in this group. Despite its importance, there have been difficulties in the efficient implementation of vaccination in the pediatric population. The CoronaVac vaccines are authorized in Brazil for children over three years of age and the pediatric presentations of the Pfizer vaccine have shown significant effectiveness and safety. Conclusions: Covid-19 in the pediatric age group was responsible for the illness and deaths of a significant number of children. For successful immunization, major barriers have to be overcome. Real-world data on the safety and efficacy of several pediatric vaccines is emphasized, and the authors need a uniform message about the importance of immunization for all children.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To identify and describe learnings from past pandemics and to suggest a framework for vaccine development as part of epi/pandemic readiness. Source of data: Articles/ reviews/letters on pandemic preparedness/ vaccines published between 2005 and 2022 in PubMed, MEDLINE, MedRxiv, BioRxiv, Research Square, Gates Open Research; who. int, cepi.net, visualcapitalist.com, airfinity.com, ted.com websites; press releases. Summary of findings: Disease pandemics caused by emerging pathogens impacted the social development, health and wealth of most societies in human history. In an outbreak, the first months determine its course. To block an exponential spread and the development of an epi/ pandemic early, vaccine availability in sufficient quantities is of paramount importance. It is inevitable that new human viruses will emerge. Any future pandemic will come likely from RNA viruses through zoonotic or vector transmission, but we cannot predict when or where “Disease X” will strike. Public health, scientific and societal readiness plans need to include: continuous identification of new viruses in common mammalian reservoir hosts; continuous epidemiological surveillance, including wastewater sampling; establishment of prototype vaccine libraries against various virus families sharing functional and structural properties; testing of various and innovative vaccine platforms including mRNA, vector, nasal or oral vaccines for suitability by virus family; functional clinical trial sites and laboratory networks in various geographies; more efficient phasing of preclinical and clinical activities; global harmonization and streamlining of regulatory requirements including pre-established protocols; and societal preparedness including combating any pandemic of misinformation. Conclusions: “Outbreaks are unavoidable, pandemics are optional”.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To describe the impact of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the pediatric burden of pneumococcal infections, carriage, serotype replacement, and antimicrobial resistance in Brazil since its introduction in 2010. Data source: A narrative review of English, Spanish, and Portuguese articles published in online databases and in Brazilian epidemiological surveillance databases was performed. The following keywords were used: Streptococcus pneumoniae, pneumococcal disease, conjugate vaccine, PCV10, antimicrobial resistance, and meningitis. Summary of the findings: Declines in hospitalization rates of all-cause pneumonia occurred in the target age groups and some age groups not targeted by vaccination early after the use of PCV10. Large descriptive studies of laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal meningitis and hospital-based historical series of hospitalized children with IPD have evidenced a significant impact on disease burden, in-hospital fatality rates, and admission to the intensive care unit before and after the inclusion of the vaccine. Impact data on otitis media is limited and inconsistent; the main benefit remains the prevention of complicated diseases. During the late post-vaccine years, a significant and progressive increase in high-level penicillin non-susceptibility pneumococci has been described. Since 2014 serotype 19A has been the leading serotype in all ages and was responsible for 28.2%-44.6% of all IPD in children under 5 yrs. Conclusions: PCV10 has performed a significant impact on IPD in Brazil since 2010, however, progress has been continuously hampered by replacement. Broader spectrum PCVs could provide expanded direct and indirect protection against ST19A and other additional serotypes of increasing importance if administered to children in the Brazilian National Immunization Program.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives: Prophylactic HPV vaccines are a fundamental tool to reduce infections and tumors caused by the most prevalent types of these viruses, as this review points out. Several countries have adopted immunization programs that recommend vaccination against HPV for girls and adolescents between 9 and 14 years of age and, in some of them, also for boys. The programs also contemplate the immunization of adults, particularly in the case of individuals with different immunodeficiencies. Sources of data: The available vaccines are recommended for the prevention of tumors of the uterine cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, and anal canal. Moreover, two of the vaccines prevent the occurrence of genital warts, having been recently indicated for the prevention of oropharyngeal cancer. Data synthesis: Based on the evidence that antibody responses in girls were non-inferior after two doses when compared to three doses, several countries have decided to reduce the vaccination schedule for girls and boys up to 14 years of age from three to two doses, with an interval of six months between them. Recently, knowledge has been accumulating about the immunogenicity, duration of protection, and efficacy of a single-dose HPV vaccine regimen in girls and young women. Conclusion: Single-dose HPV vaccination could substantially reduce the incidence of pre-cancer and cervical cancer attributable to HPV, with reduced costs for vaccine delivery and simplified implementation, allowing more countries to introduce HPV vaccination or increase the adherence of the target population.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To present an updated review of recommendations for the vaccination of children with immune-mediated diseases, with an emphasis on rheumatic and inflammatory diseases. Source of data: Studies published in the PubMed and Scielo databases between 2002 and 2022, Guidelines of Brazilian Scientific Societies, Manuals and Technical Notes of the Ministry of Health of Brazil, on current immunization schedules for special populations. Data synthesis: Immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents reduce the immunogenicity of vaccines and favor susceptibility to infections. The safety and efficacy of immunogens are important points for vaccination in children with immune-mediated diseases. The safety threshold of a vaccine applied to immunocompromised individuals can be reduced when compared to healthy individuals. Very often, the recommendations for the immunization of children with immunemediated diseases follow the recommendations for immunocompromised patients. Vaccination against COVID-19, on the other hand, should ideally occur when the disease is stabilized and in the absence of a low degree of immunosuppression. The patients should be informed about the possibility that the immunization may fail during treatment with immunosuppressants. Specific vaccination schedules should be considered to ensure better protection. Conclusions: Recent studies have allowed updating the recommendations on the safety and immunogenicity of vaccination in children with immune-mediated diseases, especially for live attenuated vaccines. There is a scarcity of data on the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in patients, particularly pediatric patients, with rheumatic diseases. The completion of ongoing studies is expected to help guide recommendations on COVID-19 vaccines in this group of patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: Through a literature review, make recommendations regarding immunizations in people living with Inborn Error of Metabolism (IEM) in Brazil, assess the possible impact on metabolic decompensations after immunization, and if this specific population may have an impaired immune response to vaccines. Source of data: The MeSH Terms vaccination OR vaccine OR immunization associated with the term inborn error of metabolism AND recommendation were used in combination with search databases. Only articles published after 1990, in the languages English, Spanish, French or Portuguese, human-related were included. Synthesis of data: A total of 44 articles were included to make the following recommendations. Individuals with IEMs need to be up to date with their immunizations. Regarding which vaccines should be offered, children and adults should follow the routine immunization schedules locally available, including the COVID-19 vaccines. The only exception is the rotavirus vaccine for hereditary fructose intolerance. The benefit of immunization outweighs the very low risk of metabolic decompensation. Since not all patients will have an adequate immune response, measuring antibody conversion and titers is recommended Conclusions: All patients should receive age-appropriate immunizations in their respective schedules without delays. The only situation when vaccination may be contraindicated is with oral rotavirus vaccine in hereditary fructose intolerance. Monitoring the levels of antibodies should be done to detect any immune dysfunction or the necessity for boosters. A personalized immunization schedule is ideal for patients with IEMs. The reference organizations could improve their recommendations to address all IEMs, not only some of them.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: The objective of this article is to review the most current literature on vaccines, focusing on their safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in preterm newborns, aiming to improve vaccine coverage in this population. Data source: Most recent scientific publications addressing the immunization of preterm newborns. Data synthesis: Despite its immunological immaturity, vaccination is well tolerated by preterm infants, and protective immune responses are observed, but some studies have shown that preterm infants undergo unjustified delays in their vaccination schedule. Conclusions: Despite being widely recommended, the routine immunization of preterm infants is often delayed, putting this vulnerable population at risk for several diseases, many of which are preventable by immunization. Every effort should be made to develop universal guidelines that define the immunization of preterm infants.