Abstract in English:It is generally recognized that energy absorbed from ionizing radiation (gamma rays) can inactivate biological material in two ways. A direct effect occurs when the primary event, i. e., ionization, is produced in the molecule itself. This is the case when a compound is irradiated in dry state. When a compound is irradiated in a solution, the indirect effect joins the direct(9). Since water is the most abundant constituent of biological material, it is important to consider the species produced by excitation and ionization of water itself, and the reaction of these species with the target molecules of biological importance. This indirect effect results from the reactions among the studied molecules and the products of radiation interaction with water or other solvents. Highly reactive compounds, the so-called free radicals, which are formed undergo many reactions among themselves, with the dissolved gas, and with other molecules in the solution. With water, the excitation is less important than ionization which is followed within picoseconds by the formation of free hydroxyl radicals and hydrated electrons(2,4,16). Alexander & Hamilton(1) showed that irradiation of proteins has revealed damage to aminoacid side chains, production of new groups, splitting of peptide bonds and formation of intramolecular and intermolecular cross-links. With these results, it would be possible to use of ionizing radiation to change those protein molecules in order to improve some of their properties according to the necessity. On the other hand, it is recognized that venoms in general are poorly immunogenic, yet fairly toxic(15). This causes problems because serotherapy is the treatment of choice in snakebite envenomations, and horse antivenom availability is dependent upon immunogenicity.
Abstract in English:Thirty-one patients bitten by venomous snakes in Botucatu area (State of São Paulo - Brazil), sixteen by Bothrops spp. and fifteen by Crotalus durissus terrificus, were studied. The group comprised twenty-nine males and two females, ranging from fourteen to sixty-three years of age (mean 33 ± 15). Leukocytosis with neutrophilia and lymphopenia, increase of mucoproteins and C-reactive protein, decrease of total serum protein and albumin, were observed on the first day after the accident. In addition, increased serum levels of the cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, but not of IL-1<FONT FACE="Symbol">b</FONT> and TNF-<FONT FACE="Symbol">a</FONT>, were observed. The alterations were generally more intense in patients bitten by Crotalus durissus terrificus than by Bothrops spp. It is concluded that these snakebite envenomations closely resemble an acute trauma, inducing a typical acute-phase response.
Abstract in English:A comparison among the profiles of molecular exclusion chromatography in Sephadex G 100 column of venoms from Apis mellifera adansonii and Africanized honeybees revealed unique peaks which might be used to identify these populations. The venoms from hybrid populations resulting from the reciprocal mating of Apis mellifera adansonii and Africanized honeybees presented unique peaks, probably resulting from a synergistic effect between the parental genomes. The occurrence of characteristic peaks in venoms of hybrid populations might be used to identify these populations as well as to distinguish them from their parents.
Abstract in English:Ethanolic extracts of the bee glue, a resinous substance collected by honeybees called propolis, have been widely used in folk medicine since ancient times. Antibacterial, antifungal and thus antiseptic properties may represent the basis for the historical and present use of these extracts in dermatology, against inflammatory conditions and common colds. This work was carried out in order to verify possible biochemical alterations in some seric parameters of propolis-treated rats. It was shown that propolis possesses an antioxidant property and its administration did not affect either amylase and alanine transaminase activities or total protein concentration.