Abstract in English:Recently public health problems resulting from scorpion stings have shown an alarming increase in various tropical and subtropical countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Tunisia and Morocco. In some regions of Brazil, particularly in the States of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Bahia, Goiás and the Federal District, more than 6000 scorpion stings with over 100 deaths were reported during a three-year period. In this paper, we attempt to demostrate the effects of human activities on the environment and their consequences on the distribution of dangerous species of scorpions. This topic is discussed in relation to the evolutionary ecology, life history strategies and asexual reproduction of scorpions.
Abstract in English:The in vitro activity of propolis against 118 Staphylococcus aureus, 108 Escherichia coli, 60 Salmonella typhimurium, 50 Candida albicans, 23 Candida parapsilosis, 19 Candida tropicalis and 14 Candida guilliermondii isolated from human infections was studied by the agar dilution method. Among the bacteria, the Gram-negative were the least susceptible organisms showing minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for 90% of the strains tested ranging from 22.5 mg/ml - 10,2% V/V to 23.1 mg/ml - 10.5% V/V. The MIC's for Candida ranged from 0.80 mg/ml to > 11 mg/ml (0.40% V/V to > 5.0% V/V), the strains of C. parapsilosis being the least susceptible. The relative order of susceptibility among all isolates, was: S.aureus > C. tropicalis > C. albicans > C. guilliermondii > C. parapsilosis > S. typhimurium > E. coli.
Abstract in English:Eighty-four patients bitten by venomous snakes were studied retrospectively at the School of Medicine of Marilia from January 1990 to August 1994. The majority of these patients were rural workers, 65 (77.38%) males and 19 (22.62%) females, aged eight to seventy-five. Forty-three (51.19%) patients were diagnosed as having been bitten by snakes of the genus Bothrops and 41 (48.81%) by Crotalus. Fifty-eight patients (69.04%) were bitten in the legs and 26 (30.96%) in the arms. January, March, April and November were the months of higher incidence of bothropic envenomations, while crotalic envenomations were not recorded only in August and September. This study showed that the prevalence of crotalic envenomations in Marilia was higher than that of any other regions in Brazil. Further prospective epidemiological studies are needed for a better understanding of these findings.
Abstract in English:The presence of a polydnavirus in the ovary of the microhymenoptera Apanteles galleriae was detected. This wasp parasites the larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella. To study the possible viral effects on the total protein of G.mellonella, hemolymph extracts of the ovary calyxes of parasitized A. galleriae were injected into 6th and 7th instar cells of G.mellonella larvae. Protein profiles on polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) of host cell extracts showed a suppression of several protein bands when infection occurred in the 6th instar. However, in the 7th instar, parasitism caused an amplification in the synthesis of most proteins with some changes in the electrophoretic profile.
Abstract in English:Honey, royal jelly, propolis, materials produced and/or gathered by Apis mellifera honeybees have been used as food and medication for centuries(6,7,8). Although extensively used, honeybee products have become a matter of interest and controversy for years. Honey, well known as healthy and natural food, has shown therapeutic properties in the treatment of digestive, respiratory, cardiac and rheumatic disorders, among others(4). Several studies have reported honey's immunological, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antipyretic properties besides its importance in terms of energy intake(3,5). Furthermore, honey has proved to possesses wound healing and analgesic actions(1,2). Honey and propolis are also known to be effective in the treatment of respiratory disorders caused by bacteria and fungi which lead to a deterioration of the patient's nutritional and immunological condition(6,7). Thus, a nutritional supplementation with propolis and honey associated with specific treatment can contribute to the patient's recovery.