Abstract in English:Envenomation caused by snakes of the Bothrops genus produces a lesion in the bite site and can result in extensive necrosis. The dead tissue can be secondarily infected by bacteria that come from the snake, and the bacteria can be inoculated at the moment of the bite. The bacteria that most commonly cause infection are the enterobacteria, mainly Morganella morganii, Proteus rettgeri, Enterobacter sp., and Escherichia coli. Group D streptococci including here Enterococcus sp. and the Bacteroides sp. are also involved. Based on a study of the sensibility of these bacteria, it has been suggested that this infection must be treated with chloramphenicol, as a sole antimicrobial agent, or with the combinations of benzylpenicillin or ampicillin with aminoglycoside or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Although Governmental Health Services do not recommend the prophylactic use of antimicrobial drugs, it is not yet clear that such a procedure would not be useful in cases with a high probability of infection.
Abstract in English:In this paper we proposed to estimate the heritability of seven morphological characters that compose the sting apparatus of the Africanized honeybee workers. An experimental design to estimate genetic parameters was based on the method developed by Oldroyd and Moran(9). This method was modified to eliminate within-colony environmental effects associated with the additive genetic variance. The estimated h<img SRC="http:/img/fbpe/jvat/v3n2/image1800.gif"> values ranged from 0.17 ± 0.11 (maximum width of bulb of sting stylet and height of the valve of right lancet) to 0.74 ± 0.30 (length of the lancet).
Abstract in English:Worldwide occurrence of envenomation by snakebite in pregnancy is rare according to the medical literature. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of snakebite envenomation cases as well as their obstetrical consequences. Thus, we conducted this study based on the medical records of 157 patients, aged from 13 to 54 years old who had been attended at the "João de Barros Barreto" University Hospital from January 1989 to May 1994. These patients presented epidemiological and clinical diagnosis of snakebite envenomation. Of the 157 patients, 8 (5%) were pregnant, 6 of them (75%) were in the first trimester of pregnancy and 2 (25%) in the 2nd trimester. Most of the victims were usually over 18 years old (7 cases, 87.5%). Concerning the severity of the envenomation cases, 5 of them were considered mild accidents. Obstetrical consequences occurred in 3 (37.5%) patients, 2 patients (25%) with moderate manifestations, while 1(12.5%) presented severe manifestations. Patients developed vaginal bleeding in 3 cases (100%), and uterine contraction, threatened abortion, decreased fetal movements, absence of fetal heartbeat and fetal death in one case (33.35%). Snakebite is not common among pregnant women, since in most cases, these women are homebound. However, the obstetrical consequences are severe and related to severity of the envenomation.
Abstract in English:Susceptibility to several ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) concentrations was tested with the population analysis technique in reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218). The results of these tests showed that all bacteria were killed by EEP concentrations approximately equal or higher (2.0% v/v- S. aureus; 10.0% v/v - E. coli) than the respective minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Regarding the susceptibility to propolis, there was a homogeneity of data with the respective time kill curves showing a clear bactericidal effect during 6 to 9 h of exposition.
Abstract in English:Two new scorpion species of the Buthidae family, Tityus ivic-nancor and Tityus sanarensis, are described in this paper. Both species belong to the "androcottoides" group and live from 1300 to 1400 m. above sea level near the town of Sanare (69º42'17.8"W, 9º45'3.9"N) in the southern part of the state of Lara in Venezuela. The number of Tityus species already known in Venezuela increases to 28 with the inclusion of these two new species. This paper includes a descriptive diagnosis and also a differential diagnosis of the species of Tityus that are geographically related to T. ivic-nancor and T. sanarensis. Drawings of the significant morphological characteristics of male and female specimens and a morphometric table are also included.
Abstract in English:Three fractions (F1, F2 and F3) were obtained from the venom of the Egyptian cobra Naja haje by gel filtration. F1 and F2 had indirect hemolytic effects on rabbit erythrocytes. The HU50 (the amount of the fraction causing 50% hemolysis ) values of F1 and F2 were 12.04 ± 3.89 and 36.57 ± 2.20 µg, respectively. The effects of the three cobra venom fractions on lipid metabolism were studied after 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours. Serum total lipids and cholesterol were significantly decreased at almost all tested times, but variable changes were observed in the serum triglycerides. Serum inorganic phosphorus levels were significantly increased with F1 and F2 administration more than that with the F3 fraction. These results suggest that F1 and F2 possess phospholipase A2-like activities and their effects on the lipid metabolism is more intense than that of F3.
Abstract in English:The effect of Crotalus durissus terrificus (LAURENTI, 1768) venom on the evolution of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was evaluated. Thus, 30-day-old male mice of the Swiss strain were inoculated intraperitoneally with 1x10<img SRC="http:/img/fbpe/jvat/v3n2/image1947.gif"> tumor cells. Then, 7 groups of animals were formed: 3 control groups (physiological, venom and tumor) and 4 experimental groups that received different doses of venom. The experimental groups received 5 intraperitoneal venom injections on the 1<img SRC="http:/img/fbpe/jvat/v3n2/image1948.gif"> , 4<img SRC="http:/img/fbpe/jvat/v3n2/image1949.gif"> , 7<img SRC="http:/img/fbpe/jvat/v3n2/image1949.gif"> , 10<img SRC="http:/img/fbpe/jvat/v3n2/image1949.gif"> and 13<img SRC="http:/img/fbpe/jvat/v3n2/image1949.gif"> days after tumor implantation. On the 14<img SRC="http:/img/fbpe/jvat/v3n2/image1949.gif" width="28" height="28"> day, 5 animals from each one of the groups were sacrificed, and the variables such as the total and differential counts of cells in the peritoneal cavity and functional state of peritoneal macrophages by macrophage spreading were evaluated. The other 5 remaining animals were kept in the laboratory for 60 days for observation of their survival percentage. The results obtained were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5% significance level. It was observed that Crotalus durissus terrificus venom increases survival time of mice, but does not increase mortality percentage. This venom also increases the percentage of macrophage spreading. We suggest that snake venoms can cause inhibition of tumor growth by activating the inflammatory reaction, mainly the macrophages, stimulating the production of TNF-<img SRC="http:/img/fbpe/jvat/v3n2/image1950.gif"> , IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8. These cytokines may act on tumor cells by different mechanisms, inducing its complete elimination.