Abstract in English:The authors have performed a literature review of surgical adhesives, such as cyanoacrylate, collagen gelatin, and fibrin glue. They have included different types of commercial and non-commercial fibrin sealants and have reported on the different components in these adhesives, such as fibrinogen, cryoprecipitate, bovine thrombin, and thrombin-like fraction of snake venom.
Abstract in English:This study investigated the antibacterial activity of propolis produced by A. mellifera and Brazilian stingless bees, called "meliponíneos". Susceptibility tests to ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) were performed using bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus sp, and Escherichia coli) isolated from human infections. Dilution of EEP in agar (%v/v) was used for determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The stingless bee species (and common names) were: Nannotrigona testaceicornis ("Iraí"), Tetragonisca angustula ("Jataí"), Trigona spinipes ("Arapuá"), Scaptotrigona sp ("Tiúba"), Partamona sp ("Cupira"), Melipona scutellaris ("Uruçu"), Melipona sp ("Manduri"), and Melipona mandaçaia ("Mandaçaia"). EEP inhibitory efficiencies according to bacterial strains were: S. aureus - "Cupira" > "Manduri" = A. mellifera > "Uruçu" > "Mandaçaia" > "Iraí" > "Tiúba" > "Jataí" > "Arapuá" = Ethanol; Enterococcus sp - "Cupira" > "Manduri" > A. mellifera > "Mandaçaia" > "Uruçu" > "Tiúba" > "Jataí" > "Arapuá" = Ethanol; E. coli - "Manduri" > "Jataí" > Ethanol > A. mellifera > "Uruçu" > "Cupira" > "Iraí". Propolis produced by "Cupira" and "Manduri" bees showed higher antibacterial activity than A. mellifera.
Abstract in English:Blood samples were collected from 180 healthy specimens of the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus terrificus, in captivity. All animals were in good clinical condition. Normal biochemical reference values were established for the following: total proteins, albumin, globulins, uric acid, creatinine, urea, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total lipids, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, GOT (AST), GPT (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Samples were obtained by venipuncture of the ventral tail vein. Values were compared with published data for Boidae, Elapidae, and Viperidae.
Abstract in English:This study used 15 beehives: five with Africanized queens sisters (Apis mellifera), five with Italian queens sisters (Apis mellifera ligustica), and five with Carniolan queens sisters (Apis mellifera carnica). The queens were fertilized naturally. This experiment was performed in the apiary of the Botucatu School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, UNESP, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The following data were obtained from the foraging bees: venom quantity in reservoir, 0.117±0.015, 0.139±0.020, and 0.147±0.024 (mg); venom quantity liberated in extraction apparatus, 0.073±0.012, 0.057±0.011 and 0.059±0.013 (mg); and sting electro stimulus threshold (volts), 10.75±1.37, 15.11±2.00, and 15.01±1.63 for Africanized, Italian x Africanized and Carniolan x Africanized, respectively. The Africanized honeybees possess less venom in reservoir than the European hybrids (Carniolan and Italian). However, they liberated a larger quantity of venom in the extraction apparatus and required lower electro stimulus threshold to promote stinging.
Abstract in English:The high frequency and severity of scorpion envenomation in Morocco is a serious public health problem, especially in semi arid and arid areas with a large rural population. In view of this alarming situation, we have conducted this investigation on scorpion envenomation in the Haouz and Souss plains between 1994 and 1998. Preliminary results have shown a high rate of scorpion envenomation with several deaths. With the exception of Scorpio maurus, the suspected species are generally anthropophilous, which belong to the Androctonus genera of the Buthidae family. The Buthidae family is responsible for 96.93% of the envenomings. In the southwestern Morocco, the death rate is of about 3.84%. The Androctonus mauretanicus is responsible for 60% of deaths. We show the various therapeutic modalities used by the local populations and propose prophylactic measures, such as awareness and prevention.
Abstract in English:Two new species of the Tityus genus are described. T. isabelceciliae n. sp lives on the northern central slope of the Cordillera de la Costa. It belongs to the discrepans group and is dangerous to man due to its high number, aggressive behavior, domiciliary habits, and high toxicity of its venom. T. isabelceciliae venom is similar to other Tityus in relation to the molecular weight range and the biological activity of its components. However, the proportions of each fraction in the venom pooled from many T. isabelceciliae differ from the proportions in other Tityus, indicating that these proportions may have a taxonomical value. The venom LD50 is 38.1 (36.3, 39.9) µg/g mouse (Death in 30 min, Dixon and Mood (14) sequential method, median and 95% confidence interval, n=7). Venom production was 916 (625, 1213) µg protein per animal (n=38): females [944 (750, 1150) mg protein per animal, n=24] and males [824 (550, 112) mg protein per animal, n=14] did not differ in venom production (P > 0.05). There was no correlation between animal total weight and venom production. T. rusmelyae n. sp. from the androcottoides group lives near the town of Humocaro Alto in the Lara State, Venezuela. The male specimens have clearly defined keels and granules. It differs from other species of this genus in that the prominent characteristics are observed in male specimens.
Abstract in English:Toad envenoming in dogs can cause death by cardiac fibrilation (CVF). Traditional therapy consists mainly of atropine and propranolol, the last one used to prevent the CVF, that is preceded by negative ventricular deflections (NVDs) in the QRS complex of the electrocardiogram. This study intended to verify, comparatively, the lidocaine, propranolol, amiodarone, and verapamil abilities to prevent CVF in experimentally envenomed dogs. Thirty-six dogs were divided into 6 groups (GL, GP, GA, GV, GST, and GSV) with n=6; the dogs were submitted to volatile anaesthesia. The animals of the groups GL, GP, GA, and GV received 0.38g of toad venom through oro-gastric catheter and were treated with the following drugs respectively: lidocaine (4mg/Kg), propranolol (0.1mg/Kg), amiodarone (8mg/Kg), and verapamil (2mg/Kg). These drugs were repeated if NVDs reappeared with cardiac frequency >150, GST was not treated and GSV was just anaesthetized. The following results were obtained: GL, NVDs present in 4 animals, 100% recuperation with 3.66 doses/animal; GP, NVDs present in 2 animals, 100% recuperation with 1.66 dose/animal, with bradycardia at the anaesthetic return; GA, NVDs present in 3 animals, 33.33% recuperation with 1.5 dose/animal; GV, NVDs present in 4 animals, 100% recuperation with 2.16 doses/animal; GST, NVD present in 6 animals, 100% death and GSV, NVDs absent, 100% recuperation. As a conclusion, the anaesthetic proceedings used, did not cause NVDs, the envenoming that was not treated was lethal, and among the antiarrhythmics drugs used, verapamil was the most efficient, as it did not cause any serious bradycardia at the anaesthetic return and did not require repeated administrations. For lidocaine, it was efficient but required various administrations; amiodarone could not prevent the death of 4 animals; propranolol was efficient in relation to NVDs control, but caused serious bradycardia at the anaesthetic return.
Abstract in English:This study evaluated the impact of printed matter, video, and multimedia on the learning/teaching process in Tropical Diseases. Eighty-four of 90 fourth-year medical students at Botucatu School of Medicine of UNESP were evaluated. The students received a kit containing a textbook, a video, and a CD-ROM on the Clinical Study of Tetanus to prepare a seminar on the subject. They were then asked to complete a questionnaire, which led to the following conclusions: 67.86% read the textbook, 91.66% watched the video, and 77.38% explored the CD-ROM. These results were obtained observing the total number of students using each different media. When asked which of these media contributed most, the CD-ROM came out on top. The authors stress that this learning teaching process motivated the students by opening possibilities for new teaching alternatives in medicine.
Abstract in English:The aim of this study was to compare individual venom samples of Crotalus durissus terrificus recently captured in the wild to evaluate possible differences in venom protein composition. Protein levels were quantified by biochemical method (Biuret) and then submitted to electrophoresis. Electrophoresis studies of native protein were performed in vertical slabs of polyacrylamide gel (PAGE), in an alkaline discontinuous buffer system, with a concentration of 10% in the separation gel. SDS-PAGE was performed in PhastGel® (8-25). Both gels were stained with Coomassie Blue. Gels were analyzed using the VDS-Pharmacia® device. Our results indicate that all analyzed venom samples showed different protein composition, although common protein fractions were detected in some individual samples. Differences were observed between the different individual venom samples and so in the same specimen in relation to the time of collection, for both techniques used. Diet did not influence the variability of venom composition. There is a significant difference in native venom protein composition of males and females.
Abstract in English:The authors report a case of bothropic envenoming in a male Cocker Spaniel. The animal was bitten in the ventral thoracic region, receiving treatment 4 hours later. Clinical examination revealed an extensive, painful and area of firm edema, absence of local or systemic hemorrhage, without evident neurological alterations. Clinical diagnosis was mild bothropic envenoming. Treatment consisted of 5 vials of polyvalent snake antivenom, two vials administered intravenously and three subcutaneously. Blood clotting time was always within normal values. Two days after envenoming, the animal showed hyperthermia and received enrofloxacin (5mg/kg/24h) for 10 days and ketoprofen (1mg/kg/24h) for 5 days. Seventy-two hours after envenoming, extensive subcutaneous, muscle fiber, and skin necrosis of approximately 10 cm in diameter was observed. After débridement of necrotic tissues, the area was cleaned with antiseptic solutions. Complete healing was observed 55 days after envenoming. The authors discuss whether heterologous serotherapy is effective in preventing tissue necrosis after bothropic envenoming.