Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, Volume: 10, Issue: 2, Published: 2004
  • Zoonoses and human beings Editor's Viewpoint

    Langoni, Hélio
  • Management of venomous snakebites in dogs and cats in Brazil Review Article

    Ferreira Júnior, R.S.; Barravieira, B.

    Abstract in English:

    Snake envenoming is a major problem both to veterinary and human medicine in tropical countries due to high incidence, severity, and sequelae. In Brazil, most envenomings involving animals are caused by Bothrops and Crotalus snakes; these are the highest risk to animals. This study reports on Bothrops and Crotalus envenomings in dogs, the main species responsible for epidemiology, pathogenesis, venom action, clinical signs, sequelae and complications, clinical pathology, necropsy findings, diagnosis, and treatment. Veterinarians must be capable of identifying the snake not only by observing its characteristics but also symptom evolution.
  • Experimental use of fibrin glue derived from snake venom in non-pregnant canine uterus Original Papers

    Moraes, J.R.E.; Correia, P.H.A.; Camplesi, A.C.; Moraes, F.R.

    Abstract in English:

    This study evaluated the use of fibrin glue derived from snake venom in the healing process after canine hysterorrhaphy. Three groups of four animals were submitted to uterine hysterotomy followed by wound closure. In Group 1, double-layer suture was used, the first with Schimieden pattern, the second with Cushing pattern; in Group 2, only fibrin glue; and in Group 3, the same as for Group 1 but with fibrin glue as suture reinforcement. Results indicated that fibrin glue produced less inflammation in the exudative phase, and exacerbated deposition of connective tissue and angiogenesis in the proliferative and maturation phases of the healing process, favoring its evolution.
  • Honey bee attractants and pollination in sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, var. Pera-Rio Original Papers

    Malerbo-Souza, D. T.; Nogueira-Couto, R. H.; Couto, L. A.

    Abstract in English:

    This experiment studied the frequency and behavior of insects on sweet orange flowers, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, their effect on fruit production (quantity and quality), nectar and pollen collection, and the effectiveness of different attractants. Over three consecutive years, the most frequent visitor to the flowers was Apis mellifera (Africanized). Flowers visited less than ten times showed low fructification. Fruit production was 35.30% greater in uncovered flowers. Fruit mean weight was much greater in uncovered (180.2g) than in covered flowers (168.5g). Fruits from the covered were more acid (1.411g of citric acid/100ml of juice) than the uncovered flowers (1.164g of citric acid/100ml of juice). The number of seeds per bud was higher in the uncovered (1 seed/bud) than in the covered treatment (0.8 seed/bud). Bee-HereR, eugenol, geraniol, citral, and lemon grass extract, mainly diluted in water, were effective in attracting honeybees to orchards. However, these compounds were less effective when diluted in sugar syrup. The same products had variable attractiveness to honeybees in different years.
  • Detection of bovine Clostridium perfringens by polymerase chain reaction Original Papers

    Piatti, R. M.; Ikuno, A. A.; Baldassi, L.

    Abstract in English:

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene (cpa) was used to identify eighty-nine C. perfringens strains obtained from bovine clinical material. The strains were biochemically characterized as C. perfringens. The isolated strains were cultured on plates containing brain heart infusion agar with 5% sheep blood under anaerobic conditions. DNA extraction was performed by boiling. The 324 bp amplification product of cpa was observed in all isolates. C. sordellii, C. botulinum, C. novyi, and C. septicum were also tested but did not produce any alpha toxin gene amplification. These findings suggest that PCR is a useful assay in identifying C. perfringens toxin types.
  • Effect of fibrin glue derived from snake venom on the viability of autogenous split-thickness skin graft Original Papers

    Rahal, S.C.; Amaral, M.S.P.; Pai, V.D.; Barraviera, S.R.C.S.; Caporal, E.H.G; Crocci, A.J.

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of snake venom derived from fibrin glue on the viability of split-thickness skin graft. Nine crossbreed dogs were used. Full-thickness skin segments measuring 4 x 4 cm were bilaterally excised from the proximal radial area on each dog. A split-thickness skin graft was harvestedfrom left lateral thoracic area using a freehand graft knife, and was secured to the left recipient bed using several simple interrupted sutures of 3-0 nylon (sutured graft). A split-thickness skin graft was harvested from the right lateral thoracic area using a graft knife. Fibrin glue derived from snake venom was applied to the recipient bed, and 8 equidistant simple interrupted sutures of 3-0 nylon were used to secure the skin graft (glued graft). Viable and nonviable areas were traced on a transparent sheet and measured using a Nikon Photomicroscope connected to a KS-300 image analysis system. The skin graft and recipient bed were collected from three dogs at day 7, 15, and 30 postoperative. The glued grafts had statistically higher graft viability than sutured grafts. Histological examination showed that the tissue repair process in the glued grafts was more accentuated than sutured grafts. It was possible to conclude that fibrin glue derived from snake venom increased survival of autogenous split-thickness skin graft.
  • The impact of multimedia on teaching tropical medicine Original Papers

    Sarmento e Souza, M. F.; Ferreira, A. S. S. B.; Martinez, J. C.; Barraviera, B.

    Abstract in English:

    This study evaluated the impact of multimedia in the information transfer of subjects specific to Tropical Diseases - Tetanus and Snake Envenoming. We evaluated the autonomous learning process of 76 fourth-year medical students at Botucatu School of Medicine of UNESP, using printed matter, video, and CD-ROM. The students were submitted to a specific test, which was repeated approximately one week later. They were divided into groups and received a kit containing a textbook, a video, and a CD-ROM. These materials were used for out-of-class study. Before the second test, the students gave a seminar,where they discussed and resolved their doubts with their professor. The results of the first test showed averagesbetween 4.27±1.41 and 6.41±1.61. The second test, given after the seminar, presented averages that increased to 8.41±0.76 and 9.52±0.42, significance a = 5%. At the end of the course, the students answered a questionnaire, which evaluated the material quality and acquired knowledge. The students concluded that multimedia was a more efficient and quick means for knowledge building than traditional teaching materials. They said that the active participation and interactivity with the CD-ROM were the major differences. The authors continue to study the associated use of printed matter, video, and CD-ROM as a faster alternative to the traditional method of information transfer, which may be of help in the knowledge building process in medical education.
  • Tropical House Gecko (Hemidactylus mabouia) predation on brown spiders (Loxosceles intermedia) Short Communication

    Ramires, E.N.; Fraguas, G.M.

    Abstract in English:

    Brown spiders (Loxosceles spp.) are venomous arachnids, successfully adapted to urban habitats in Brazil. Loxoscelism became a serious public health problem in Paraná State, especially at the capital Curitiba, where the most abundant species is Loxosceles intermedia. Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae) lizards are synanthropic predators of arthropods. In this paper, we describe the predatory behavior of the Tropical House Gecko H. mabouia on L. intermedia under laboratory conditions. Twelve geckos were observed, and all of them fed on brown spiders (n=123 observations). The attack consisted of a fast run followed by one bite on the spider’s abdomen or legs. The geckos did not attack L. intermedia anterior body parts, probably due to the fangs present in this region. Two Hemidactylus individuals were killed by L. intermedia bites: during a predatory encounter, and by an induced bite on a restrained lizard. The observations summarized in this paper show that H. mabouia could be used in the biological control of Loxosceles populations in human dwellings. However, additional field studies are necessary to quantify the impact of H. mabouia predation on urban populations of L. intermedia and other species of the same genus.
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