Abstract in English:The widespread species Escherichia coli includes a broad variety of different types, ranging from highly pathogenic strains to avirulent isolates. Few microorganisms are as versatile as E. coli. Pathogenic strains remain a leading cause of severe and persistent infant diarrhea in developing countries. They may be limited to colonization of a mucosal surface or can disseminate throughout the body and have been implicated in urinary tract infection, sepsis/meningitis and gastrointestinal infection. The human gastrointestinal tract is susceptible to diarrheagenic E. coli infections. Escherichia coli have effectively managed to subvert the host cytoskeleton for their own purposes causing substantial diarrheal disease, a major public health problem worldwide. This review deals with the different strategies regarding E. coli as a pathogen and the virulence traits of its pathotypes highlighting the species as a commensal, opportunistic and specialized pathogen.
Abstract in English:The cumulative actions of scorpion neurotoxins are complex and may be traced to activation of different ion channels with subsequent release of various transmitters and modulators including inflammatory mediators. This could lead to various pathological manifestations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and multiple organ failure (MOF). Several approaches have been advocated to treat the multitude of scorpion-venom-elicited pathological changes. However, few have tried to combat the venom-induced effects on the inflammatory process, which manifest as ARDS, SIDS and MOF. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the capability of inhibitors of different steps of the inflammatory sequence of events in scorpion envenomation to ameliorate the detrimental action of the venom and prolong survival of mice injected with Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus (LQQ) venom. Animals were divided into groups (n = 10) and given montelukast (10 or 20 mg.kg-1, orally), hydrocortisone (5 or 10 mg.kg-1, intravenously) or indomethacin (10 or 20 mg kg-1, intravenously). Then, all animals were subcutaneously injected with either 0.25 or 0.3 mg.kg-1 LQQ venom. Signs and symptoms of envenomation were recorded and survival percentages after 24 hours as well as survival time were determined in each group. To analyze data, we utilized Covariance Wilcoxon survival statistics and survival distribution curves. In general, when compared to venom alone, administration of montelukast (p<0.001), hydrocortisone (p<0.05) and indomethacin (p<0.05) prolonged survival time and increased the percentage of surviving animals per group, with montelukast exhibiting the greatest protecting power. Thus, anti-inflammatory drugs may play an important role in protection against the lethal effects of scorpion venoms.
Abstract in English:The present study was carried out to produce highly efficient antivenom from a small number of telsons in a short time. Venom solution was prepared through maceration of telsons from Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807) collected in the Southeastern Anatolia Region, Turkey. Lethal dose 50% (LD50) of the venom solution injected into mice was 1 ml/kg (95% confidence interval; 0.8-1.3), according to probit analysis. Different adjuvants (Freund's Complete Adjuvant, Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant, and 0.4% aluminium phosphate), at increasing doses and combined with venom, were subcutaneously injected into horses on days 0, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 of the experiment. Antivenom was collected from the immunized horses on days 45, 48, and 51 using the pepsin digestive method. The antivenom effective dose 50% (ED50) in mice was 0.5 ml (95% confidence interval; 0.40-0.58), according to probit analysis. It was concluded that 0.5 ml antivenom neutralized a venom dose 35-fold higher than the venom LD50. Thus, highly potent antivenom could be produced from about 238 telsons in 51 days.
Abstract in English:Inflammatory response induced by the venom of the Arabian sand viper Cerastes gasperettii was studied by measuring rat hind-paw edema. Cerastes gasperettii venom (CgV, 3.75-240 µg/paw), heated for 30s at 97°C, caused a marked dose and time-dependent edema in rat paw. Response was maximal 2h after venom administration and ceased within 24h. Heated CgV was routinely used in our experiments at the dose of 120 µg/paw. Among all the drugs and antivenoms tested, cyproheptadine and 5-nitroindazole were the most effective in inhibiting edema formation. Aprotinin, mepyramine, dexamethasone, diclofenac, dipyridamole, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine, quinacrine, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid showed statistically (p<0.001) significant inhibitory effect, but with variations in their inhibition degree. Equine polyspecific and rabbit monospecific antivenoms significantly (p<0.001) reduced edema when locally administered (subplantar) but were ineffective when intravenously injected. We can conclude that the principal inflammatory mediators were serotonin, histamine, adenosine transport factors, phosphodiesterase (PDE), cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 (PLA2), in addition to other prostaglandins and cytokines.
Abstract in English:Water used in hydrotherapy units of Nova Iguaçu and Nilópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was microbiologically analyzed. Thirty samples (5ml each) were weekly collected from September 2001 to June 2002 before the beginning and after the end of activities in the units. For analysis, routine techniques were used, which showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, Epidermophyton spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus spp, Cephalosporium spp, Cladosporium spp, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton spp. Results indicated a need for improving hygienic conditions, suggesting that water might be a contamination source in the evaluated units.
Abstract in English:The relationship among the phenotypes resistance to infection, virus replication in the brain and isotype production was investigated in genetically modified High (H) or Low (L) antibody responder mouse lines. Although they express the same innate susceptibility to rabies infection, these lines differ as to different viral replication rates in the central nervous system and L mice showed a higher permissible state. After intramuscular infection with the Pasteur rabies strain (PV), the H-L interline differences on the earlier stage of virus replication were 1000 and 80 folds on days 5 and 6, respectively. The isotype profile in sera of the experimentally infected mice reflected an interline difference of 25 folds for IgG2a throughout the infection period, and for the IgE production the H-L difference was highly significant only at the beginning of the process. These results confirm the multi-specific effect of antibody immune responsiveness and the general isotype distribution of antibodies in these genetically selected mice. Contrary to the clear correlation between antibody responsiveness and the acquired resistance to rabies infection, the present study demonstrates that the constitutive genetic character of High and Low responder individuals does not intervene in the degree of resistance following infection. Altogether, this study contributes to the knowledge of the protective role of the general innate responsiveness on the pathological pattern to rabies virus infection.
Abstract in English:Rabies is considered a fatal disease once clinical symptoms have developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate epidemiological aspects and immune response in patients attacked by domestic and wild animals and subjected to post-exposure rabies treatment with equine serum and associated vaccine. Thirty-three patients were evaluated; they were between 13 and 65 years old, 75.8% were male and 24.2% female, and from the Botucatu neighborhood. Twenty healthy control individuals with the same age range were also studied. Specific antibodies to equine immunoglobulins and IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 production were evaluated by ELISA. IgM, IgE, IgG and subclasses, and rabies virus antibodies serum levels were determined by nephelometry and seroneutralization methods, respectively. No anaphylactic or serum sickness allergic reactions were observed in patients after treatment. Anti-equine IgG levels were significantly higher than those of IgM after 14 and 28 days of treatment. Protective antibodies to rabies virus > 0.5 UI/ml were detected in 84.6% and 75% of patients at days 14 and 28, respectively. IFN-gamma, IL-2 and IL-10 levels in patients before and 48h after treatment were significantly higher than in controls suggesting that both Th1 and Th2 cells were activated in the patients. Serum IgM levels were higher at day 14, and IgG2 and IgE levels were higher at day 28 of treatment. These results suggest that post-exposure rabies treatment in humans induces significant alterations in patient immune response characterized by increased levels of cytokines, serum levels of specific rabies virus antibodies, and the equine serum components employed in the treatment.
Abstract in English:To establish Korea National Standards for venoms and antivenoms, it is necessary to have standardized assay methods. In this study, we standardized a method to evaluate the antihemorrhagic potency of two horse-derived antivenoms using rabbit intracutaneous injection. We expressed the capability of these antivenoms to neutralize the hemorrhagic activities triggered by the venoms of Agkistrodon halys from Japan and Jiangzhe Agkistrodon halys from China as Minimum Hemorrhagic Dose (MHD). We also performed cross-neutralization tests employing the parallel line assay on different pairings of venoms and antivenoms to check the possibility of using Jiangzhe Agkistrodon halys venom as a substitute for the standard Agkistrodon halys venom in measurements of the antihemorrhagic activity, since A. halys venom is not easily available. Slope function ratio (S.R.) was 0.957 for Agkistrodon halys venom either with Agkistrodon halys antivenom or with Jiangzhe Agkistrodon halys antivenom (p>0.05). Similarly, S.R. was 0.348 for Jiangzhe Agkistrodon halys venom either with Agkistrodon halys antivenom or with Jiangzhe Agkistrodon halys antivenom (p>0.05). Thus, in this study we established antihemorrhagic potency test methods for both Agkistrodon halys and Jiangzhe Agkistrodon halys antivenoms and we could also show it is possible to use Jiangzhe Agkistrodon halys venom as a standard.
Abstract in English:In this study, we compared the levels of neutralizing antibodies induced by inactivated rabies vaccine in cattle by using three alternative immunization procedures. Forty-five bovines (breed nelore) were then organized in three groups (A, B and C, with 15 animals/group). Group A received only one vaccine dose at day zero and Group B received the first dose at day zero and then another dose at day 30 (early booster). Group C was also immunized with two doses; however, the booster was postponed until day 180 after the first dose (delayed booster). Blood samples were withdrawn at days zero (before the first dose) and 30, 210, 390, and 540 after the beginning of immunization and the antibody titers were evaluated by mouse neutralization test. The protocol used to immunize Group C (booster at day 180) was clearly more efficient. In this group, antibody levels were higher and also remained higher for longer periods in comparison with the other two groups. These results show that booster timing significantly affected antibody levels. Therefore, programs addressed to control this disease in cattle should consider not only the use of a booster but also its administration time.
Abstract in English:The reduviid predators Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.) and Catamirus brevipennis (Servile) use their venoms to paralyze their preys. We detected the antibacterial activity of R. marginatus and C. brevipennis venoms against seven Gram-negative and four Gram-positive bacteria by using the disc diffusion method. Rhynocoris marginatus venom exhibited antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhimurium) and one Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes). Catamirus brevipennis venom showed antibacterial activity against six Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhimurium) and three Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus sphaericus) bacteria. Both C. brevipennis (90.91%) and R. marginatus (45.45%) venoms were more effective against Gram-negative bacteria (80% and 70% for R. marginatus and C. brevipennis, respectively). The venoms of both reduviid predators are composed of low molecular weight proteins (7-33 kD).
Abstract in English:Snake antivenom, an expensive animal product, is presently the only effective treatment for the consequences of snakebite. In Latin America, antivenoms are mainly produced by public institutions with frequent shortages of the necessary supply. Here, we present an economical analysis of the factors affecting production cost, assuming a basic processing batch of 100 L hyperimmune plasma. Three annual production volumes were considered for two typical production technologies. The components of cost were classified as fixed, variable and semi-variable. We found that in all stages of production, fixed cost represents the major contribution to total cost, and is given essentially by manpower cost, particularly for low production volumes. Our estimation shows that antivenom cost can vary from US$ 2.4 to US$ 25 per 10 mL vial, depending on the production volume, the plasma processing technology used and the titer achieved during the immunization stage. We conclude that interested laboratories and authorities of countries with population at risk should consider the possibility of a joint production to improve the process efficiency, lower the product unitary cost and obtain the necessary supply for their own demand or that of other countries in need.
Abstract in English:We report two cases of envenomation by a Madagascan opisthoglyphous snake, Ithycyphus miniatus. In both cases, the snake bit the finger of a human who was preparing an experiment by tying a string around the snake body. Symptoms of the first case included temporal severe local pain and extensive bleeding. In the second case, severe pain accompanying obvious local swelling was caused and lasted for several hours. The present observations indicate that bite by I. miniatus potentially causes serious physiological effects in humans although the snake is basically calm and reluctant to bite.