Abstract in English:The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.
Abstract in English:Due to the development of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms, antimicrobial peptides from natural sources have attracted attention in recent times. Several antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from a wide range of animal sources, particularly snake venoms. Naja naja venom showed antibacterial as well as direct and indirect hemolytic activities, and an antibacterial peptide was purified through gel permeation and ion exchange chromatography. Its molecular mass was 2491Da, which was determined using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and the amino acids sequence of the N-terminus was DEQSTHGAYVWKL. The purified peptide showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae, and Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, respectively. The most potent activity was towards Gram-negative bacteria. Activity was retained at concentrations as low as 100µg/ml. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC; in mg) of Naja Antibacterial Peptide (NAP) and known antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were determined using microdilution susceptibility test in sterile 96-well microdilution plates. However, the peptide did not show direct or indirect hemolytic activity.
Abstract in English:The present study aimed at verifying the impact of a Moroccan strategy against scorpion stings and, specifically, at identifying the epidemiological features of the patients envenomed or just stung by scorpions. The investigation included 4089 patients from a province of Morocco which were evaluated over three years (2001, 2002 and 2003). Most stings occurred during the hot period and mainly at night (between 6:00 p.m. and 12:00 p.m.). The average incidence was 2.8‰, the average age of the patients was 26.7±18.2 years, and the envenomation rate was 6.7%. Mortality rate was 0.05‰, and average lethality rate was 0.7%. Analysis of variance showed that young age, symptoms at admission, and long time elapsed between sting and admission were correlated with poor outcome. Comparison among data of the three years revealed an increasing number of reported cases and decreasing morbidity and mortality.
Abstract in English:Diseases transmitted by water consists a serious public health problem and enterobacteria are the main group of microorganisms responsible for outbreaks in humans. Such pathogenic bacteria proliferate in water polluted by domestic and industrial sewage and reach the population through seawater contact. The aim of the present work was to study environmental parameters as well as to identify Enterobacteriaceae species and their antimicrobial susceptibility in water samples collected from the estuarine area of São Vicente city (São Paulo State, Brazil). Strains were identified by using traditional biochemical tests described in literature and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out using the disk diffusion method. Out of 26 samples, Escherichia coli was the most frequent species (40.1%), followed by Citrobacter, Enterobacter and Klebsiella. The most effective drugs against the tested microorganisms were gentamycin, netilmicin, ciprofloxacin and cefepime. Since these bacteria are commonly found in seashore contaminated by sewage effluents, it can be concluded that estuarine waters of São Vicente are polluted and potentially capable of causing diseases and spreading pathogenic bacteria to human communities.
Abstract in English:In the present study, manganese (Mn2+), a neuromuscular blocker with pre and postsynaptic actions, was used to verify the neurotoxicity and myotoxicity induced by Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) and Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) venoms in biventer cervicis preparations (BCp). Preparations pretreated with 0.66 and 1.6mM Mn2+ did not affect Cdt venom-induced blockage nor change KCl-induced contracture but partially reduced ACh-induced contracture. However, both Mn2+ concentrations partially hindered Bjssu venom-induced blockage after washing the preparations with Krebs solution, and only 1.6mM Mn2+ preparations significantly recovered ACh-induced contracture. The effect of Cdt venom myotoxicity on contractile responses was different from that of Bjssu venom myotoxicity. Pretreatment with 1.6mM Mn2+ partially reduced muscle damage percentage and creatine kinase (CK) activity (U/l) induced by both venoms. In conclusion, Mn2+ interfered in ACh-induced contracture of the nicotinic receptor; did not prevent Cdt venom neurotoxicity but partially reduced its myotoxicity in vitro due to the stabilizing action of this venom on the sarcolemmal membrane; and partially attenuated myotoxicity and neuromuscular blockage induced by Bjssu venom. The Mn2+ dual action (pre and postsynaptic) is useful to study snake venoms since most of them present one or both of these actions; besides, Mn2+ allowed recovering coherent interpretation of experimental versus clinical results.
Abstract in English:Scorpion envenomation remains a real health problem in many countries. In scorpionism cases, it is often recommended that patients be treated with species-specific antivenom. Androctonus crassicauda venom has been used as antigen for antivenom production in Turkey, where this antivenom, called Turkish antivenom, has also been effective in the treatment of envenomation caused by species other than A. crassicauda. The present study aimed at determining the paraspecific effects and potency of the Turkish antivenom against Mesobuthus gibbosus (Brullé, 1832) venom. To assess the venom toxicity and the antivenom efficacy, we determined the Minimum Lethal Dose (MLD) and the Minimum Effective Dose (MED) instead of LD50 and ED50, respectively. Androctonus crassicauda antivenom was capable of neutralizing M. gibbosus venom (20 MLD). This was the first study indicating that A. crassicauda antivenom can be used for the treatment of Mesobuthus gibbosus stings, especially in Aegean Region, Turkey.
Abstract in English:The extensive use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has transformed HIV infection into a chronic condition. Thus, metabolic alterations including lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia have been associated with the use of such medications. The objective of the present study was to analyze clinical metabolic alterations and the profile of TNF-alpha, IFN-Y, IL-2, IL-10, and TNF-alpha type II soluble receptor in serum of HIV-1 individuals with and without lipodystrophy. Eighty-four adults were evaluated, 42 males and 42 females, mean age 37 years, and HAART time of at least 15 months. Two groups were formed, G1: 42 individuals with lipodystrophy, and G2: 42 without lipodistropy. From the HAART used, stavudine was more associated with the lipodystrophy group and zidovudine with the non-lipodystrophy group. CD4 and CD8 values, viral load, glucose, albumin, and lipids were not different between groups, except for triglycerides, which were high in the lipodystrophy group, and HDL, whose concentration was reduced in G1. TNF-alpha, TNF-RII, and IL-10 profiles were high and had positive correlation; IL-2 and IFN-gamma had reduced levels in the lipodystrophy group. High TNF-alpha and its receptor levels seem to be associated with lipodystrophy development in individuals under HAART therapy.
Abstract in English:Total RNA from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat macrophages used to treat protoplasts from an Aspergillus nidulans strain originated the RT2 regenerated strain, whose culture supernatant showed anti-inflammatory activity in Wistar rats. The protein fraction presenting such anti-inflammatory activity was purified and biochemically identified. The screening of the fraction responsible for such anti-inflammatory property was performed by evaluating the inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema in male Swiss mice. Biochemical analyses of the anti-inflammatory protein used chromatography, carbohydrates quantification of the protein sample, amino acids content analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Total sugar quantification revealed 32% glycosylation of the protein fraction. Amino acid analysis of such fraction showed a peculiar pattern presenting 29% valine. SDS-PAGE revealed that the protein sample is pure and its molecular weight is about 40kDa. Intravenous injection of the isolated substance into mice significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. The isolated glycoprotein decreased carrageenan-induced paw edema in a prostaglandin-dependent phase, suggesting an inhibitory effect of the isolated glycoprotein on prostaglandin synthesis.
Abstract in English:The red seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux, well known by the antibacterial activity of its polar extract and the cytotoxic activity of its oxygenated desmosterol, showed anti-inflammatory action in its apolar fraction. Topical anti-inflammatory activity was observed in samples collected at São Sebastião channel, northern littoral of São Paulo State, Brazil. The apolar extract and its fractions obtained through Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) reduced the topical inflammation produced by croton oil in mouse ear. Such data indicated that the apolar extract from the marine red alga G. marginata displayed anti-inflammatory activity (since 1mg/ear extract reduced 95±0.5% inflammation), which could be the result of the synergic activity of the four fractions present in the apolar extract.
Abstract in English:Crotalus envenomation is the second most frequent condition caused by venomous snakes attacking dogs and cats in Brazil. Affected animals show severe neurological and muscular involvement, lower motor neuron signs and myalgia due to extensive rabdomiolysis. The present case report is about Crotalus envenomation in a dog which showed severe clinical and laboratory abnormalities. After treatment with antivenom (specific antidote) and clinical support, the dog totally recovered from that condition.