Abstract in English:Bending analysis of functionally graded single walled carbon nano tubes is presented in this paper. Carbon nano tubes are modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in this study. Harmonic differential quadrature (HDQ) method is used to discretize the governing equations. In order to show the accuracy of present work, the results are compared with those of other existing results. Then the effects of different parameters such as power law index, inner and outer radius of nano tubes and length nano tubes of are studied, too.
Abstract in English:Rail support modulus is an important factor in safety of railway track. This parameter is defined as support force imposing on rail length unit per rail unit displacement in vertical direction. Rail support modulus is important because it affects track performance and maintenance requirements. Both low and large modulus is undesirable. Low modulus of the rail support has been shown to cause differential settlement that then increases maintenance needs. On the other hand, higher value of rail support causes axle load to be distributed on fewer sleepers and therefore received dynamic loads for any sleeper and rail-sleeper fastening will be increased. Sandy desert areas are critical regions about the contamination of ballast. In these areas, flowing sand grains influence between ballast aggregates and increase the stiffness of ballast layer and the rail support modulus. In this paper, the results of a field investigation about the effect of ballast contamination on the values of the rail support modulus in sandy desert areas are presented.
Abstract in English:Vibration suppression of smart beams using the piezoelectric patch structure is presented in the present work. The smart system consists of a beam as the host structure and piezoceramic patches as the actuation and sensing elements. An experimental set-up has been developed to obtain the active vibration suppression of smart beam. The set-up consists of a smart cantilever beam, the data acquisition system and a LabView based controller. Experiments are performed for different beam specimen. The coupled effcient layerwise (zigzag) theory is used for theoretical finite element modeling. The finite element model is free of shear locking. The beam element has two nodes with four mechanical and a variable number of electric degrees of freedom at each node. In the thickness direction, the electric field is approximated as piecewise linear across an arbitrary number of sub-layers in the piezoelectric layers. Cubic Hermite interpolation is used for the deflection, and linear interpolation is used for the axial displacement and the shear rotation. Undamped Natural Frequencies are obtained by solving the Eigen Value problem using Subspace Iteration method for cantilever beam. A state space model characterizing the dynamics of the physical system is developed from experimental results using PID approach for the purpose of control law design. The experimental results obtained by using the active vibration control system have demonstrated the validity and effciency of PID controller. Experiments are conducted to compare the controlling of various cantilever beams of different sizes. It shows that the present actuator and sensor based control method is effective and the LabView control plots for various beams can be used as a benchmark for analytical work. The results are compared with ABAQUS software and 1D Finite element formulation based on zigzag theory.