Abstract in English:The Updated Lagrangian formulation for non-linear finite element analysis is applied to the problem of thin-walled composites box beams undergoing large displacements. A shear correction factor for thin-closed rectangular sections is introduced into some terms of the variational formulation and its influence in the results is analyzed, in both linear and non-linear problems. The Vlasov's theory describing the coupled flexural-torsional phenomenon and the implementation of the FSDT theory in thin-walled beams is discussed, as well as the strains, stress resultants and constitutive relationships for composites box beams. The application of the Mechanic of Laminated Beam theory (MLB) to the calculation of the shear correction factors considering more constitutive terms for computing the shear flow in flanges and webs than those ones used in the original theory is also debated. The Updated Lagrangian finite element model applied in this work for non-linear analysis of box beams is described. A comparison of the numerical results with those obtained experimentally, analytically and by the numerical models proposed by other authors is done for both linear and non-linear problems. The assumptions made in this work and the formulation developed only applies to thin-walled beams that undergo large displacements, but small to moderate twist rotations.
Abstract in English:In the present work, a layerwise trigonometric shear deformation theory is used for the analysis of two layered (90/0) cross ply laminated simply supported and fixed beams subjected to sinusoidal load. The displacement field of the present theory consists of trigonometric sine function in terms of thickness coordinate to take into account the effect of transverse shear deformation. Theory satisfies the trans-verse shear stress free boundary conditions at top and bottom surfaces of the beam. This model satisfies the constitutive relationship between shear stress and shear strain in both the layers and the axial displacement compatibility at the interface. Virtual work principle is employed to obtain governing equations and boundary conditions. Closed form solution technique has the limitation of simply supported boundary condition. In the present work general solution technique is developed, which can be used for any type of boundary and loading conditions. The transverse shear stresses are obtained using constitu-tive relation as well from the use of equilibrium equations. The results of displacements and stresses obtained by present theory are compared with the available results in the literature.
Abstract in English:The design charts for basic wind speeds currently in use in Brazil  were created in 1977, based on wind speed records from 1950 to 1974. The database covered up to 25 years of wind records obtained in 49 weather stations, totaling 919 stationyears of data. Since 1974, additional 37 years of wind records became available, but have not been incorporated in the design code. Hence, the updated wind charts proposed in this paper are long overdue. In this paper, 62 years of wind records in Brazil are gathered in order to construct updated and more reliable wind charts. The original data by Padaratz  are complemented by data from 104 airport weather stations, made available through the Wolfram Research Database . In total, 4142 stationyears of data are used in the present study, hence providing much better cover in terms of space and time span. Maximum annual wind speeds for the individual stations are fitted to Gumbel distributions, from which basic wind speeds are evaluated (mean return period of 50 years). Basic wind speeds are used to build a non-linear regression model, using the p-value of the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit test as regression weight. This ensures that extreme value wind distributions for which a good fit is obtained are given more importance in the regression model, reducing the influence of spurious data. The regression model developed herein is used to plot a new design chart for basic wind speeds in Brazil. It is proposed that this new wind chart be incorporated in the Brazilian code for design of structures subject to wind . In this regard, it is observed that basic wind speeds obtained herein are higher than the wind speeds of the current chart for significant parts of Brazil (notably the center, northeast and north), and are the same or smaller in some parts of the south and southeast. It is shown herein that the main differences between the current and the proposed charts are not due to different modeling assumptions, but are mainly due to the new data. The proposed chart is updated, and is more reliable than the chart currently in use, as it reflects 4142 stationyears of data, and covers up to 62 years of wind records.
Abstract in English:A highly non-linear model for the dynamics behavior of Air Cushion Vehicles (ACV) is presented. In this model the compressible Bernoulli's equation, the Newton's second law of motion, and the nonlinear isentropic relations are used to predict the dynamics behavior of only the vertical response of the ACV in both time and frequency domains. In this paper the mass flow rate inside the air cushion volume of the ACV is maintained constant. In order to assist in the design process of such vehicles, the self excited response and the cushion pressure of the ACV are calculated to understand the dynamic behavior of these vehicles. It is shown in this study that the mass flow rate and the length of the vehicle's skirt are the most significant parameters which control the steady state behavior of the self excited oscillations of the ACV. An equation to predict the transient time of the oscillatory response or the settling time in terms of the system parameters is developed. Based on the developed equations, the optimum parameters of the ACV that lead to minimum settling time are obtained. Also, the chaotic behavior of the heave dynamics is investigated with the aid of the Fourier analysis and the Poincaré map. It is shown that the heave dynamics does not manifest any chaotic behavior within the selected range of the control parameters. However, the cushion pressure manifested some chaotic behavior at some values of the skirt length and mass flow rate.
Abstract in English:Dynamic response and free vibration analysis of stiffened shells having parabolic curvatures, with applications to ships and other similar structures are the main focus of this study. The energy approach is employed to the determination of equivalent orthotropic shell parameters of parabolic stiffened shells. The unstiffened equivalent shell has proper accuracy in predicting free vibration characteristics as well as dynamic response of the main stiffened shell. Reducing the governing equation difficulties with suitable precision in free vibration and dynamic response analyses is the most advantage of replacement of stiffened shells with their unstiffened equivalences.
Abstract in English:It is the purpose of this article to present design equations which can be used to predict the damage of ductile plating when subjected to mass impact, dynamic pressure or impulsive loadings. The external loadings are sufficiently severe to produce inelastic material behaviour and produce finite transverse displacement, or geometry change, effects. The damage is characterised as the final or permanent transverse displacement of a plate. The theoretical method predicts values for the maximum permanent transverse displacements which agree reasonably well with the corresponding experimental results generated on aluminium alloy circular, square and rectangular plates. Thus, the equations presented in this article are valuable for preliminary design purposes and for forensic studies, while the experimental data can be used for validating numerical schemes.
Abstract in English:In this paper, free vibration characteristics of laminated composite plates are investigated. A model is developed for a composite layer based on the consideration of non-linear terms in von-Karman's non-linear deformation theory. The governing partial equation of motion is reduced to an ordinary non-linear equation and then solved using LIM method. The variation of frequency ratio of the Isotropic and composite plates is brought out considering parameters such as aspect ratio, fiber arrangements (orientation), number of layers, and modal ratios.
Abstract in English:This work suggests a computational model that takes account of effective fibers on toughening in FRC at an early stage of crack formation. We derived the distribution of pressure provoked by a random inclined fiber in the matrix and calculated stresses through integrating the pressure and tangent stress along the fiber/matrix interface with the Kelvin's fundamental solution and the Mindlin's complementary solution. The evolution of spalling in the matrix was traced. The percentages of effective fibers were evaluated with variations in strength, interface resistance, diameter and elasticity modulus. The main conclusion is that low elasticity modulus combined high strength of fibers raises dramatically the effective fibers, which would benefit toughening.
Abstract in English:In the present study, efforts have been made to theoretically study the diffraction of plane harmonic compressional waves by a spherical nano-inclusion based on the Gurtin-Murdoch surface/interface elasticity theory in which the interface between the nano-inclusion and the matrix is considered as the material surface which has their own mechanical properties. Furthermore, a nano-composite has been considered in order to assess the size effect on the wave propagation characteristics of a plane compressional elastic wave containing the randomly distributed spherical nano-inclusions. Also, the phase velocities and attenuations of P and SV elastic waves along with the related dynamic effective elastic properties have been investigated for a wide variety of frequencies and volume fractions.
Abstract in English:The test data of metals, brittle materials and polymers in high, medium and low strain-rate range were summarized. It was found that the dynamic strength or yield stress of these materials was not sensitive to strain-rate in the low and high strain-rate range (corresponding to weak sensitivity area and saturated zone). But in the medium strain-rate range (strong sensitivity area), the dynamic strength or yield stress of these materials was extremely sensitive to strain-rate. The strain-rate effect function in classic Johnson-Cook constitutive model could not describe these phenomena in the range of low to high strain-rate. Therefore, the strain-rate effect function in classic Johnson-Cook constitutive model has been modified to a strain-rate effect expression which is suitable for different materials. This new model can better describe the phenomena of the weak sensitivity area, strong sensitivity area and saturated zone. With this model, the fitted curves are in good agreement with the test data, and the parameters are different for different materials. Finally, the fitting parameters are given.