Abstract in English:An anisotropic elastic-damage coupled constitutive model for plain concrete is developed, which describes the concrete performance degradation. The damage variable, related to the surface density of micro-cracks and micro-voids, and represented by a second order tensor, is governed by the principal tension strain components. For adequately describing the partial crack opening/closure effect under tension and compression for concrete, a new suitable thermodynamic potential is proposed to express the state equations for modeling the mechanical behaviors. Within the frame-work of thermodynamic potential, concrete strain mechanisms are identified in the proposed anisotropic damage model while each state variable is physically explained and justified. The strain equivalence hypothesis is used for deriving the constitutive equations, which leads to the development of a decoupled algorithm for effective stress computation and damage evolution. Additionally, a detailed numerical algorithm is described and the simulations are shown for uni-axial compression, tension and multi-axial loadings. For verifying the numerical results, a series of experiments on concrete were carried out. Reasonably good agreement between experimental results and the predicted values was observed. The proposed constitutive model can be used to accurately model the concrete behaviors under uni-axial compression, tension and multi-axial loadings. Additionally, the presented work is expected to be very useful in the nonlinear finite element analysis of large-scale concrete structures.
Abstract in English:A dynamic instability, called parametric resonance, is exhibited by undampedelastic beam-columns when under the action of pulsating axial force. The scope of the existing theory of parametric resonance is restricted to physically linear beam-columns undergoing finite lateral displacements. In this Paper, the dynamic behaviour of physically nonlinear elastic cracked concrete beam-columns under pulsating axial force and constant lateral force is investigated. The constitutive equations derived earlier by Authors in the form of force-displacement relations are employed here to formulate equations of motion of the SDOF cantilever with mass lumped at its free end. The expected phenomenon of parametric resonance is exhibited in the form of regular subharmonic resonance at about the frequency ratio of two. Resonance peaks broaden with increase in pulsating force. Like damping, physical nonlinearity is also predicted to stabilize the dynamic response at resonance frequencies. In some particular statically unstable conditions, the loss of dynamic stability is shown to occur by divergence. Unexpectedly, similar phenomenon of parametric resonance is exhibited by these physically nonlinear beam-columns undergoing even small lateral displacements. The contribution made to the theory of parametric resonance and the potential relevance of the proposed theory to design of concrete beam-columns is discussed.
Abstract in English:Reinforced concrete wide shallow beams (WSBs) are commonly used in the joist flooring systems. The structural behavior of WSBs strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) reinforcement was studied on isolated beams and as part of full-scale building. The effect of structural damage on the performance of WSBs flexurally strengthened with CFRP plates was investigated and presented in this paper. Eight full-scale WSBs were tested under four-point bending up to failure. Seven beams were strengthened with CFRP plates bonded to the soffit of the beams and one beam was unstrengthened serving as control. Prior to strengthening, the beams were subjected to different levels of damaging by preloading to 30-95% of the beams' flexural capacity. One beam was fully damaged by preloading to failure and repaired before strengthening by replacing the crushed concrete. The data showed that the pre-damaged strengthened beams exhibited ultimate capacities up to 8% lower than those of the undamaged strengthened beams. However, the load carrying capacities of pre-damaged strengthened beams were more than those predicted by ACI 440 design guide, fib Bulletin 14, and JSCE design recommendations. Both fib Bulletin 14 and JSCE design recommendations gave very conservative predictions with average ratios of experimental to predicted ultimate capacity of 2.02 and 2.35, respectively. More accurate predictions were obtained by ACI 440 design guide as the corresponding ratio was 1.24. These results indicate that strong confidence and reliability can be placed in applying CFRP strengthening to structurally damaged WSBs.
Abstract in English:The main objective of the present work is to utilize feedforward multi-layer perceptron (MLP) type of artificial neural networks (ANN) to find the combined effect of nano-silica and different fibers (steel, polypropylene, glass) on the toughness, flexural strength and fracture energy of concrete is evaluated.For this purpose, 40 mix plot including 4 series A and B and C and D, which contain, respectively, 0, 2, 4 and 6% weight of cement, nano-silica particles were used as a substitute for cement. Each of series includes three types of fibers (metal: 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5% volume and polypropylene: 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 % volume and glass 0.15 and 0.2 and 0.3% by volume) were tested. The obtained results from the experimental data are used to train the MLP type artificial neural network. The Results of this study show that fibers conjugate presence and optimal percent of nano-silica improved toughness, flexural strength and fracture energy of concrete of Self-compacting concrete (SCC). Results of this study show that fibers conjugate presence and optimal per-cent of nano-silica improved toughness, toughness, fracture ener-gy and flexural strength of SCC.
Abstract in English:This study intends to evaluate thermal ratchetting deformation due to cyclic thermal loading along the axis of a smooth cylindrical shell. Two cases of progressive deformation behaviour are discussed for different loading methods. The aim of the first case is to recognize the shakedown behaviour of the cylinder under applied loading cycles. Alternatively, second case is highlighting the ratchetting behaviour of the cylinder. Based on the loading method in second case, a smooth thin hollow cylinder is considered to simulate the progressive deformation. This condition simulates the 1/25th scale down model of the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) main vessel.
Abstract in English:Nowadays, the rail fastening systems play an important role for preserving the connection between the rails and sleepers in various conditions. In this paper, stress based concept is used to develop a comprehensive approach for fatigue reliability analysisof fastening spring clip. Axle load, speed and material properties are assumed to be random variables. First, track and train models are analyzed dynamically in order to achieve displacement time history of fas-tening spring clip. Then this displacement time history is applied to the fastening spring clip in FE software to obtain variable ampli-tude of stresses. Crack nucleation life is calculated by rain-flow method and Palmgren-Miner linear damage rule. First Order Relia-bility Method (FORM) and Monte-Carlosimulation technique are employed for the reliability index estimations. The influences of various random variables on the probability of failure are investi-gated by sensitivity analysis. The results show that the equivalent stress range and material parameter have significant effect on fa-tigue crack nucleation.
Abstract in English:Utilizing the straingradient notation process and the free formulation, an efficient way of constructing membrane elements will be proposed. This strategy can be utilized for linear and geometric non-linear problems. In the suggested formulation, the optimization constraints of insensitivity to distortion, rotational invariance and not having parasitic shear error are employed. In addition, the equilibrium equations will be established based on some constraints among the strain states. The authors' technique can easily separate the rigid body motions, and those belong to deformational motions. In this article, a novel triangular element, named SST10, is formulated. This element will be used in several plane problems having irregular mesh and complicated geometry with linear and geometrically nonlinear behavior. The numerical outcomes clearly demonstrate the efficiency of the new formulation.
Abstract in English:This paper presents a wavelet-based scheme for dynamic analysis of 2-dimensional (2D) frames. In the proposed approach, free-scaled wavelet functions are developed for Multi-Degrees-of-Freedom (MDOF) structures, particularly, complex Chebyshev and simple Haar wavelets are implemented. A simple step-by-step and explicit algorithm is presented to calculate the time history response of 2D frames. The validity of the proposed procedure is demonstrated with two examples compared with several common numerical integration procedures such as family ofNewmark-β, Wilson-θ and central difference method. Finally, it is shown that dynamic analysis of 2D frames is optimally accomplished by lesser computational time and high accuracy of results.
Abstract in English:This paper is devoted to the new classes of analytical techniques called the Iteration Perturbation Method (IPM)and Hamiltonian Approach(HA) for solving the equation of motion governing the nonlinear vibration of Euler-Bernoulli beams subjected to the axial loads. It has been found that theIPMand HAare very prolific, rapid, functional and do not demand small perturbation and are also sufficiently accurate to both linear and nonlinear problems in engineering. Comparison of the results of these methods with together and with the results of numerical solution reveals that the IPM and HA are very effective and convenient, and can be easily extended to other nonlinear systems so that can be found widely applicable in engineering and other sciences.
Abstract in English:This paper presents the results of anumerical investigation into ultimate strength of locally corroded tubular member sunder axial compressive loads. A parametric finite element approach was used in order to simulatestructuralbehavior of damaged members. The results were then examined against an available experimental test. Validated models were used to derive a semi-empirical formula for predicting ultimate strength of locally damaged tubes as a function of corrosion dimensions. Geometry ofcorrosion can be defined by its depth, length, width andlocation of damage along the tube. In this study it is focused on the effect of some parameters that have not been addressed yet by other researchers, e. g. slenderness of the tubes and location of patch corrosion. It was found that location of corrosion has great effect on reduction of ultimate strength. Effect of corrosion geometry was studiedand formulated as well as tubular slenderness and it was shown that tubes with different corrosion dimensions show different behaviors under compressive loads. In cases with severe corrosion damages, the occurrence of local buckling plays an important role on reduction of ultimate strength and deformation of damaged region.