Abstract in English:Abstract In this paper, an optimal controller for integrated longitudinal and lateral closed loop vehicle/driver dynamics proposed to follow desired path in various driving maneuvers, which also improved maneuverability and stability of vehicle over desired path. Designed controller imposed corrected steering angle and torque on the wheels to keep the vehicle on the desired trajectory whilst modified its handling properties. In the next stage, performance of proposed optimal linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller compared with Proportional-integrated-derivative (PID) one. The proposed controllers has been implemented on vehicle eight degree of freedom model in MATLAB/Simulink. Then the effects of adaptive controller on vehicle path following has been examined for various maneuvers, by driving on the lane change, J-turn, double lane-change and desired tracks. Finally, longitudinal dynamic performance of vehicle has been investigated during severe braking conditions. Simulation results indicated the dominate efficiency of controller on the vehicle stabilization and path following. Also, it improved longitudinal dynamics performance by preventing wheel lock and reducing stopping distance.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this research, the general governing set of differential equations for axisymmetric thick FG pressurized cylinders with exponential function of material properties is derived based on third order shear deformation theory. Afterwards, a general analytical solution of governing equations based on Eigen values problems is conducted for cylinders under clamped ends condition. Furthermore, a numerical modeling is done in order to compare the results of two different solution and prove the accuracy of analysis. The displacements and stresses resulted from FEM and TSDT are depicted for a case study along the radial and longitudinal direction of the cylinder. Afterwards, the effect of internal and external pressure, FGM inhomogeneity constants and higher order approximation is investigated. The results of SDT and FEM show good agreement and prove the fact that usage of FGM cylinders causes lower values of displacements and stresses.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this study, the governing equations of a rotating cantilever pipe conveying fluid are derived and the longitudinal and lateral induced vibrations are controlled. The pipe considered as an Euler Bernoulli beam with tip mass which piezoelectric layers attached both side of it as sensors and actuators. The follower force due to the fluid discharge causes both conservative and non-conservative work. For mathematical modeling, the Lagrange-Rayleigh-Ritz technique is utilized. An adaptive-robust control scheme is applied to suppress the vibration of the pipe. The adaptive-robust control method is robust against parameter uncertainties and disturbances. Finally, the system is simulated and the effects of varying parameters are studied. The simulation results show the excellent performance of the controller.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this work, we study a problem of thermoelastic interaction due to moving heat source in an isotropic infinite medium under Green and Naghdi model of type III (GNIII). The form of vector-matrix differential equation in the Laplace transform domain, the basic equations have been written, which is then solved by an eigenvalue technique. The analytical solution in the Laplace transforms domain with eigenvalue approach has been obtained. Numerical results for the displacement, temperature and the stress distributions are represented graphically. Some comparisons have been shown in figures to estimate the effect of heat source velocity and time in the physical quintets.
Abstract in English:Abstract In order to achieve the practical characteristics of natural bipedal walking, a key feature is to realize "the straight knee state of walking" during stance and swing motions. Considering a straight knee necessitates that the shank link of each leg not to undergo the rotation angles which are greater than that of the thigh link. For this purpose, various methods have been proposed; the joint self-impact constraint has been suggested for energy-efficient (natural) bipedal walking while realizing the straight knee constraint. The prominent objective of this research is to present a model based control method for trajectory tracking of a normal human-like bipedal walking, by considering the joint self-impact constraint. To achieve this objective, the dynamical equations of motion of an unconstrained biped are taken, developed and then modified to consider the joint self-impact constraint at the knee joint. To control this complicated dynamical system, the available anthropometric normal gait cycle data are taken to generate the desired trajectories of the thigh and knee joints of the self-impact biped. Due to the existence of complex nonlinear terms in the dynamical governing equations of self-impact biped, the authors propose to design a nonlinear intelligent controller by taking advantage of the adaptive neural network control method, which neither requires the evaluation of inverse dynamical model nor the time consuming training process. According to the simulation results, the tracking control of the biped robot is accomplished well and the biped walking seems naturally, despite of involving complex nonlinear terms in the dynamical governing equations of the self-impact biped.
Abstract in English:Abstract A new circle-arc model was established to present the cellular structure. Dynamic response of models with density gradients under constant velocities is investigated by employing Ls-dyna 971. Compared with the uniform models, the quasi-static plateau stress of different layers seems a significant parameter correlated with the deformation mode except for inertia effect when the density gradient is introduced. The impact velocity becomes much more vital on the deformation of the unit cell than the density gradient. The stress at both the impact and stationary sides is investigated in details. Furthermore, the stress-strain curve is compared with the modified shock wave theory. The density gradient does have some remarkable influence on the energy absorption capability, and a certain density gradient is not always beneficial to the energy absorption. Irrespective of the impact velocity, there seems always a critical strain where the energy absorbed by all these specimens could approximate to nearly the same value. So the critical strain-velocity curve is plotted and gives the beneficial area for energy absorption pertinent to density gradients and impact velocity.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fuel consumption and safety are currently key aspects in automobile design. The foam-filled thin-walled aluminium tube represents a potentially effective material for use in the automotive industry, due to its energy absorption capability and light weight. Multi-objective crashworthiness design optimization for foam-filled double cylindrical tubes is presented in this paper. The double structures are impacted by a rigid wall simulating quasi-static and dynamic loadings. The optimal parameters under consideration are the minimum peak crushing force and maximum specific energy absorption, using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) technique. Radial basis functions (RBF) and D-Optimal are adopted to determine the more complex crashworthiness functional objectives. The comparison is performed by finite element analysis of the impact crashworthiness characteristics in tubes under static and dynamic loads. Finally, the optimum crashworthiness performance of empty and foam-filled double tubes is investigated and compared to the traditional single foam-filled tube. The results indicate that the foam-filled double aluminium circular tube can be recommended for crashworthy structures.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this paper, fatigue life of a cracked railway wheel under thermo-mechanical loads is studied. For this purpose a FE model of a wheel, with two brake shoes and a portion of rail is created and suitable loads and boundary conditions are applied to the model. It is assumed that the wheel has contained an elliptical crack in the definite depth of the tread surface and thermalloads are determined by modeling the contact of the rail-wheel and two brake blocks. In order to investigate the thermalloads effect on the fatigue life of the cracked wheel, analyses areperformed in two cases: mechanical analysis and thermo-mechanical analysis; while difference between them, shows thermal load effects and its importance. In this work the wheel rotation on rail is modeled and a 3D FE model for determination of rail-wheel contact pressure is used while in many of the previous investigations, either rolling wasn't modeled or its effect was simplified as a translating pressure distribution along the rail-wheel contact region and also the Hertz contact theory had used for determination of contact pressure in wheel- rail interface. Finally, effects of angular velocity on fatigue life of a cracked wheel under -mechanical and mechanical loads are shown. The obtained results confirm the important influences of thermal loads on the wheel fatigue life in all mentioned cases that are studied in this article.
Abstract in English:Abstract Laminated glass units exhibit complex response as a result of different mechanical behavior and properties of glass and polymer foil. We aim to develop a finite element model for elastic laminated glass plates based on the refined plate theory by Mau. For a geometrically nonlinear description of the behavior of units, each layer behaves according to the Reissner-Mindlin kinematics, complemented with membrane effects and the von Kármán assumptions. Nodal Lagrange multipliers enforce the compatibility of independent layers in this approach. We have derived the discretized model by the energy-minimization arguments, assuming that the unknown fields are approximated by bi-linear functions at the element level, and solved the resulting system by the Newton method with consistent linearization. We have demonstrated through verification and validation examples that the proposed formulation is reliable and accurately reproduces the behavior of laminated glass units. This study represents a first step to the development of a comprehensive, mechanics-based model for laminated glass systems that is suitable for implementation in common engineering finite element solvers.
Abstract in English:Abstract Many authors have shown that the effective design of viscoelastic systems can be conveniently carried out by using modern mathematical models to represent the frequency- and temperature-dependent behavior of viscoelastic materials. However, in the quest for design procedures of real-word engineering structures, the large number of exact evaluations of the dynamic responses during iterative procedures, combined with the typically high dimensions of large finite element models, makes the numerical analysis very costly, sometimes unfeasible. It is especially true when the viscoelastic materials are used to reduce vibrations of nonlinear systems. As a matter of fact, which the resolution of the resulting nonlinear equations of motion with frequency- and temperature-dependent viscoelastic damping forces is an interesting, but hard-to-solve problem. Those difficulties motivate the present study, in which a time-domain condensation strategy of viscoelastic systems is addressed, where the viscoelastic behavior is modeled by using a four parameter fractional derivative model. After the discussion of various theoretical aspects, the exact and reduced time responses are calculated for a three-layer sandwich plate by considering nonlinear boundary conditions.