Abstract in English:Abstract This paper presents the vibratory behavior of a spinning composite shaft with curvilinear fibers on rigid bearings in the case of free vibrations. A p-version of finite element is used to define the model. A theoretical study allows the establishment of the kinetic energy and the strain energy of the shaft, necessary to the result of the equations of motion. In this model the transverse shear deformation, rotary inertia and gyroscopic effects have been incorporated. A hierarchical beam finite element with six degrees of freedom per node is developed and employed to find the natural frequencies of a spinning composite shaft with variable stiffness (curvilinear fibers). A computer code is elaborate for calculating the natural-frequencies for various rotating speeds of the composite shafts with curvilinear fibers. In the absence of publications of vibration analysis of rotating composite shafts with curvilinear fibers, the formulation is verified by comparisons with published data on rotating composite shafts reinforced by straight fibers. The influence of the physical, geometrical parameters, the boundary conditions and the curvilinear fiber paths on the first natural frequencies of the spinning composite shafts is studied by plotting various Campbell diagrams.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper presents a review of current techniques employed for dynamic analysis of concrete gravity dams under seismic action. Traditional procedures applied in design bureaus, such as the Pseudo-Static method, often neglect structural dynamic properties, as well as ground amplification effects. A practical alternative arises with the Pseudo-Dynamic method, which considers a simplified spectrum response in the fundamental mode. The authors propose a self-contained development and detailed examples of this latter method, including a comparison with finite element models using transient response of fluid-structure systems. It is verified that application of the traditional procedure should be done carefully and limited to extremely rigid dams. On the other hand, the proposed development is straightforward and in agreement with finite element results for general cases where dam flexibility plays an important role.
Abstract in English:Abstract A large number of references dealing with the geometric stiffness matrix of the DKT finite element exist in the literature, where nearly all of them adopt an inconsistent form. While such a matrix may be part of the element to treat nonlinear problems in general, it is of crucial importance for linearized buckling analysis. The present work seems to be the first to obtain an explicit expression for this matrix in a consistent way. Numerical results on linear buckling of plates assess the element performance either with the proposed explicit consistent matrix, or with the most commonly used inconsistent matrix.
Abstract in English:Abstract The simulation of cryogenic machining process because of using a three-dimensional model and high process duration time in the finite element method, have been studied rarely. In this study, to overcome this limitation, a 2.5D finite element model using the commercial finite element software ABAQUS has been developed for the cryogenic machining process and by considering more realistic assumptions, the chip formation procedure investigated. In the proposed method, the liquid nitrogen has been used as a coolant. At the modeling of friction during the interaction of tools - chip, the Coulomb law has been used. In order to simulate the behavior of plasticity and failure criterion, Johnson-Cook model was used, and unlike previous investigations, thermal and mechanical properties of materials as a function of temperature were applied to the software. After examining accuracy of the model with present experimental data, the effect of parameters such as rake angle and the cutting speed as well as dry machining of aluminum alloy by the use of coupled dynamic temperature solution has been studied. Results indicated that at the cutting velocity of 10 m/s, cryogenic cooling has caused into decreasing 60 percent of tools temperature in comparison with the dry cooling. Furthermore, a chip which has been made by cryogenic machining were connected and without fracture in contrast to dry machining.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study investigates nonlinear forced vibration of dielectric elastomer-based micro-beam. The nonlinear terms in beam equation are geometric and material one. Geometric nonlinearity is considered by von-Karman strain displacement relationship and the material nonlinearity is modeled with Yeoh hyper-elastic model. Galerkin and Multiple scale methods solve the governing equation. This solution that includes primary resonance, leads to frequency response, so that we depict influence of detuning parameter on amplitude in variation of different parameters.
Abstract in English:Abstract Temperature and external load are two important factors affecting the mechanical properties of rock material. The test on heat- treated granite specimen was carried out by using an improved split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). Based on the test data, the dynamic behavior and failure characteristics of the granite under the coupling action of temperature and impact loading are studied. The results show that the amplitude of incident wave increases with the impact velocity of striker, and the shapes of the transmitted and reflected waves are closely related to the failure state of the specimen. The stress-strain curves for the heat-treated specimens above 700oC are obviously different to those below 500oC in terms of the slopes for the ascending segment and the peak stress, indicating that there is a temperature threshold between 500oC and 700oC. Under the same velocity, the strain rate decreases slightly and then increases as the temperature increases. At a constant temperature, strain rate increases linearly with the impact velocity. The relationship between elastic modulus and strain rate for the heat-treated specimen obviously tends to have no regularity. In addition, both peak stress and peak strain exhibit strain rate sensitivity, but different increasing rates for different temperatures are detected. Below 500oC, the influence of temperature on peak stress and peak strain is not evident, however, the influence becomes remarkable at 700oC and 900oC.
Abstract in English:Abstract Carbon nanotubes were employed as adhesive reinforcement/nano-stitches to aluminum bonded joints. The CNT addition to an epoxy adhesive not only lead to an increase on load capacity but it is also the most probable cause of the mixed failure mode (adhesive/cohesive). The damage evolution was described as the stiffness decrease and the failure mixed modes were related to the load capacity. Although the presence of CNT cluster were observed, in small concentrations (< 1.0 wt. %), these clusters acted as crack stoppers and lead to an increase on lap joint shear strength. The addition of 2.0 wt. % carbon nanotubes lead to an increase on load capacity of approximately 116.2 % when the results were compared against the single lap joints without carbon nanotubes.
Abstract in English:Abstract Three-dimensional numerical simulations and experiments were performed to examine the formation and spatial dispersion patterns of integral multiple explosively formed penetrators (MEFP) warhead with seven hemispherical liners. Numerical results had successfully described the formation process and distribution pattern of MEFP. A group of penetrators consisting of a central penetrator surrounded by 6 penetrators is formed during the formation process of MEFP and moves in the direction of aiming position. The maximum divergence angle of the surrounding penetrator group was 7.8°, and the damage area could reach 0.16 m2 at 1.2 m. The laws of perforation dispersion patterns of MEFP were also obtained through a nonlinear fitting of the perforation information on the target at different standoffs. The terminal effects of the MEFP warhead were performed on three #45 steel targets with a dimension of 160cm ( 160cm ( 1.5cm at various standoffs (60, 80, and 120 cm). The simulation results were validated through penetration experiments at different standoffs. It has shown excellent agreement between simulation and experiment results.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Hercílio Luz suspension bridge, built in 1926, has been out of service since 1991 due to high corrosion levels and structural element impairment. A complete rehabilitation project was developed which included the replacement of the impaired items and foundation strengthening. For this, an auxiliary structure was employed to support the central span during the rehabilitation process. A carefully studied load transfer process, where the central span loading is transferred from the eye-bar towards the auxiliary structure will be performed. For this purpose, a synchronized jacking sequence will be used, which was predefined by means of numerical model analysis. All structural elements had their designs evaluated and some geometric changes were implemented. This paper presents all the methodology developed in the rehabilitation project of Hercilio Luz bridge, as well as the development stages up to the present date.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper deals with free vibration analysis of thick cylindrical composite sandwich panels with simply supported boundary conditions based on a new improved higher-order sandwich panel theory. The formulation used the third-order polynomial description for the displacement fields of thick composite face sheets and for the displacement fields in the core layer based on the displacement field of Frostig's second model. In this case, the unknowns were coefficients of the polynomials in addition to displacements of the top and bottom face sheets. The fully dynamic effects of the core layer and face sheets were also considered in this study. Using Hamilton's principle, the governing equations were derived. Moreover, the effect of some important parameters such as those of thickness ratio of the core to panel, the length to radius ratio of the core and composite lay-up sequences were investigated on free vibration response of the panel. The results were validated by those published in the literature and with the finite element results obtained by ABAQUS. It was shown that thicker panels with thicker cores provided greater resistance to resonant vibrations. Moreover, the effect of increasing face sheets’ thicknesses in general was the significant increase in fundamental natural frequency values.