Abstract in English:Abstract Austempered ductile iron is frequently employed in the fabrication of automobile parts due to its good mechanical properties, and its simplicity and low cost of the manufacturing process. The heat treatment design is an important stage, in which parameters such as temperatures and durations are chosen according to the required microstructure, part dimension, and initial characteristics of ductile iron. A coupled thermo-mechanical-metallurgical model is employed in this work to facilitate the heat treatment design of a ductile iron differential case. The thermal-mechanical model is solved by using a general-purpose software, and the metallurgical model is implemented into it by means of user-defined subroutines. To perform the austempering heat treatment simulation of the part, experimental results were required to complete some basic parameters of the model. In order to select appropriated values of thermal cycle parameters, the numerical model was employed to analyze the influence of austenitizing temperature, and austempering time and temperature in the microstructure, dimensional change of the part, cooling rate, and minimum required time of the heat treatment to obtain a full ausferritic matrix. A good performance of the computational tool was found by comparison of numerical and experimental results.
Abstract in English:Abstract Metal foams have been widely used in the engineering fields due to its excellent energy absorption capacity under impact. Under different impact velocities, metal foam exhibits different energy absorption properties. It is important to investigate the mechanism and behavior of energy absorption of metal foam under impact. In this study, a 3D microscopic finite element model (FEM) of metal foam is first established to study energy absorption properties of metal foam. It is shown that the impact energy transfers into kinetic and internal energy of metal foam which varies under impact. The variation can be explained by plastic shock wave, which is produced and then propagates under impact. The theoretical model is proposed to discuss and predict kinetic energy and the difference between dynamic and quasi-static energy absorption behavior of metal foam. Effects of inertia and base material strain rate on plastic shock wave are investigated, and the mechanism of the two effects on dynamic energy absorption properties are studied. The results indicate that base material strain rate effect resists the formation of plastic shock wave, and leads to smaller kinetic energy, but higher internal energy.
Abstract in English:Abstract The international highways within the city limits of Istanbul are used to transit more than 15 million trucks and other heavy good vehicles per year. According to the statistics, the number of single truck run of the road accidents is in the rise. Recent accidents on bridges showed that currently used bridge rails specified by Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) lack the required design criteria to safely contain and redirect heavy vehicles. The objective of this study is therefore design, analyze and test a new high containment level (HCL) bridge rail to be used on bridges on high risk locations, within the city limits of Istanbul. After the development and simulation phases, the bridge rail is subjected to full-scale crash testing in accordance with European Standard EN1317 to conclusively prove its adequacy. This study is of importance since the barrier is the first nationally developed high containment level bridge rail in Turkey. The bridge rail, YIM04 is currently in use on several bridge decks in Istanbul.
Abstract in English:Abstract To simulate the progressive failure of pinned joint in quasi-isotropic [0/45/-45/90]s glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite laminates used in pipeline, 3-D finite element model is employed in the present work. Hashin failure criterion as a progressive damage model associated with Virtual-Crack-Closing-Technique (VCCT) delamination model has been adopted to predicate the failure due to fiber breakage, matrix cracking and delamination in composite pinned joint. This technique may be an innovation for this paper. W/D has been changed to get different modes of failure, i.e. tension, shear-out and bearing failures, in composite pinned joint,. The failure mode for GFRP composite pinned joint has been predicted finally after prediction the failure at each ply laminate of stacking sequence [0/45/-45/90]s. An experimental work of pinned joint in quasi-isotropic GFRP composite laminates has been conducted to validate the present numerical results. The numerical and experimental results showed an agreement between them. Therefore, the present 3D finite element model can be considered as a good candidate to expect the progressive damage in composite pinned joints.
Abstract in English:Abstract The early detection of failures in structures is a subject of great interest in engineering; several of these techniques are linked with the elastic wave propagation, using guided waves is one of these alternatives. Several structures of interest in engineering are laminar arrangements; the wave propagation in this type of structures depends not only on the material properties, but also on the geometric parameters, such as the plate thickness. Tubular structures, pressure vessels, tanks and also parts of ships hulls could be considered laminar. The elastic wave propagation in laminar structures could be considered as a sum of modal shapes that have its wave length and frequencies defined. These mode families are characteristics of each structure and could be represented through the dispersion curves. The definition of these dispersion curves is of crucial importance to understand the propagation of guided waves in the structure studied. In the present work the dispersion curves were generated using three different methodologies, specific for metallic rectangular stems that compound the strengthening armor in flexible riser duct. Each approach presented in the analysis were carried out using standard finite element commercial packages and an experimental verification, as well. The premise is to present the topics in the simplest way, not only to understand how the dispersion curves are built but also how these curves must be interpreted.
Abstract in English:Abstract This research presents a study of the behavior of built-up compressed steel members composed of concentric hot rolled circular hollow sections. The use of these members is an innovative solution of practical interest for situations in which a single member does not reach the required compressive strength. Some technically and economically viable design and fabrication solutions to built-up members composed of concentric hot rolled circular hollow sections are presented. For the validation of numerical results, models of singular hollow sections are made and compared to the EN 1993-1-1, and the results obtained with numerical models were satisfactory. The compression resistance of these numerical models differs less than 9% from the EN 1993-1-1 values. Once the numerical modeling was validated, the study of built-up members was made, considering the tubes always united at the extremities by end plates, and along the length by fixed interconnections or sliding interconnections or, furthermore, without interconnections. For these three different conditions, several numerical models using FEM via Abaqus software were simulated to obtain and compare the compression resistance. The results show that these built-up sections with fixed and sliding interconnections have very similar behavior to the results obtained with European Standard procedure, when considering equivalent areas and inertias for the built-up section. Also, it shows that this observation does not apply to the sections without interconnections. Comparative graphs of compression resistance curves were generated, as also some graphs that show the distribution of the compressive force between each member of the built-up section. Finally, a formulation for the design of built-up sections without interconnections along the tubes was proposed to avoid robust computational methods.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mortar is an important component of concrete. It is of great significance to obtain its tensile properties accurately. The structure heterogeneity of mortar specimens is high. Specimens are prone to fracture nearby interfaces between specimens and loading plates because of the inhomogenous stress distribution during the testing, which leads that effective tensile data can not be easily obtained. Therefore, through the improvement of specimen’s geometrical structure, the dumbbell specimen is designed for quasi-static direct tensile tests. Compared with the splitting test results, the quasi-static direct tensile testing of dumbbell specimens can be availably conducted to obtain the tensile strength. It also provides an effective approach to obtain the tensile parameters of mortar specimens. Moreover, numerical simulations on dumbbell specimens of mortar with different shapes are also conducted to explore the optimal geometrical structure in dynamic direct tensile tests.
Abstract in English:Abstract To great understanding the dynamic crack propagation of rock under in-situ stress and blasting, the static-dynamic loading experimental platform was built. With different confining pressure (0MPa, 2MPa, 4MPa, 6MPa, 8MPa) and different ratios (K) of horizontal-to-vertical pressure (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1), nine texts have been carried out in quadrate granite samples. The dynamic strain gauges and high-speed (HS) camera were used to measure strain field and observe crack growth. According to experimental results, the centrosymmetric damage zone is generated around borehole when K=1, the circumference compressive stress is formed by confining pressure, and it reduces the circumference tensile failure by blast loading. The number and size of the broken radius significantly reduce with confining pressure increases. As K decrease from 1 to 0, the tensile stress concentration is obviously around borehole in the vertical direction, and radial cracks grow from the stress concentration zone and develop into boundary under tensile stress wave from blast loading. From the numerical analysis based on Johnson-Holmquist in AUTODYN, crack branching appear near free boundary obviously, meanwhile the radial cracks grow and run through sample by reflected wave at last. Compared to the experimental results, the evolution and final shape of cracks are agree with the experimental results, the central damage area is less than latter because JWL equation neglect the gas loading in numerical calculation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Deep penetration experiments were performed on five types of concrete with different coarse aggregate content. The projectile diameter was 29.9 mm, the initial velocity was 647 m/s, and the volume fraction of the coarse aggregate was between 0% and 59.0%. The damage laws and damage mechanism of the target were analyzed. The pure mortar target had the smallest radial crack origin diameter and crater depth. Too high of the coarse aggregate content led to the formation of many voids, which led to the disappearance of radial cracks, crater surface bypassing the coarse aggregate and a large reduction of crater diameter. The influence laws and mechanism of the coarse aggregate on the penetration depth were also analyzed. The increase of volume fraction of coarse aggregate was beneficial to reducing penetration depth and the increase of voids volume fraction was opposite. The penetration depth was the lowest when the volume fraction of the coarse aggregate reached the maximum and no voids formed. By modifying the static resistance stress in the Forrestal penetration formula, a penetration depth model considering the volume fractions of the coarse aggregate and voids was established. The predicted results were in good agreement with the experimental results.
Abstract in English:Abstract Here In this study, the composite laminates subjected to transverse impact with consideration interlaminar and intralaminar damage based on Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) and Progressive Damage Model (PDM) are investigated by numerical analysis using ABAQUS commercial finite element code. The delamination in stacking ply with the same fiber orientation is considered as interlaminar damage and the delamination in an inner layer of any cluster is ignored. Hashin criterion is used for intralaminar damage initiation and evolution without using any subroutine. First, the appropriate procedure for delamination on composite specimen was suggested based on CZM approach in double cantilever beam to verify the intralaminar damage simulation. Then by considering several case studies with different impact energies, the results of present simulation is verified with the relevant and available experimental results and numerical references in the existing literature. According to the available experimental results the present simulation results are more acceptable and accurate than the results of similar numerical works, especially in higher impactor velocity.