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Manuscrito, Volume: 46, Issue: 4, Published: 2023
  • Deflationism about Truth-Directedness Original Articles

    ZANETTI, LUCA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Contemporary views of truth-directedness endorse what I shall call the Common-Element Argument. According to this argument, there is something in common between judgment and other attitudes like assumption and imagination: they all regard their contents as true. Since this regarding-as-true feature is not distinctive of judgment - the argument goes - it can’t explain its truth-directedness. On this ground, theorists have been motivated to endorse an inflationary view that tries to capture truth-directedness by appealing to some further feature: intentions, second-order representations, sub-personal mechanisms, or subjugation to norms are the most discussed candidates for fulfilling this role. In this paper I will argue that the Common-Element Argument is unsound. It rests on a false premise, namely that there is some common element such as a regarding-as-true component between judgment and other cognitive attitudes. I shall reject Velleman’s and Railton’s defenses of the Common-Element-Argument. Then I will discuss three influential inflationary accounts of truth-directedness: Railton’s account, Velleman’s teleological account, and Shah and Velleman’s conceptualist account. I shall argue that they all face a phenomenological and an explanatory challenge. Finally, I shall sketch a deflationary view of truth-directedness that evades these challenges.
  • A Novel Argument for Fatalism Original Articles

    MORITA, KUNIHISA

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This paper offers a novel argument for fatalism: if one accepts the logical possibility of fatalism, one must accept that fatalism is true. This argument has a similar structure to the ‘knowability paradox’, which proves that if every truth can be known by someone, then every truth is known by someone. In this paper, what I mean by ‘fatalism’ is that whatever happens now was determined to happen now in the past. Existing arguments for fatalism assume that the principle of bivalence holds even for future propositions, that past truths are necessarily true, and/or that possible propositions never change into impossible propositions. However, my argument does not assume such premises. It assumes only the logical possibility of fatalism. Here, what I mean by ‘fatalism is logically possible’ is that there is at least one possible world where whatever happens now was determined to happen now in the past. Since this assumption is weak (thus is plausible), I believe it to be much stronger than the existing arguments for fatalism. In addition, I also show that what will happen in the future is determined now.
  • Darwinian Beauty Original Articles

    Ginnobili, Santiago

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract It is not always considered that the discussion about the objective or subjective nature of beauty occurred partly in natural history, within the framework of the Darwinian revolution. The approaches of many pre-Darwinian naturalists assumed the existence of absolute standards of beauty. This idea was a presupposition in some versions of the great chain of being and in the idea that beauty was an objective characteristic of creation that could explain the possession of many traits of organisms. In this paper I will show how Darwin explicitly confronted both views throughout his work.
  • Frege’s Theory of Types Original Articles

    Bentzen, Bruno

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract It is often claimed that the theory of function levels proposed by Frege in Grundgesetze der Arithmetik anticipates the hierarchy of types that underlies Church’s simple theory of types. This claim roughly states that Frege presupposes a type of functions in the sense of simple type theory in the expository language of Grundgesetze. However, this view makes it hard to accommodate function names of two arguments and view functions as incomplete entities. I propose and defend an alternative interpretation of first-level function names in Grundgesetze into simple type-theoretic open terms rather than into closed terms of a function type. This interpretation offers a still unhistorical but more faithful type-theoretic approximation of Frege’s theory of levels and can be naturally extended to accommodate second-level functions. It is made possible by two key observations that Frege’s Roman markers behave essentially like open terms and that Frege lacks a clear criterion for distinguishing between Roman markers and function names.
  • ON THE COMPARISONS OF LOGICS IN TERMS OF EXPRESSIVE POWER Original Articles

    FERNANDES, DIEGO PINHEIRO

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This paper investigates the question “when is a logic more expressive than another?” In order to approach it, “logic” is understood in the model-theoretic sense and, contrary to other proposals in the literature, it is argued that relative expressiveness between logics is best framed with respect to the notion of expressing properties of models, a notion that can be captured precisely in various ways. It is shown that each precise rendering can give rise to a formal condition for relative expressiveness that has appeared in the literature. Five such conditions are exposed, tested for some properties and compared to each other. As the formal conditions for relative expressiveness have various levels of stringency, some results on lifting some conditions to stricter ones are explored. Finally, a discussion on the properties of these formal conditions is presented. Special attention is given to notion of meaning equivalence, and how one may consider that it holds or not, depending on the weight attributed to logical and non-logical constants in expressiveness comparisons.
  • Does morality require sameness?: a response and question to Jennifer Frey Original Articles

    VAN STRAALEN, HUMBER

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In a previous paper in this journal, Jennifer Frey presented three arguments against New-Kantian approaches. This paper briefly reiterates these arguments and shows why New-Kantian positions do not succumb to them. Most noteworthy, such positions are formal and not substantive. They care little about the question whether people pursue the same goods and instead stress the role of procedure in explicating rationality and consent in explicating the good. By stressing this distinction between formal and substantive approaches, this paper also provides a hint to the contentious topic of how Kantians can deal with cultural diversity, historicity, and plurality in ethics. It finishes with some questions to the author of the previous paper: do non-formal approaches imply that peace can only exist within similarity?
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