Abstract in English:The complex immunological relationships between schistosomes and their vertebrate hosts are considered to be conveniently divisible into four distinct, though interrelated categories: the parasite's vulnerability to, its evasion of, and its exploitation of the host's immune response, and its stimulation of the host's immune response to produce immunopathology. Some significant recent advances in the first three categories are discussed, as well as their relationships to the fourth category of immunopathology.
Abstract in English:The hepatic, intestinal and cardiopulmonary lesions produced by Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium and S. japonicum in man and experimental animals often bear striking similarities but usually have distinctive features as well. These are often related to parasitologic differences. Thus S. japonicum and S. haematobium lay their eggs in clusters which elicit the formation of large composite granulomas. The worms of these two species also tend to be sedentary, remaining in a single location for prolonged periods, thus producing large focal lesions in the intestines or urinary tract. Worm pairs of these two species also are gregarious and many worm pairs are often found in a single lesion. The size of circumoval granulomas, and the degree of fibrosis, are T cell dependent. The modulation of granuloma size is largely T cell dependent in mice infected with S. mansoni but is mostly regulated by serum factors in S. japonicum infected mice. In spite of these differences in egg laying and immunoregulation both S. mansoni and S. japonicum produce Symmers' fibrosis in the chimpanzee while S. haematobium does not, despite the presence of numerous eggs in the liver.
Abstract in English:We have developed an in vitro model of granuloma formation for the purpose of studying the immunological components of delayed type hypersensitivity granuloma formation in patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Our data show that 1) granulomatous hypersensitivity can be studied by examining the cellular reactivity manifested as multiple cell layers surrounding the antigen conjugated beads; 2) this reactivity is a CD4 cell dependent, macrophage dependent, B cell independent response and 3) the in vitro granuloma response is antigenically specific for parasite egg antigens. Studies designed to investigate the immune regulation of granulomatous hypersensitivity using purified populations of either CD4 or CD8 T cells have demonstrated the complexity of cellular interactions in the suppression of granulomatous hypersensitivity. The anti-S. mansoni egg immune responses of individual patients with chronic intestinal schistosomiasis can be classified either as soluble egg antigen (SEA) hypersensitive with maximal granulomatous hypersensitivity or SEA suppressive with activation of the T cell suppressor pathway with effective SEA granuloma modulation. Our data suggest that T cell network interactions are active in the generation of effective granuloma modulation in chronic intestinal schistosomiasis patients.
Abstract in English:In recent years, one of the most significant progress in the understanding of liver diseases was the demonstration that liver fibrosis is a dynamic process resulting from a balance between synthesis and degradation of several matrix components, collagen in particular. Thus, fibrosis has been found to be a very early event during liver diseases, be it of toxic, viral or parasitic origin, and to be spontaneously reversible, either partially or totally. In liver fibrosis cell matrix interactions are dependent on the existence of the many factors (sometimes acting in combination) which produce the same events at the cellular and molecular levels. These events are: (i) the recruitment of fiber-producing cells, (ii) their proliferation, (iii) the secretion of matrix constituents of the extracellular matrix, and (iv) the remodeling and degradation of the newly formed matrix. All these events represent, at least in principle, a target for a therapeutic intervention aimed at influencing the experimentally induced hepatic fibrosis. In this context, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis is of particular interest, being an immune cell-mediated granulomatous disease and a model of liver fibrosis allowing extensive studies in human and animals as well as providing original in vitro models.
Abstract in English:During the schistosomiasis infection there is a [quot ]dance of the cells[quot ], varying from site to site and related to the time of infection. 1 - Eosinophil levels exhibit a bimodal pattern, with the first peak related to the egg deposition and maturation and increased Kupfferian hyperplasia; the second peak precedes the death of some adult worms; 2 - The peritoneal eosinophilic levels are inversely proportional to the blood eosinophilic levels; 3 - Eosinopoiesis in the bone marrow begins at day 40, reaching the highest levels at day 50 and coincides with hepatic eosinophilic and neutrophilic metaplasia; 4 - Peritoneal mast cell levels present a bimodal pattern similar to the blood eosinophils, and inverse to the peritoneal eosinophils. They also show a cyclic behaviour within the hepatic and intestinal granulomas. Integral analysis of the events related to the eosinophils in the blood, bone marrow, peritoneal cavity and hepatic and intestinal granulomas allows the detection of two important eosinophilic phases: the first is due to mobilization and redistribution of the marginal pool and the second originates from eosinophilic production in the bone marrow and liver. The productive phase is characterized by an increase in the number of eosinophils and monocyte/macrophages, and a decrease in neutrophils and stabilization of megakariocytes and erithroid lineages.
Abstract in English:In Egypt the "national schistosomiasis control program" was formulated to control transmission by reduction of prevalence and intensity of current infections, and thereby achieve an acceptable level of schistosomiasis disease control. The program was implemented foremost in Middle Egypt (1977) and Upper Egypt (1980), collectively extending 800 km alongside of the River Nile and accommodate about 10.5 million people. Schistosoma haematobium has been essentially the prevailing species infection in both areas. The strategy of control entailed both area-wide mollusciciding with niclosamide, and selective population chemotherapy with metrifonate. Evaluation in 1986 showed that prevalence dropped from pre-control 29.4% in Middle Egypt and 26.3% in Upper Egypt to 6% and 7.8% respectively, together with a remarkable drop of infections among children. Also mean intensity attained low levels consistent of low grade infections. It is evident therefore that in these areas where an enhancement of schistosomiasis infections had been anticipated the employment of the twofold strategy effected a state of low-prevalence/low-intensity signifying a lowered reservoir of infection and a substantial interference with the potentials of transmission.
Abstract in English:Schistosomiasis mansoni endemic zone of Venezuela is located in the valleys of the north central mountain region, with an extension of 15,000 km2 and inhabited by 5.1 million persons. The disease was discovered in 1906, but an organized Control Program was not established until 1943. Its basic activity has been the control of the snail vector, but prevention of man-water contact, prevention of snail infection, treatment of infected people and sanitary instruction, have also been carried out. Prevalence has diminished from 14.7% (1943-60) to 0.9% (1981-84). At present few active foci still persist, but a low transmission rate and low morbidity makes it difficult to know the exact number of infected people, which has been estimulated to be about 50,000.
Abstract in English:After treatment young Kenyan schoolchildren are highly susceptible to reinfection with Schistosoma mansoni. Older children and adults are resistant to reinfection. There is no evidence that this age related resistance is due to a slow development of protective immunological mechanisms, rather, it appears that young children are susceptible because of the presence of blocking antibodies which decline with age, thus allowing the expression of protective responses. Correlations between antibody responses to different stages of the parasite life-cycle suggest that, in young children, antigen directed, isotype restriction of the response against cross-reactive polysaccharide egg antigens results in an ineffectual, or even blocking antibody response to the schistosomulum.
Abstract in English:Anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) T cells from schistosomiasis patients or former patients proliferate upon exposure to polyclonal or monoclonal anti-soluble egg antigen (SEA) antibodies. Chloroquine does not inhibit, the response, which is induced by F(ab')2 (but not soluble Fab) fragments of these antibodies. Purified T cells from former patients require macrophages or exogenous IL-1 to respond to anti-SEA Ids and can respond to matrix-bound Fab fragments in the presence of IL-1. These anti-Id T cells recognize the Ids directly. Chronic schistosomiasis patients immunoregulate the production of a non-IL-2 lymphokine that stimulates IL-2 receptor expression on resting T cells. This regulation is reversed upon chemotherapeutic cure.
Abstract in English:Three antigens protective against Schistosoma mansoni have been extensively characterized. The schistosomulum surface antigen GP38 possesses an immunodominant carbohydrate epitope of which the structure has been defined. Protection can be achieved via the transfer of monoclonal antibodies recognizing the epitope or by immunization with anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies. The glycan epitope is shared with the intermediate host, Biomphalaria glabrata as well as being present on other molluscs, including the Keyhole Limpet. A group of molecules at 28 kDa were initially characterized in adult worms and shown to protect rats and mice against a challenge infection. One of these molecules, P28-I, was cloned and expressed in E. coli, yeast and vaccinia virus. The recombinant antigen significantly protected rats, hamsters and baboons against a challenge infection. P28-I is a glutathione-S-transferase and the recombinant antigen produced in yeast exhibits the enzyme activity and has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. A second P28 antigen, P28-II, has also been cloned, fully sequenced and expressed. This recombinant antigen also protects against S. mansoni infection.
Abstract in English:We have produced a number of monoclonal antibodies, protective and non-protective, which recognize a complex of schistosomula antigens, including the 38 kDa antigen. Eight different protective and non-protective monoclonal antibodies, varying in isotypes, were used in the binding assays. Lectin inhibition studies suggested that the monoclonal antibodies probably recognized carbohydrate epitopes on the antigen(s). Immunoprecipitation studies showed that at least two of the monoclonal antibodies recognized different epitopes on the same molecule. Additionally, we tested for monoclonal antibody binding after the antigens were treated with; 1) proteases, 2) periodate, 3) various exo- and endoglycosidases, 4) mild acid hydrolysis. We also tested for binding of the antibodies to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Using the 8 monoclonal antibodies as probes, we were able to define at least 4 different carbohydrate epitopes related to the protective monoclonal antibodies, and at least one epitope which is seen by the non-protective antibodies. The epitope seen by the non-protective antibodies was shown to be cross-reactive with epitopes on KLH. These results demonstrate the importance of epitope mapping studies for any defined vaccine.
Abstract in English:We have designed a vaccine model based on induction of cell-mediated immunity and shown that it protects mice against Schistosoma mansoni infection. Mice are immunized by intradermal injection with schistosome antigens plus BCG. Resistance is dependent on the route of antigen presentation and the adjuvant chosen. The pattern of resistance correlates with sensitization of T lymphocytes for production of gamma interferon, a macrophage activating lymphokine that stimulates the cellular effector mechanism of protection. Purified schistosome paramyosin, a muscle cell component present in soluble parasite antigenic preparations, is immunogenic for T lymphocytes and induces resistance when given intradermally with BCG. It is likely that this protein, and possibly other soluble molecules that are released by the parasites of a challenge infection, induce a cellular inflammatory response resulting in larval trapping and/or killing by activated macrophages. These results verify the feasibility of a vaccine against schistosomiasis based on induction of cell-mediated immune resistance mechanisms.
Abstract in English:The following remarks were addressed at the round table that discussed the alternative approaches to schistosomiasis control. The address begins with a short analysis of the progressive spread of the area of distribution of the disease, and of the difficulties faced by those in charge of control programs, conventional or otherwise. A model was sketched, taking into consideration the distinct classes of factors involved in the dynamics of transmission: biological, immunological, ecological, socio-cultural, and economical. The true significance and pertinence of such a model was analysed, and the relevant questions that must be answered before a true representative model can be constructed, were listed.
Abstract in English:Data on the interaction between populations of closely related species of Biomphalaria, B. glabrata and B. straminea, are presented in the current paper. Laboratory and field observations and experiments have shown that B. straminea has competitive advantages over B. glabrata.
Abstract in English:Drug resistance associated with the treatment of human schistosomiasis appears to be an emerging problem requiring more attention from the scientific community than the subject currently receives. Drug-resistant strains of Schistosoma mansoni have been isolated by various investigators as a result of laboratory experimentation or from a combination of field and laboratory studies. Review of this data appears to indicate that the lack of susceptibility observed for some of the isolated strains cannot be ascribed solely to previous administration of antischistosome drugs and thus further studies are required to elucidate this phenomena. Strains of S. mansoni have now been identified from Brazil which are resistant to oxamniquine, hycanthone and niridazole; from Puerto Rico which are resistant to hycanthone and oxamniquine; and from Kenya which are resistant to niridazole and probably oxamniquine. Strains derived by in vitro selection and resistant to oxamniquine and possibly to oltipraz are also available. All of these strains are currently maintained in the laboratory in snails and mice, thus providing for the first time an opportunity for indepth comparative studies. Preliminary data indicates that S. haematobium strains resistant to metrifonate may be occurring in Kenya. This problem could poise great difficulty in the eventual development of antischistosomal agents. Biomphalaria glabrata from Puerto Rico and Brazil were found to be susceptible to drug-resistant S. mansoni from each country.
Abstract in English:Clinical and laboratory evidence is reviewed which shows that there is a great deal of variation in the susceptibility of Schistosoma mansoni to oxamniquine. This variation occurs both among endemic regions and within endemic regions in Brazil and Kenya. It is genetically controlled. It is suggested that the parasite possesses a large capacity for developing resistance to the drug and that resistance will develop where sufficient drug pressure is maintained.
Abstract in English:This paper reports recent observations from our laboratory dealing with the anti-schistosome drugs hycanthone (HC) and praziquantel (PZQ). In particular, we discuss a laboratory model of drug resistance to HC in Schistosoma mansoni and show that drug sensitive and resistant lines of the parasite can be differentiated on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms using homologous ribosomal gene probes. In addition, we summarize data demonstrating that effective chemotherapy of S. mansoni infection with PZQ in mice requires the presence of host anti-parasite antibodies. These antibodies bind to PZQ treated worms and may be involved in an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity reactions which result in the clearance of worms from the vasculature.
Abstract in English:Different enzymes of Schistosoma mansoni are recognized by IgG antibodies present in the sera of infected human patients. The antigenicity of these enzymes suggests their possible use in immunodiagnostic assays that would take advantage of their activities.
Abstract in English:The strategy for the control of schistosomiasis has shifted from one directed towards the interruption of transmission to one of reducing morbidity. As a consequence of this change, it appears prudent to reassess the role of the malacologist and malacology and identify the future direction to be taken by the discipline. The present paper addresses these concerns; first, by reviewing the role of the snail-hosts in the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis, and, secondly, by suggesting areas for future study. The possible application of newer methods in biotechnology for the resolution of malacological problems are discussed.
Abstract in English:The author studied some protective behaviors of Biomphalaria glabrata (vertical movements, response to molluscicides and response to water currents) and demonstrated how these activities hamper the control of this snail, which is the main vector of schistosomiasis in Brazil.
Abstract in English:The acquisition of host antigens by Schistosoma mansoni was studied by evaluating the resistance of schistosomula to the complement attack mediated by lethal antibody. Schistosomula cultured for 24 hours with intact human erythrocytes (N-HuE) or ghosts of any type of ABO or Rh blood group, showed a marked resistance to complement damage. Sheep red blood cells, pronase-treated N-HuE or erythrocytes from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, which are complement-sensitive cells, were unable to protect schistosomula. Schistosomula protected by N-HuE became again susceptible to complement killing after incubation with a monoclonal antibody anti-DAF. These results indicate that, in vitro, host DAF from N-HuE can be acquired by schistosomula surface in a biological active form that protects the parasite from the complement lesion.
Abstract in English:The recent findings on immunodiagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni have shown that purified Schistosoma mansoni antigens do not provide maximum positivity. Therefore, the authors suggest the use of semi-purified antigens for diagnostic purposes. So far, no serological marker for cured patients as shown by negative stool examination was found. However, a tendency of IgG antibody titre decrease was observed, when egg antigen was used.
Abstract in English:The post-treatment pulmonary alterations were evaluated in patients (Study 1) and in mice (Study 2) infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Study 1: the patients were examined pre and post-treatment (with ora oxamniquine) and the following exams were performed: sputum for eosinophils and chest x-ray. Study 2: four groups of mice (total = 64) were studied; Group I (infected and treated with oxamniquine); II (infected and not treated); III (not infected and treated) and IV (not infected and not treated). All were x-rayed to check for pulmonary abnormalities pre and post-treatment and lung specimens were studied by optical microscopy and immunofluorescence. We have found abnormalities in the parameters checked in both studies and the results suggest an immunological reaction, probably due to deposition of immune complexes in the lungs, with subsequent activation of the complement system. The experimental study showed that the alterations are not dependent of the presence of eggs and/or worms of S. mansoni in the lungs, thus corroborating the hypothesis of deposition of circulating material.
Abstract in English:Cell-free hemolymph (serum) and hemocytes from Schistosoma mansoni-susceptible (PR albino M-line) and resistant (10-R2) strains of Biomphalaria glabrata were compared by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and radioiodination. Whole serum of both snail strains is dominated by hemoglobin (Hb) (MW = 160 Kd). SDS-PAGE. of Hb-depleted serum indicated that the 10-R2 strain has dominant polypeptides in the 50 to 30 Kd range whereas PR albino snails have few low MW proteins. Antibodies raised to whole PR albino and 10-R2 serum, and the 160 Kd (Hb) band reacted similarly in immunoblot assays. Analysis of hemocytes revealed that 10-R2 snails have a surface-exposed protein at about 80 Kd which is not present on PR albino hemocytes. An examination of primary cultured sporocysts indicated the presence of four major surface proteins (40, 50, 55, 70 Kd) and two minor surface-exposed polypeptides (92, 170 Kd). Antibodies raised against live, intact sporocysts reacted almost exclusively with sporocyst-surface proteins when tested by immunoblotting.
Abstract in English:We have been able to produce a mouse monoclonal IgE antibody specific to an adult worm antigen extracted from Schistosoma japonicum (Sj). The antibody was able to elicit passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in the rat skin against Sj with the highest titer of 1:256,000 but did not cross-react with S. mansoni antigen. The antibody recognized a 97-kDa molecule expressed on the surface of mechanically transformed schistosoma of S. japonicum. Passive transfer of the antibody into mice in the early stage of challenge infection resulted in a partial but significant reduction of recovery of adult worms. Induction of eosinophilia by an oral administration of embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis prior to challenge infection enhanced the reduction.
Abstract in English:The presence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs surrounded by inflammatory cells were detected within the peritoneal cavity of experimentally infected mice. The histological and ultrastructural analysis revealed the predominantly macrophagic composition of these structures. The presence of epithelioid cells, macrophages in different stages of activation and the architectural pattern of the cells, characterize these structures as extra-tissular true granulomas. Granulomas much similar to those observed in the peritoneal cavity of infected mice were also detected after the intraperitoneal injection of viable eggs in non-infected mice. Collagen fibers were observed in between the inflammatory cells of granulomas obtained 10 weeks after infection and 48 hours after the injection of viable eggs into the peritoneal cavity. In later times of infection or injection the amount of collagen fibers increases resulting in a typical pattern of healed schistosoma egg granulomas. The possible influence of the immune response on the genesis of the granulomatous reaction as well as the influence of the vascularized connective tissue on this process is discussed.
Abstract in English:Modification of the immune response to schistosomal infection in children or offspring born to mother R infected with Schistosoma mansoni has been demonstrated in human and in experimental schistosomiasis. One of the hypothesis to explain this fact could be the transfer of circulating antigens and antibodies from mother to foetus through the placenta or from mother to child by milk. The results of this spontaneous transference are controversial in the literature. In an attempt to investigate these questions, we studied one hundred and twenty offspring (Swiss mice), sixty born to infected-mothers (group A) and sixty born to non-infected mothers (group B). These were percutaneously infected with 50 cercariae/mouse, and divided in six sub-groups (20 mice/sub-group), according to the following schedule: after birth (sub-groups A.I and B.I), 10 days old (sub-groups A.II and B.II) and 21 days old (sub-groups A.III and B.III). After the exposure period, the young mice returned to their own mothers for nursing. Six weeks later, the mice were killed. We obtained the following results: 1) There is transference of antibody to cercariae (CAP), adult worms (SWAP) and egg antigens (SEA) from the infected mothers to the offspring, probably through placenta and milk; 2) Offspring born to infected mothers exhibit much less coagulative hepatic necrosis and show a lower number of eggs in the small intestine and a less intense and predominant exsudative stage of the hepatic granulomas when compared with the exsudative-productive stage of the control groups. The findings suggest that congenital and nursing factors can interfere on the development of the schistosomiasis infection, causing an hyporesponse to the eggs.
Abstract in English:Immunological tolerance to Schistosoma mansoni antigens induced by oral exposure of neonatal and adult mice to adult worm, soluble egg and polysaccharide antigens conducted to modulated periovular granuloma of infected mice. However the tolerance do not interfere in the infection. The estimative population and subpopulation of lymphocytes in the spleen of tolerized (not infected) animals do not differ from normal animals but Lyt 2.2 reactive lymphocytes to Schistosoma antigens was demonstrated in the tolerized animals.
Abstract in English:Peritoneal exudate cells from mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni (S-PEC) can kill schistosomula in vitro in the presence of immune serum. S-PEC produce a low level of respiratory burst, and schistosomula mortality in their presence is not reduced when exogenous antioxidants are added, suggesting that with S-PEC, oxidative killing is not important. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide production by S-PEC, and cells from BCG and thioglycollate (THGL) injected non-infected mice, non-specifically stimulated with opsonized zymosan, were measured. Levels of H2O2 produced by S-PEC were significantly lower than BCG or THGL PEC, and were below the H2O2 threshold for schistosomula killing. This resulted in lower levels of cell-mediated killing of schistosomula in vitro by S-PEC than by BCG or THGL PEC. Superoxide levels, however, were similar between the three cell populations. The efficiency of PEC to kill schistosomules in vitro correlated with H2O2 rather than superoxide levels. The lower tolerance of schistosomula, compared to adult S. mansoni to GSH depleting agents increases their sensitivity to oxidative attack and resulted in higher levels of cell-mediated killing in vitro.
Abstract in English:Schistosoma mansoni infected hosts produce an IgG that mediates the complement-dependent killing of schistosomula in vitro. In this study, we followed the levels of serum lethal antibody during infection of rats and mice. Rats presented detectable lethal activity early in the course of infection with a peak in the 6-8th week of infection. This activity declined to non-detectable levels within 2 weeks, remaining low up to the 20-26th week. In mice, lethal antibody was not detected before 7-12 weeks of infection, but raised to higher levels, as compared to non-infected animals, up to 20-24 weeks after infection. We correlate lethal antibody and protective immunity suggesting that the antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity to schistosomula play a role in the immunity to reinfection.
Abstract in English:Health education for children is an important measure in the control of schistosomiasis especially considering the characteristics of the disease during childhood, such as high prevalence, high percent of treatment resistance, high rates of egg elimination and high level of reinfection, as reported in studies conducted in endemic areas. All of these facts indicate that children play a role in the maintenance and transmission of schistosomiasis. Historically in Brazil, Health Education concerning the major Brazilian endemies consists of a kind of vertical, interventionist and temporary action. An alternative would be to create a permanent health education process by assigning health education teachers to elementary schools. This would require expansion and improvement of teacher training and the development of programs taking into account: 1) the cognitive aspects of the child, the child's perception of reality and of the health/illness process; 2) the adaptation of instruction means and materials to the age group; 3) a "pedagogy of liberation" approach emphasizing the possibility of transforming life conditions since schistosomiasis is related to the lack of public services such as basic sanitation and clean domestic water supply.
Abstract in English:An attempt was made to determine more accurately the density of molluskan populations in the Pampulha reservoir, using the quadrate method, intending to detect the fluctuation of the populations density, the habitat conditions and the possible competitive interactions among Biomphalaria tenagophila, Melanoides tuberculata, Pomacea haustrum and Biomphalaria glabrata, through the analysis of populational parameters. Among the most significative facts observed in the reservoir it has to be mentioned: the almost disappearance of B. glabrata; the invasion, colonization, fixation and fast growing of M. tuberculata population until reaching about 11,000 individuals/[square metre]; the density fluctuations of B. tenagophila, P. haustrum and M. tuberculata alives and deads; differences on the habitat preference of these three molluskan species at the edge (at the limit earth-water, at 0.70m and 1.40m from the shore line); monthly mortality rates and reproduction seasons of the species.
Abstract in English:The different climatic regions determine the zoogeographic distribution of various animal species depending on their particular conditions and ecological preferences. The host schistosomiasis planorbid is one of these species. This paper deals with the distribution of Biomphalaria straminea in northeast Brazil. It starts from the analysis of different climatic peculiarities in this region, associated to limnological observation done by the author in three different hydric collections in the state of Sergipe. It has been concluded that this is an "eurióioca" species. Its broad ecological valence permits this species to survive in regions where climate asperties are evident, requiring behavior and physiological adaptations. The species survives in all northeast region, from "zona da mata", in the coast, to the semi-arid "sertão".
Abstract in English:Experiments were carried out using aqueous extracts from leaves and flowers of Laurus nobilis on Biomphalaria glabrata. Treatments were performed on blastula stage (± 15 h after first cleavage) and on adult snails (11-18 mm). In both instances they were exposed for 24 h to different concentrations of the extracts on snails (200 to 2500 ppm) and embryos (20 to 300 ppm) at 25 ± 1ºC. The embryos were observed for a period of 20 days after treatment and the snails for 10 days. Results obtained with leaf aqueous extracts have shown a degree of toxicity on embryos starting at a concentration of 125 ppm, the flower extract being effective at 35 ppm. The malformation obtained with the different concentrations falls into the unespecific type category, however some cephalic and shell malformations were found in embryos treated with concentrations over 50 ppm (leaves) and 25 ppm (flowers). The LD90 on adult snails obtained by treatments with flower and leaf extract was observed at concentrations of 340 ppm and 1900 ppm respectively.
Abstract in English:To study the action of molluscicide nine ponds were selected: 3 of them lying in Maruim municipality, 29 km far from north Aracaju, the State capital, and 6 ponds in Itabaianinha municipality, 118 km far from south Aracaju. This study was carried out for 16 months. Environmental parameters observed were those thought to have any influence on the planorbids and/or the molluscicide: water temperature, transparence, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, CO2, and the nutrients-phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium and calcium. Plancton microorganisms were also considered to observe Bayluscide action on them. SRB was used in a concentration of 6.25 kg per 1.000 [cubic metres] water, to achieve 1.0 ppm Bayluscide concentration according to the producer's instruction in Massachussett-USA.
Abstract in English:One hundred eighty-four patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni from the northeast of Brazil were studied. All were treated with a single dose of Oxamniquine or Praziquantel, and were observed over 6 to 12 months. Special attention was given to the evolution of severe hepatopathy. Favourable results were obtained, particularly with the compensated hepatosplenic form. Hepatic function showed great improvement. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly were significantly reduced in size, to a greater or lesser extent, in the great majority of patients. The implications of the results obtained are considered below.
Abstract in English:It has been studied the chemoprophylactic action on experimental schistosomiasis of the essential oil from Pterodon pubescens "sucupira branca" as an additive through different formulations, in toilet soap. Immediately or 24 hours later, groups of mice were exposed by tail method to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. After 45 days of the exposition, the protective action of these soaps were evaluated. The results showed different levels of protection, ranging from 29.0 to 100.0%. Further studies are on going with the most promising formulations.
Abstract in English:The effects of a single dose (100 mg/kg-body weight of mouse) of oxamniquine on the worm's tegument and paranchyma in relation to the process of immunological granulomatous reaction of the host's liver are described under light and electron microscopy (EM). The lesions caused by the drug are sequentially and simultaneously described in form of swelling, surface bulble and disruption with erosions. Ulceration in the tubercules with loss of spines is often more extensive and severe in male worms and concentration of host's mononuclear cells is observed. The possible role of host's immune response is discussed.
Abstract in English:In this paper the authors briefly describe a human Schistosoma mansoni strain from Pará State, Brazil. The CIRENE'S strain was capable of infecting 71.4% of the snail vector Biomphalaria glabrata (Telegrafo's strain) provided by the "Evando Chagas" Institute, Belém. The cycle was completed by the infection of six mice. The thoracic and abdominal organs were examined microscopically which demonstrated the passage of the worm into the liver and lungs. The authors discuss the importance of these results in the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Pará.