Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 86 Supplement 2, Published: 1991
  • Opening of the First Brazil and China Symposium of Chemistry and Pharmacology of Natural Products

    Moussatché, Haiti
  • Foreword

    Gottlieb, Otto Richard
  • Traditional Chinese materia medica: a retrospect and prospect

    Bay, Dong-Lu

    Abstract in English:

    For thousands of years, traditional medicine and remedies have been practed and used in the fight against disease in China. They have proved to be valuable and the distillate of vast historical experience based on field-tested human experiments, long-term observations and clinical trials. The Chinese people belive that traditional medicine is consistent with theirown culture. Endowed with a unique theoretical system and provided outstanding clinical results, traditional Chinese medicine continues to play an important role in helping the Chinese nation flourish. The recent study of traditional medicinal plants in Chine has given us confidence that what was recorded in ancient medical literature through empirical observations is indeed still coindicent with the concepts of modern chemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The task of revealing what is valid and efficacious should be retained, and what is mythic and invalid should be discarded in traditional Chinese medicine may require scientific research lasting for several generations. Therfore, multidisciplinary cooperation and international collaboration in this field would be essential. Systematic coordination of work in traditional medicine by word organizations, national governments, private foundations and individual scientists is a requisite as well.
  • Potential sources of biodynamically active natural products in Brazil

    Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C.

    Abstract in English:

    In contrast to China where vegatation is predominantly herbaceous, vegetation in Brazil is commonly arboreous. This fact may explain why Chinese drugs are usually acetate derived, while actual and potential natural therapeutic agents from Brazil are mostly shikimate derived. Only relatively few compounds isolated from Brazilian plants have been submitted to adequate pharmacological testing
  • Resources of medicinal plants in China

    He, Guan-Fu

    Abstract in English:

    Four aspect dealts with in this paper are as follows: 1. environment of medicinal plants; 2. brief history on studies of medicinal plants; 3. species of medicinal plants; 4. studies on development and utilization of medicinal plant resources.
  • Plants used in traditional medicine of China and Brazil

    Matos, F. J. A.; Machado, M. I. L.; Alencar, J. W.; Matos, M. E. O.; Craveiro, A. A.

    Abstract in English:

    Eventhough the rationale behind the use of medicinal plantes in Brazil and Chine is different, twenty four species are used in both countries. Scientific name, vulgar name and uses in both countries along with their chemical constituents are listed.
  • Current status of biotechnology in China

    Yang, Sheng-Li

    Abstract in English:

    There has been increasing interest over past decade in exploring the possibility of using new biotechinology to produce new products and to improve the old productive process. The researches and applications of genetic engineering, cell fusion, mutagenesis, cell and enzyme immobilization in enzyme, antibiotic, vitamine, steroid, amino acid, organic acid, solvent, food and brewage industries is reviewed.
  • Plant tissue culture techniques

    Illg, Rolf Dieter

    Abstract in English:

    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.
  • The rational search for natural neolignans

    Gottlieb, Otto R.

    Abstract in English:

    A rational method of search for natural neolignans of desired structures is outlined. This involves consultation of a collection of chemical profiles of plant families. The profiles are assembled considering the biosynthetic class (in the present case lignoids), subclass (neolignans), structural types (neolignan skeleta) and relative frequency of substitutional derivatives belonging to each type (known compounds). The method is of course applicable to ani class of natural products. Its use in the case of neolignans is here selected as an exemple in view of the recently discovered antagonism towards PAF of kadsurenone, a representative of this subclass of phytochemicals. Application of the chemical profiles to phylogenetic studies is illustrated.
  • Bioactivity of neolignans from fructus Schizandrae

    Li, Xiao-Yu

    Abstract in English:

    Fructus Schisandrae sinensis Baill, a traditional Chinese medicine, used as tonic and sedative, has been shown at the beginning of 70's to lower the elevated serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels of patients suffering from chronic viral hepatitis. Durign past 20 years, a series of neolignans have been isolated and identified as effective principles. Pharmacological studies revealed that they increased liver protein and glicogen synthesis, antagonized liver injuries from CCl4 and thioacetamide. The mechanism of SGPT lowering was considered as a hepato-protective and membrane stabilize action, although inhibition of the activity of liver GPT may also be existed. It was found that some principles of Schisandrae have an inducing effect on hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzynme system P-450, thus explained their anti-toxic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic effects. A synthetic derivative compound of Schisandrin called DDB has most of the above mentioned actions now used widely in Chine as a hepato-protective drug with high effectiveness in normalizing liver functions and very low side effects. From Schisandrin to synthesized DDB, pointed out a successful way in the development of new drugs from natural products.
  • Chemical transformations of neolignans

    Yoshida, Massayoshi

    Abstract in English:

    Neolignans, generated by oxydative dimerization of propenylphenol and/or allylphenol, undergo further modifying steps. These biosynthetic reactions, confirmed in vitro, include Cope, retro-Claisen and Claisen rearrangements. Additionally acid catalysis effects convertions of bicyclo [3.2.1] octanoid neolignans into hydrobenzofuranoid neolignans, or inversely of hydrobenzofuranoid neolignans into bicyclo [3.2.1] octanoid neolignans, of hydrobenzofuranoid neolignans into futoenone type neolignans, of tetrahydrofuran neolignans into aryltetralin neolignans, as well as modifications by Friedel - Crafts reactions and the transformation of aryltetralin neolignans into arylindanones by pinacoline - pinacolone type rearrangement.
  • Evaluation of the purified fraction of Wilbrandia (c. f. ) verticillata for antitumour activity

    Rao, V. S. N.; Almeida, F. R. C.; Moraes, A. P.; Silva, J. V.; Nascimento, S. C.; Moraes, M. O.

    Abstract in English:

    Cucurbatacins are known to produce cytotoxic and anticancer activities. Two novel norcucurbitacin glucosides (Wvl and Wv2) have recently been isolated from a purified fraction obtained from the rhizome of Wilbrandia verticillata. The present study evaluates the cytotoxic and anti-tumour activities of the norcucurbitacins. We have found a regular cytotoxicity in KB cells (Cy50 = 12µg/ml) as well as a significant inhibition in the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma growth (approximately 75%).
  • Medium-term protocols for in vivo evaluation of chemical modifiers of carcinogenesis

    Camargo, J. L. V. de

    Abstract in English:

    Cancer development is a long-term multistep process which allows interventional measure before the clincial disease emerges. the detection of natural substances which can block the process of carcinogenesis is a important as the identification of anti-tumoral drugs since they might be used in chemoprevention of cancer in high-risk groups. In vivo rodent models of chemical caecinogenesis have been used to study plant-derived inhibitors of carcinofenesis such as indols, coumarins, isothiocyanates, flavones, phenols and allyl-sulfides. Since the standard in vivo rodent bioassay is prolonged and expensive, shorter reliable protocols are needed. Two in vivo medium-term protocols for evaluation of modifiers of carcinogenesis are presented, one related to liver and the other to bladder cancer. Both protocols use rats, last 8 and 36 weeks and are based on the two-step concept of carcinogenesis: initiation and promotion. The protocols use respectively the development of altered foci of hepatocytes expressing immunochistochemically the placental form of gluthation S-transferase and the appearence of pre-neoplastic urothelium and papillomas as the "end-points". the use of these protocols for detection of plantpderived inhibitors of carcinogenesis appear warranted.
  • Recent advances in pharmacologic study of natural anticancer agents in China

    Xu, Bin

    Abstract in English:

    In this paper a number of anticancer agents of natural origin will be presented. Hydroxycamtothecin (HCPT) was found to produce a strong inhibitory action on a variety of animal tumors. It is also effective for treatment of patients with gastric carcinoma, liver carcinoma, tumor of head and neck or leukemia. Pharmacologic studies showed that it could depress S phase of tumor cells significantly and cause formation of cellular chromatid breaks. By means of alkaline elution and nick translation methods it has been proved that HCPT induced DNA singlo strand breaks remarkably. Homoharringyonine (hhrt) was shown to be effective against acute leukemia. Recent experiments in tumor-bearing mice inidcated that (HHRT) could diminish tumor metastasis. Using molecular hybridization technique it was demonstrated that (HHRT) decreased the content of c-myc RNA in the cytoplasm but not in the nuclei. Lycobetaine (LBT) poddrddrf dytnh inhibitory effects on a number of ascites tumors. In clinical trials it was against ovarian and gastric carcinomas. It is able to intercalate into DNA. Oxalysine (OXL) is a new antibiotic and shown to be effective against tumor metastatis. When used in combination with 5-FU, its anticancer action could be enhanced. Other natural compounds such as indirubin, ß-elemene, irisquinone, oridonine, norcantharidin and PSP have been also found to possess antitumor action.
  • Studies on bioactive components from Chinese medicinal plants

    Xu, Ren-Sheng; Tang, Zong-Jian; Feng, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Yi-Ping; Lin, Wen-Han; Zhong, Qiong-Xing; Zhong, Yi

    Abstract in English:

    Several novel bioactive components isolated from Chinese medicinal plants will be presented. These include novel maytansinoid tumor, inhibitors, some new ent-kaurane and rosane diterpenoids from Mallotus anomalus Meer et Chun (Euphorbiaceae), as well asnovel insecticide, stemona alkaloids from Stemona parviflora C. H. Wright (Stemonaceae). Both are native plants of Hainan island, Chine. 2D NMR techniques such as mono and hetero-COSY, NOESY, COLOC as well as H-NMR line broadening effect were utilized for structure elucidation. The separation techniques, struture elucidations and bioassay results will be reported.
  • Antitumor activity of chemical modified natural compounds

    Oliveira, Marilda Meirelles de

    Abstract in English:

    Search of new activity substances starting from chemotherapeutic agents, continously appears in international literature. Perhaps this search has been done more frequently in the field of anti-tumor chemotherapy on account of the unsuccess in saving advanced stage patients. The new point in this matter during the last decade was computer aid in planning more rational drugs. In near future "the accessibility of supercomputers and emergence of computer net systems, willopen new avenues to rational drug design" (Portoghese, P. S. J. Med. Chem. 1989, 32, 1). Unknown pharmacological active compounds synthetized by plants can be found even without this eletronic devices, as tradicional medicine has pointed out in many contries, and give rise to a new drug. These compounds used as found in nature or after chemical modifications have produced successful experimental medicaments as FAA, "flavone acetic acid" with good results as inibitors of slow growing animal tumors currently in preclinical evaluation for human treatment. In this lecture some international contributions in the field of chemical modified compounds as antineoplasic drugs will be examined, particularly those done by Brazilian researches.
  • Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Vargas, Vera M. F.; Guidobono, Régis R.; Henriques, João A. P.

    Abstract in English:

    Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia) were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome). Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990) the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.
  • Genotoxic effect of alkaloids

    Henriques, J. A. P.; Moreno, P. R. H.; Von Poser, G. L.; Querol, C. C.; Henriques, A. T.

    Abstract in English:

    Because of the increase use of alkaloids in general medical practice in recent years, it is of interest to determine genotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic response to different groups of alkaloids in prokaryotic and eucaryotic organisms. Reserpine, boldine and chelerythrine did not show genotoxicity response in the SOS-Chromotest whereas skimmianine showed genotixicity in the presence of a metabolic activation mixture. Voacristine isolated fromthe leaves of Ervatamia coronaria shows in vivo cytostatic and mutagenic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae hapioids cells. The Rauwolfia alkaloid (reserpine) was not able to induce reverse mutation and recombinational mitotic events (crossing-over and gene conversion) in yeast diploid strain XS2316.
  • The resistance of seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus)

    Xavier Filho, J.

    Abstract in English:

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are heavily damaged during storage by the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Seeds of some Nigerian varieties showed a strong resistance to this bruchid. By utilizing biochemical and entomological techniques we were able to rule out the paticipation of proteolytic enzyme (trypsin, chimotrypsin, subtilisin and papain) inhibitors, lectins, and tannins in the resistance mechanisms. Fractionation of the seed meal of a resistant variety suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the effect is (are) concentrate in the globulin fraction.
  • Advances in pharmacological studies of silymarin

    Rui, Yao-Cheng

    Abstract in English:

    Silymarin is the flavonoids extracted from the seeds of Silybum marianum (L) Gearth as a mixture of three structural isomers: silybin, silydianin and silychristin, the former being the most active component. Silymarin protects liver cell membrane against hepatotoxic agents and improves liver function in experimental animals and humans. It is generally accepted that silymarin exerts a membrane-stabilizing action preventing or inhibiting membrane peroxidation. The experiments with soybean lipoxygenase showed that the three components of silymarin brought about a concentration-dependent non-competitive inhibition of the lipoxygenase. The experiments also showed an analogous interaction with animal lipoxygenase, thus showing that an inhibition of the peroxidation of the fatty acid in vivo was self-evident. Silybin almost completely suppressed the formation of PG at the highest concentration (0.3 mM) and proved to be an inhibitor of PG synthesis in vitro. In our experiments, silybin at lower dose (65 mg/Kg) decreased liver lipoperoxide content and microsomal lipoperoxidation to 84.5% and 68.55% of those of the scalded control rats respectively, and prevented the decrease of liver microsomal cytochrome p-450 content and p-nitroanisole-0-demethylase activity 24 h post-scalding. Effects of silymarin on cardiovascular systen have been studied in this university since 1980. O. O silymarin 800 mg/Kg/d or silybin 600 mg/Kg/d reduced plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C. They however, enhanced HDL-C in hyperlipenic rats. Further studies showed that silymarin enhanced HDL-C in hyperlipemic rats. Further studies showed that silymarin enhanced HDL-C but didn't affect HDL-C, a property of this component which is beneficial to treatment of atherosclerosis. The results showed silymarin 80 mg or silybin 60 mg decreased in vitro platelet aggregation (porcentagem) in rats. The maximal platelet aggregation induced by ADP declined significantly, and time to reach maximal platelet aggregation and five-minute disaggregation didn't change. In our experiments, iv silybin 22,4 mg/kg lowered the amplitude and duration of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) more than those of systolic (SBP), but the descending aortic blood flow, cardiac contractility and ECG did not change significantly in anesthetized open-chest cats. The results indicated a reduction of peripheral resistance and dilatatory action on the resistant blood vessels. These effects are beneficial to coronary heart disease. We also observed the effects of silybin on morphological change, the release of glutamic oxaloacetate aminotrasferase (GOT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the radioactivity of 3H-TdR incorporated into DNA in normal cardiac cells and cells infected by coxsackie B5, virus os newborn rats. The results showed that silynin did not affect the morphology of normal cell, and that the pathological change of cells infected by virus was delayed and reduced as compared to control. We have investigated the effect of silybin on synthesis and release of LTs in the cultured porcine cerebral basilar arteries (PCBA). Silybin 100 and 500 µmol/L declined the amounts of LTs released from the PCBA incubsated in the presence of A 23187, AA and indomenthacin. The result suggests that silybin can inhibit the activity of 5-lipoxygenase of cerebral blood vessel and may protect the brain from ischemia.
  • Toxicological study of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens: irritant action on skin and eye

    Freitas, J. C. B. R.; Presgrave, O. A. F.; Fingola, F. F.; Menezes, M. A. C.; Vasconcellos, M. C.; Schall, V. T.; Paumgartten, F. J. R.

    Abstract in English:

    Aqueous solutions of the molluscicidal latex of Euphorbia splendens are irritant to the rabbit eye in concentrations higher than 0.35% and to the rabbit skin in concentrations higher than 0.5%. Although this irritant potential does not proclude its use as a molluscicide, special precautions are recommended for hanbdling and application of the product and the hazard of skin tumor-promoting potencial should be carefully investigated before its use for schistosomiasis vector control.
  • Toxicological and toxicogenetic effects of plants used in popular medicine and in cattle food

    Ribeiro, Lúcia R.; Bautista, Ana Rita P. L.; Silva, Ana Rita; Sales, Liana A.; Salvadori, Daisy M. F.; Maia, Paulo C.

    Abstract in English:

    Toxicological and toxicogenetic effects of aqueous (tea) and hexanica fruit extract of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill, and hydroalcoholic root extract od Solanum agrarium Stendt. Were evaluated in Balb C male mice intraperitoneally exposed. A hepatotoxic effect was observed just for animals treated with aqueous fruit extract of I. suffruticosa. In relation to the toxicogenetic effect, just the group trreated with 12.5% of toxic dose of aqueous fruit extract of I. suffruticosa showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations (cytogenetic effect), although a slight increase was also observed for the highest dose (25% of LF50_ of hydroalcoholic root extract of S. agrarium. The results obtanied show that before S. agrarium is used as medicine and before the wide use of I. suffruticosa in cattle food, careful evaluation must be done.
  • Pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of Alpinia speciosa

    Mendonça, V. L. M.; Oliveira, C. L. A.; Craveiro, A. A.; Rao, V. S.; Fonteles, M. C.

    Abstract in English:

    Alpinia speciosa Schum or A. nutans is a plant of the Zingiberanceae family, Known popularly as "colony" (colônia) and used as a diuretic and to control hypertensión. We have determinated the concentration of Na+ and K+ found in the alcoholic extract and in the tea concoction. They contained 51.0mEq Na+, and 132 mEq K+ in the extract, and 0,0 mEq of Na+ and 26 mEq K+ in the tea. Phytochemical analysis of the leaves demonstrated the presence of catecquic tanins, phenols and alkaloids, and also some essential oils. When injected intra-peritoneally the hydroalcoholic extract, in range of 100 a 1400 mg/Kg, (or 2500-18000 mg/Kg orally) produced in mice: writhing, psychomorot excitation, hypokinesis and pruritus. The LD50 by ip was 0.760 + or - 0.126 g/Kg and 10.0 + or - 2.5 g/Kg by oral administration for the hydroalcoholic extract. Subacute toxicity made injecting daily for 30 days the LD10 in rats caused an increase in transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase, whereas other parameters such as nlood glucose, urea and creatinine were normal. A histopathological analysis of liver, spleen, gut, lung and heart showed no alterations. The drug also produced a prolongation of the sleeping time. The hydroalcoholic extract induced int he rat and in the dog a dose-dependent fall in blood pressure in doses of 10 to 30 mg/Kg. In isolated atria the extract induced a reduction of the frequnecy and in the inotropic responses. Neither the extract nor the tea had an effect on the diuresis of the rat.
  • Marine organisms: an alternative source of potentially valuable natural products

    Kelecom, Alphonse

    Abstract in English:

    This paper recalls the outcoming of marine natural products research and reviews a selection of marirne bioactive metabolites in current use together with promising trends in marine pharmacology.
  • Effects of azadirachtin in Rhodnius prolixus: data and hypotheses

    Garcia, E. S.; Gonzales, M. S.; Azambuja, P.

    Abstract in English:

    The effects of azadirachtin A, a tetranortriterpenoid from the neem tree Azadirachta indica J., on both development and interaction between Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, and its vector Rhodnius prolixus were studied. Given through a blood meal, a dose-rsponse relationship of azadirachtin was established using antifeedant effect and ecdysis inhibition as effective parameters. A singlo dose of azadirachtin A was able to block the onset of mitosis in the epidermis and ecdysteroid titers in the hemnolymph, determined by radioimmuneassay, were too low for an induction of ecadysis. The survival of T. cruzi was also studied in R. prolixus treated with the drug. If the trypomastigotes were fed in presence of azadirachtin A the number of parasites drastically decreased. If the drug was applied after infection of the bug with T. cruzi, the parasite was still abolished from the gut. If the insect was pretreated with azadirachtin A before infection the same observation was obtained. A single dose of azadirachtin A was enough for a permanent resistance of the insect host against its reinfection with T. cruzi and for blocking the ecdysis for a long time. The effects of azadirachtin A on the hormonal balance of the host and growth inhibition of the parasite will be discussed on the basis of the present results.
  • Effects of proallatotoxins (precocenes) on the development and reproduction of Rhodnius prolixus: some data

    Azambuja, Patricia de; Garcia, Eloi S.

    Abstract in English:

    Proallatotoxins, and particularly preconcenes, are exceptionally promising models for studying Rhodnius prolixus physiology and for comparison with other natural compounds with anti-hormonal activities. Effects of preconcenes on feeding, development and reproduction of R. prolixus are being detailed. The precocenes reveal significant effects on feeding, moulting cycle (inducing precocious metamorphosis and ecdysial stasis), and reproduction of these insect. The mechanism of action of proallatotoxins was discussed based on the corpus allatum cytotoxic effect and on the ecdysteroid biosynthesis in prothoracic glands and ovaries. Further studies of these compounds on R. prolixus are need and will hopefully reveal other unesplored points regarding the action of the proallatotoxins on insects.
  • Stereoselective total synthesis of some insect pheromones: (±)-serricornine and (±)-invictolide

    Pilli, R. A.; Murta, M. M.

    Abstract in English:

    An efficient (12 steps, 12% overallyield) and stereoselective total synthesis of (±)-serricornine (1) the sex pheromone of the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricornine F) is described. The preparation of intermediate 5, which encompasses the proper relative configuration of three contiguous chiral centers of (±)-invictolide, (3), is discussed.
  • Methodology in structural determination and synthesis of insect pheromone

    Lin, Guo-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Shan

    Abstract in Spanish:

    By means of ethereal washing of insect pheromone glands of female moths, GC-MS detection along with microchemical reactions and electroantennogram (EAG) survey, six economically important insect species were targeted for pheromone identification. The discovery of a natural pheromone inhibitor, chemo-selectivity and species isolation by pheromone will be described. The modified triple bond migration and triethylamine liganded vinyl cuprate were applied for achiral pheromone synthesis in double bond formation. Some optically active pheromones and their stereoisomers were synthesized through chiral pool or asymmetric synthesis. Some examples of chiral recognition of insects towards their chiral pheromones will be discussed. A CaH2 and silica gel catalyzed Sharpless Expoxidation Reaction was found in shortening the reaction time.
  • Enterolobin induces rat paw oedema independently of PAF-acether

    Castro Faria Neto, H. C.; Cordeiro, R. S. B.; Martins, M. A.; Correia da Silva, A. C. V.; Bozza, P. T.; Sousa, M. V.; Morhy, L.

    Abstract in English:

    The potential participation of PAF-acether (PAF) on the paw oedema triggered by enterolobin was investigated. Intraplantar injections of enterolobin )5-20 µg/paw) yielded a dose response curve for edema which appeared after 30 min, peaked in the interval between 2-4 h and faded after 24h. The pre-treatment with BN 52021, but not with other PAF antagonists such as PCA 4248 or WEB 2086, significantly blocked enterolobin-induced oedema. To clarify better the discrepant results obtained with the PAF antagonists, desensitization to PAF was performed. The oedema triggered by enterolobin was not modified in paf desensitized animals. It was concluded that the paw inflammation induced by enterolobin does not require PAF mechanism.
  • Quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of allylphenols with peripheral analgesic effect

    Oliveira, A. B de; Silva, T. H. A.; Ferreira, S. H.; Lorenzetti, B. B.

    Abstract in English:

    Ammonium salt derivatives of natural allylphenols were synthesized with the purpose of obtaining potential peripheral analgesics. These drugs, by virtue of their physicochemical properties, would not be able to cross the blood brain barrier. Their inability to enter into the central nervous system (CNS) should prevent several adverse effects observed with classical opiate analgesics (Ferreira et al., 1984). Eugenol (1) O-methyleugenol (5) and safrole (9) were submitted to nitration, reduction and permethylation, leading to the ammonium salts 4, 8 and 12. Another strategy applied to eugenol (1), consisting in its conversion to a glycidic ether (13), opening the epoxide ring with secondary amines and methylation, led to the ammonium salts 16 and 17. All these ammonium salts showed significant peripheral analgesic action, in modified version of the Randall-Sellito test (Ferreira et al. 1978), at non-lethal doses. The ammonium salt 8 showed an activity comparable to that of methylnalorphinium, the prototype of an ideal peripheral analgesic (Ferreira et al., 1984).
  • Inhibition of gastric secretion by a water extract from Baccharis triptera, Mart

    Gamberini, Maria T.; Skorupa, L. A.; Souccar, Caden; Lapa, Antonio J.

    Abstract in English:

    Baccharus triptera Mart, is a widespread Compositae used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal disturbances, rheumatic disease, mild fever, diabetes and as an anti-helminthic. Water extract of small branches of the plant (WE) administered to mice and rats (0.1 to 2 g/Kg, p.o) did not alter spontaneous motor activity, sleeping time induced by barbiturates or the tailflick response in mice. The extract decreased by 40 por cento the number of writhings induced by 0.8 por cento scetic acid, i.p., but did not influence paw edema induced by carrageenan or dextran in rats WE (2g/Kg, p.o.) decreased the intestinal transit of charcoal in mice by 20//. Gastric secretion in pylorus ligated rats was reduced after treatment with WE (1 and 2 g/Kg. i.p. or intraduodenal and the gastric pH was raised. The extract (1 g/Kg, p.o.) prevented gastric ulcers induced in rats by immobilization at 4ºC, but not those induced by indomethacin (10 mg/Kg, s.c.). The results indicate that WE may relieve gastrointestinal disorders by reducing acid secretion and gastrointestinal hiperactivity. Neither analgesic nor anti-inflammatory activities were detectable.
  • The water extract of Coleus barbatus Benth decreases gastric secretion in rats

    Fischman, Lygia A.; Skorupa, L. A.; Souccar, Caden; Lapa, A. J.

    Abstract in English:

    Coleus barbatus (Labiatae) Benth is popularly used in Brazil "for the healing of liver and stomach diseases". The water extract (WE 1 to 10 g/Kg, p.o.) of stem and leaves given to rats and mice did not induce signs of intoxication. Preveious treatment of mice with WE (1 g/kg, p.o.) shortened the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p.) by 37 por cento, althoyugh the extract alone did not increase the spontaneous activity nor did it induce hyperexcitability. In mice WE (2 g/Kg, p.o.) increased the intestinal transit of charcoal by 30 por cento, while reduced gastric secretions ion rats treated with WE (2g/Kg intraduodenal) 3,9 ± 1.0 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml/4h, respectively). The treatment also reduced the total acid secretion from 34.4 ± 11.0 to 2.7 ± 0.5 mEq/l and raisedgastric pH from 2.2 ± 0.3 to 6.5 ± 0.8. Treatment with WE (2g/Kg, p.o.) protected against gastric ulcers induced by stress (5.3 ± 1.6 and 1.5 ± 0.5 ulcers/cm²), but did nor protect against indonethacin induced ulcers. The results show that the water extract of C barbatus Benth produces mild stimulation of thecentral nervous system and increases intestinal movements. The extract also reduces gastric secretion indicating an antidyspeptic activity, and protects against gastric ulcers induced by stress.
  • Pharmacological screening of Ageratum conyzoides L. (mentrasto)

    Yamamoto, Lucia A.; Soldera, Janete C.; Emim, José A. S.; Godinho, Rosely O.; Souccar, Caden; Lapa, Antonio J.

    Abstract in English:

    The pharmacological activities of a water extract (WE) of Ageratum conyzoides L, a plant populary known for its analgesic and anti-inflamatory properties, were studied in vivo and in vitro preparations. Oral administration (p.o.) of the water extract (WE, 0.1 to 5 g/Kg) to rats and mice induced quietness and reduced the spontaneous motility. the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p.) in mice was not altered by previous treatment with We (2 g/Kg, p.o.). The same treatment did not influence the paw edema induced by carrageenan or dextran, nor did it reduce the chronic paw edema induced by complete Freund's adjuvant or formaldehyde in rats. The tail flick response in immersion test and writhings induced by 0.8%acetic acid in mice were not altered by WE either. In isolated guinea-pig ilea WE (0.4 to 4 mg/ml) did not alter the EC50 values of histamine or acetylcholine, but reduced the maximal response to the agonists by 20 to 50%. We (0.01 to 10 mg/ml) produced tonic contractions of the ileal smooth muscle proportional to the doses, reaching a maximum of 75% relatively to the maximum obtained with histamine. Those contractions were blocked by diphenhydramine (10 nM) and reduced by 32% in presence of atropine (10 nM). The results indicated that oral treatment of rodents with A. conyzoides L neither reduced the inflammatory edema nor did it decrease the reaction to pain stimuli. In vitro the extract presented an unexpected histamine-like activity characteristic of a partial agonist. The results did not confirm the popular medicinal indications of the plant.
  • Analgesic activity of a triterpene isolated from Scoparia dulcis L. (vassourinha)

    Freire, Sonia M. F.; Torres, Luce M. B.; Roque, Nidia F.; Souccar, Caden; Lapa, Antonio J.

    Abstract in English:

    Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of water (WE) and ethanolic (EE) extracts of Scoparia dulcis L. were investigated in rats and mice, and compared to the effects induced by Glutinol, a triterpene isolated by purification of EE. Oral adminsitration (p.o.) of either WE or EE (up to 2 g/Kg) did not alter the normal spontaneous activity of mice and rats. The sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p.) was prolonged by 2 fold in mice pretreated with 0.5 g/Kg EE, p.o. Neither extract altered the tail flick response of mice in immersion test, but previous administration of EE (0.5 g/Kg, p.o.) reduced writhings induced by 0.8% acetic acid (0.1 ml/10 g, i.p.) in mice by 47% EE (0.5 and 1 g/Kg, p.o.) inhibited the paw edema induced by carrageenan in rats by respectively 46% and 58% after 2 h, being ineffective on the paw edema induced by dextran. No significant analgesic or anti-edema effects were detected in animals pretreated with WE (1 g/Kg, p.o.). Administration of Glutinol (30 mg/Kg, p.o.) reduced writhing induced by acetic acid in mice by 40% and the carrageenan induced paw edema in rats by 73%. The results indicate that the analgesic activity of S dulcis L. may be explained by explained by an anti-inflammatory activity probably related to the triterpene Glutinol.
  • Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné) in animals

    Lima, Thereza C. M. de; Morato, Gina S.; Takahashi, Reinaldo N.

    Abstract in English:

    Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) is a bush widely distributed in South America including Brazil, where it is popularly known as "guiné", pipi", "tipi" or "erva-de-tipi". Brazilian folk medicine attributes to the hot water infusion of its roots or leaves the following pharmacologicalproperties: antipyretic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antirrheumatic, diuretic, analgesic and sedative. The present study has evaluated the alleged effects of P. alliacea on central nervous system (CNS), particularly, the sedative and analgesic properties of root crude aqueous extract of this plant in mice and rats. This extract showed an antinociceptive effect in acetic acid - acetylcholine - and hypertonic saline - induced abdominal constrictions, but not in hot-plate and tail flick tests P. alliacea did not produce any CNS depressor effect. Thus its antinociceptive action in animals can be responsible by its poplar use as an analgesic.
  • Immunomodulating Chinese herbal medicines

    Li, Xiao-Yu

    Abstract in English:

    Traditional Chinese medicine always pays close attention to the strengthening of the patient"s general resitence against illness, ther are many Chinese herbs used for thousands of years are considered as tonics. Animal experiments and modern clinica; trails have shown that quite a number herbs are immunologically active, and most of the tonics are excellent immunomodulating agents, such as polysaccharides or saponins isolated from Astragalus mongholicus, Acanthopanax senticosus and Panax notoginseng, which stimulated mactophages, promoted antibody formation, actived complement and increased T lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, some of them were proved to be anti-irradiative and protected animals from liver intoxications. On the other hand, some anti-inflammative or anti-pyretic hervs such as Tripterygium wilfordii, Aconitum and Artemiasiae species were proved to have immunosuppressive principles, some of them were now used clinically for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, chronic nephritis, systemic lupus erythematosis and various skin disorders. Pharmacological studies revealed that they have depressant effect on most of the humoral-immunity but not on the cell-mediated immunity. Some of them stimulated adrenal cortex functions and prolonged the survival time of transplanted allograft tissues.
  • The research on radioprotective agents in Chinese materia medica

    Wang, Bin-Ji

    Abstract in English:

    A series of studies has been carried out in the field of traditional medicine for searching radio-protective agents. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, may prescriptions were tested with experimental animals. Some of them could raise the survival rate of dogs irradiated with lethal dose of Pi-rays by 30-40%. Some symptoms of radiation sickness could be improved. More than one thousand kinds of Chinese herbs were screened. Some of them have pronounced radioprotectice activities. A series of bioactive components wee isolated from these herbs. The mechanism of radiation protection were studied. Having the capability of hemopoietic system and immune system may be the characteristics of these Chinese herbs.
  • Benzodiazepine receptor ligand influences on learning: an endogenous modulatory mechanism mediated by benzodiazepines possibly of alimentary origin

    Izquierdo, I.; Pereira, M. E.; Cunha, C. da; Wolfman, C.; Medina, J. H.

    Abstract in English:

    In rats pre-but not post-training ip administration of either flumazenil, a central benzodiazepine (BSD) receptor antagonist, or of n-butyl-B-carboline-carboxylate (BCCB), an inverse agonist, enhanced retention of inhibitory avoidance learning. Flumazenil vlocked the enhancing effect of BCCB, and the inhibitory effect of the BZD agonists clonazepam and diazepam also given pre-training. Post-training administration of these drugs had no effects. The peripheral BZD receptor agonist/chloride channel blocker Ro5-4864 had no effect on the inhibitory avoidance task when given ip prior to training, buth it caused enhancement when given immediately post-training either ip or icv. This effect was blocked by PK11195, a competitive antagonist of Ro5-4864. These results suggest that ther is an endogenous mechanism mediated by BZD agonists, which is sensitive to inverse agonists and that normally down-regulates the formation of memories through a mechanism involving GABA-A receptors and the corresponding chloride channels. The most likely agonists for the endogenous mechanism suggested are the diazepam-like BZDs found in brain whose origin is possibly alimentary. Levels of these BZDs in the cortex were found to sharply decrease after inhibitory acoidance training or mere exposure to the training apparatus.
  • Development of natural products as drugs acting on central nervous system

    Zhu, Xing-Zu

    Abstract in English:

    We have recenty studied several natural product constituents which have effects on the CNS. (1) Tetrahydropalmatine (THP) and its analogues were isolated from Corydalis ambigua and various species of Stephania. (+)-THP and (-)-THP posses not only analgesic activity, but also exert sedative-tranquillizing and hypnotic actions. Results of receptor binding assay and their pre-and post-synaptic effects on dopaminergic system indicate that (-)-THP and (-)-stepholidine are dopamine receptor antagonists while (+)-THP is a selective dopamine depletor. (2) 3-Acetylaconitine (AAC) is an alkaloid isolated from Aconitum flavum. The relative potency of analgesic action of AAC was 5.1-35.6 and 1250-3912 times that of morphine and aspirin, respectively. The analgesic effect of AAC was antagonized by naloxone, but was eliminated by reserpine. In monkeys, after AAC was injected for 92 days, no abstinence syndrome was seen after sudden AAC withdrawal or when challenged with nalorphine. (3) Huperzine A (Hup-A) is an alkaloid isolated from Huperzia serrata which was found to be a selective ChE inhibitor and could improve learning and retrieval process. Preliminary clinical studies showed that Hup-A improve short-and long-term memory in patients of cerebral arteriosclerosis with memory impairment. (4) Ranamargarin is a new tetradecapeptide isolated from the skin of the Chines frog Rana margaratae. This peptide may mainly act on NK-1 receptor.
  • Screening of the antimalarial activity of plants of the Cucurbitaceae family

    Amorim, Cláudia Zuany; Marques, Arthur Diaz; Cordeiro, Renato Sergio Balão

    Abstract in English:

    Crude ethanolic extracts (CEEs) from two species of Cucurbitaceae, Cucurbita maxima and Momordica charantia (commonly called "abóbora moranga" and melão de São Caetano", respectively) were assayed for antimalarial activity by the 4-d suppressive test. The CEE of dry C. maxima seeds showed strong antimalarial activity following oral administration (259 and 500 mg/kg), reducing by 50% the levels of parasistemia in Plasmodium berghey-infected mice. Treatment of normal animals with 500 mg/Kg of the extract three days before intravenous injection of P. berghei caused a significant 30% reduction in parasitemic levels. No effect was observed when the animals were treated with the CEE only on the day of inoculation. Oral administration of the CEE of dry M. charantia leaves adminstered orally was ineffective up to 500 mg/Kg in lowering the parasitemic levels of malarious mice.
  • Antimalarial chemotherapy with natural products and chemically defined molecules

    Carvalho, Luzia Helena; Krettli, Antoniana U.

    Abstract in English:

    In the present work we have described the in vivo antimalarial actrivity of six different plants. Two of them (Verninia brasiliana and Eupatorium squalidum) were tested in a randomic approach among 273 crude extracts from plants; four (Acanhospermum australe, Esenbeckia febrifuga, Lisianthus specious and Tachia guianensis) were selected after screening 22 crude extracts from different medicinal and some of them showed antimalarial activity in vitro. Some aspects of recent research with natural products aiming to produce drugs are discussed.
  • Activity of the artemether in experimental schistosomiasis mansoni

    Araújo, Neusa; Kohn, Anna; Katz, Naftale

    Abstract in English:

    The action of the ether artemisinin (artemether) on Shistosoma mansoni in mice and the hansters experimentally infected with the LE strain was studied. In mice, the drugs showed high schistosomicidal activity using a single intramuscular dose of 100 mg/Kg/day. By the oral route, this dose showed a low activity. Mice treated with a single intramuscular dose of 200 mg/Kg/day, and examined 15 days after treatment, presented 100% alteration of the oogram; when examined 45 days after treatment, the oogram was normal. With doses of 100 mg/Kg/day, i.m., during 3 or 5 consecutive days, the death rate of mice was very high. Morphologic analysis of the worms collected by perfusion of mice treated with a single dose of 100 mg/Kg/day, i.m., detected a marked decrease in the length of male and female forms, degenerative alterations in the parenchyma and in the reproductive system of the females, with reduction of vitellinic material and in ovary volume; the intestinal contents presented a marked despigmentation. In the male worms signifcant alteration was not apparent by optical microscopy.
  • Chemical and pharmacological investigation of Solanum species of Brazil: a search for solasodine and other potentially useful therapeutic agents

    Barbosa Filho, J. M.; Agra, M. F.; Oliveira, R. A. G.; Paulo, M. Q.; Trolin, G.; Cunha, E. V. L.; Ataide, J. R.; Bhattacharyya, J.

    Abstract in English:

    A systematic search for solasodine, an important staring material for the partial synthesis of steroidal hormones as well as other potentially bioactive constituents of various Solanum species of Brazil has been undertaken. Thus, the fruits of S. paludosum, S. asperum, S. sessiliforum and Solanum sp. were found to contain significant amounts of solasodine. The root bark of S. paludosum which showe durare like activity yelded tomatidenol and another yet unidentified alkaloid responsible for the biological activity. The fruits of S. asperum yelded a new spirosolane alkaloid, solaparnaine. The stem bark of S. pseudo-quina showed convulsive and exitatory activity from which (25S)-isosolafloridine was identified as the active principle. In addition, the latter alkaloid was also found to show antimicrobial activity.
  • Plants against snakebites

    Mors, Walter B.

    Abstract in English:

    Small molecular weight compounds from Mandevilla velutina and from Eclipta prostata were found to be active against snakebite.
  • Natural bradykinin antagonists

    Calixto, João B.; Yunes, Rosendo A.

    Abstract in English:

    Bradykinin (BK) a nonapeptide generated in plasma during tissue injury, is involved in many physiological and pathological states. Kinin actions are mediated by specific membrane receptors and involve a complex signal transducer and also second messager mechanisms. Due to its inequivocal relevance, an intensive effort has been focused in recent years to develop selective and competitive BK antagonists. Thus, the development of a new series of peptide BK antagonists has made an important contribution to the understanding of the pharmacological, physiological and pathophysiological role of BK, and this is certain to provide a firm basis for developing new drugs to relieve pain and inflammation. However, BK antagonists derived from peptide origin reported to date have limited clinical use due to their poor oral absortion and short duration of effect. Thus, considerable effort has also been made in developing stable nonpeptide BK antagonists. Up to now, most nonpeptide compounds reported to exhibit BK antagonistic activity have been derived from plants, including many flavonoids, terpenes, and also synthetic substances with various molecular structures. Amongst them, the pregnane glycoside compounds isolated from the plant Mandevilla velutina are the most promising. These compounds are effective in antognizing BK responses in a variety of preparations, and they also exhibit potent and long-lasting analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The exact mechanism underlying their action however, is not yet completely understood.
  • Pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as anti-snake venom: I. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    Ruppelt, Bettina M.; Pereira, Edna F. R.; Gonçalves, Lilia C.; Pereira, Nuno A.

    Abstract in English:

    We have observed that several plants used popularly as anti-snake venom show anti-inflammatory activity. From the list prepared by Rizzini, Mors and Pereira some species have been selected and tested for analgesic activity (number of contortions) and anti-inflammatory activity (Evans blue dye diffusion - 1% solution) according to Whittle's technique (intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 N-acetic acid 0.1 ml/10 g) in mice. Previous oral administration of a 10% infusion (dry plant) or 20% (fresh plant) corresponding to 1 or 2 g/Kg of Apuleia leiocarpa, Casearia sylvestris, Brunfelsia uniflora, Chiococca brachiata, Cynara scolymus, Dorstenia brasiliensis, Elephantopus scaber, Marsypianthes chamaedrys, Mikania glomerata and Trianosperma tayuya demonstrated analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activities of varied intensity
  • Proteinase inhibitors in Brazilian leguminosae

    Sampaio, C. A. M.; Oliva, M. L. V.; Tanaka, A. S.; Sampaio, M. U.

    Abstract in English:

    Serine proteinase inhitors, in the seeds of several Leguminosae from the Pantanal region (West Brazil), were studied using bovine trypsin, a digestive enzyme, Factor XIIa and human plasma Kallikrein, two blood clotting factors. The inhibitors were purified from Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Mr=23,000), Torresea cearensis (Mr = 13,000), Bauhinia pentandra (Mr = 20,000) and Bauhinia bauhinioides (Mr = 20,000). E. contortisiliquum inhibitor inactivates all three enzymes, whereas the T. cearensis inhibitor inactivates trypsin and Factor XSSa, but does nor affect plasma kallikrein; both Bauhinia inhibitors, on the other hand, inactivate trypsin and plasma kallikrein but only the Bpentandra inhibitor affects Factor XIIa. Ki values were calculated between 10 [raised to the power of] -7 and 10 [raised to the power of] -8 M.
  • Plant lectins, chemical and biological aspects

    Moreira, Renato de Azevedo; Ainouz, Iracema Lima; Oliveira, José Tadeu Abreu de; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    Abstract in English:

    Lectins, carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-immune origin, that agglutinate cells or precipitate polysaccharides and glycoconjugates, are well distributed in nature, mainly in the Plant Kingdom. The great majority of the plante lectins are present in seed cotyledons where they are found in the cytoplasm or int he protein bodies, although they have also been found in roots, stems and leaves. Due to their peculiar properties, the lectins are used as a tool both for analytical and preparative purposes in biochemistry, cellular biology, immunology and related areas. In agriculture and medicine the use of lectins greatly improved in the last few years. The lextins, with few exceptions, are glycoproteins, need divalent cations to display full activity and are, in general, oligomers with variable molecular weight. Although the studies on lectins have completed a century, their role in nature is yet ynknown . Several hypotheses on their physiological functions have been suggested. Thus, lectins could play important roles in defense against pathogens, plant-microorganism symbiosis, cell organization, embryo morphogenesis, phagocytosis, cell wall elongation, pollen recognition and as reserve proteins. A brief review on the general properties and roles of the lectins is given.
  • Some progress on the chemistry of natural bioactive terpenoids form Chinese medicinal plants

    Zhou, Bing-Nan

    Abstract in English:

    (1) Pseudolaric acids - Novel diterpenes, Pseudolaric acid A, B, C and D were isolated from Pseudolarix kaempferi Gorden (pinaceae). Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic data and chemical correlations. In the contineous studies, the absolute configurations, the conformations in the solutions, the framentation mechanisms of MS and assigments of all NMR spectral signals were also reported. They showed the antifungal and cytotoxic activities. (2) Daphnane diterpenes - In the further studies on the plants of Thymelaeaceae, besides 10 known diterpenes, 16 new daphnane diterpenes were isolated from Daphne genkwa, D. tangutica, D. giraldii, Wikstroemie chamaedaphne. They showed the antifertilities activities. (3) Tripterygium diterpenes 14 new diterpenes were isolated from Triperygium wilfordii, T. regeli and T. hypoglaucum. Some of them showed the antitumor activities. The CD spectra showed that A/B ring of all compoundshave trans configuration as same as tripdiolide and triptolide determined by X-ray diffraction (4) Pregnane glycosides from Marsdenia koi - Two new pregnane glycosides marsdenikoiside A and marsdenikoiside B which can terminate the early pregnancy were isolated from Marsdeia koi. Their structures were elucidated by hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods.
  • Sesquiterpene lactones from Vernonia

    Lopes, João Luis Callegari

    Abstract in English:

    Some informations about the sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Brazilian species of Vernonia are described, as well the results of tests developed with such compounds with respect to their anti-feedant, molluscicide, antimicrobial and analgesic properties.
  • Bioactive glycosides from Chinese medicines

    Zhou, Jun

    Abstract in English:

    Glycosides are the bioactive components of many famous Chinese medicines. Here reported are some bioactive glycosides we discovered from Chinese medicines in recent years. (1) Pheolic glycosides from Chinese medicines: Gastrodia elata, acontium austroynanense and Helicia erratica, three bioactive phenolic glycosides were discovered and two of them have been developed into new drugs. (2) Terpenoidal glycosides: a) Monoterpenoid: the sweroside from Swertia mollensis has been developed intro an anti-hepatitis drug; b) Diterpenoid: Phlomis betonicoides contains sweet glycoides; c) Triterpenoid: many biologically active triterpenoid glycosides were isolated from Panax plants and Siraitia grosvenorii. (3) Steroidal glycosides: a) C21-steroid: Cynanchum otophyllum and C. atratrum contain anti-epilepsy and-tumor glycosides; b) C27-steroid Hemostatic saponins were found in Paris polyphylla.
  • Cardiac glycosides isolated from the Indian-snuff, Maquira sclerophylla Ducke

    Carvalho, João Ernesto de; Torres, Luce Maria Brandão; Lapa, Antonio José

    Abstract in English:

    The hydroalcoholic extract of the powdered bark of the Indian-snuff Maquira sclerophylla Ducke was purified by column chromatography in silica-gel and the major cardenolide isolated from preparative TLC was identified by 1H-NMR, 1 2 C-NMR and IR analyses. The spectra showed that the active substance has strophanthidin as aglicone.
  • Evaluation of acute administration of natural products with potential diuretic effects, in humans

    Laranja, Sandra M. R.; Bergamaschi, Cassia M.; Schor, Nestor

    Abstract in English:

    In order to evaluate the potential diuretic effect of two natural products, Elephantopus scaber and Alpinia speciosa, a trial administration was carried out in ten healthy volunteers and the effects compared to the those of a placebo. The substances were given on different days, with a seven day interval between doses. The amount of substance administered to the subjects was five times the usual dose i.e. 7.5 g/100 ml and 0.8 g/100 ml respectively. The following parameters parameteres were measured: urinary and plasma sodium, potassium, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, urea, creatinine. The subjects were also examined clinically and total urinary volume was assessed. The only significant finding (p < 0.05) was a slight diuresis with Alpinia speciosa, which also lowered the diastolic (p < 0.05) and systolic (p < 0.01) blood pressures. No effect on electrolytes or renal function parameters was observed, and this probably excludes any renal tubular or glomerular effect from these substances.
  • The effectiveness of tipi in the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis: a preliminary report

    Ferraz, Marcos Bosi; Pereira, Ronaldo Borges; Andrade, Luis Eduardo Coelho; Atra, Edgard

    Abstract in English:

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common painful inflammatory condition occurring mainly in the later half of life. Hipe and knee are the joints mostly affected. Petiveria alliacea (tipi) popularly known as an anti-rheumatic medicine, has been used by OA patients to relief pain. This one-week cross-over double-blind trial has preliminary evaluated the analgesic effect of tipi tea in 14 patients with hip and knee OA. Imperata exaltata (sape) was used as the Placebo tea. The pain assessments that were made at baseline and before the start of the second treatment period by treatment groups were comparable. While taking tipi or placebo tea patients experienced a statistically significant improvement in pain on motion and pain at night. The comparison between the improvements reported while on tipi and placebo tea, however, did not disclose any statistically significant difference. At the conclusion of the study 7 patients preferred tipi tea and 6 preferred placebo tea (NS). Two patients reported insomnia, one durign placebo treatment and the other during tipi treatment. In this preliminary report both teas succeeded in the aim of relieving pain.
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