Abstract in English:The eggs of Muscina stabulans and Synthesiomyia nudiseta are morphologically described, based on scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Abstract in English:Reproductive performance including mating, semen transfer, egg production and hatching rate were investigated in pairs of Panstrongylus megistus in wich the male was treated with either precocene II or ethoxyprecocene II, topically applied shortly after imaginal molt. Eighty percent of the males were not able to mate for a period as long as 40 days after treatment. Those males wich did mate (20%) produced small spermatophores; a few (10%) were unable to transfer spermatozoa to female, while the others (10%) exhibited reproductive performance similar to that of non-treated males. The cumulative effects of the precocene on the different stages of reproduction resulted in a drastic reduction of offspring production. The anti-allatal compound precocene seems to inhibit successful reproduction through a corpus allatum inactivation and subsequent lack of secretory activity of the male accessory glands.
Abstract in English:Different blood consumption speed was observed in Triatoma infestans - nymphs and adults - exposed to 12 degrees C and 28 degrees C. Exposure to optimal temperature (28 degrees C) allows the insects to consume blood at a rate of 9% per day. Significative relationship between blood amount present in the promesenteron and consumed blood was found at 28 degrees. Consumption of blood was drastically reduced at the lowest temperature. Accordingly, lack of ovaric development, oviposition and mating behaviour was observed in insects kept at 12 degrees C. Relationship between laboratory and field observations are discussed.
Abstract in English:The molecular karyotypes for 20 reference strais of species complexes of Leishmania were determined by contour-clamped homogeneous eletric field (CHEF) electrosphoresis. Determination of number/position of chromosome-sized bands and chromosomal DNA locations of house-keeping genes were the two criteria used for differentiating and classifying the Leishmania species. We have established two gel running conditions of optimal separation of chromosomes, wich resolved DNA molecules as large as 2,500 kilobase pairs (kb). Chromosomes were polymorphic in number (22-30) and size (200-2,500 kb) of bands among members of five complexes of Leishmania. Although each stock had a distinct karyotype, in general the differences found between strains and/or species within each complex were not clear enough for parasite identification. However, each group showed a specific number of size-concordant DNA molecules, wich allowed distinction among the Leishmania complex parasites. Clear differences between the Old and New world groups of parasites or among some New World Leishmania species were also apparent in relation to the chromosome locations of beta-tubulin genes. Based on these results as well as data from other published studies the potencial of using DNA karyotype for identifying and classifying leishmanial field isolates is discussed.
Abstract in English:The authors report a case of culture-proven disseminated American muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania brasiliensis brasiliensis in an HIV positive patient. Lesions began in the oropharynx and nasal mucosa eventually spreading to much of the skin surface. The response to a short course of glucantime therapy was good.
Abstract in English:Peritoneal macrophage activation as measured by H2O2 release and histopathology was compared between Swiss mice and Calomys callosus, a wild rodent, reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi, during the course of infection with four strains of this parasite. In mice F and Y strain infections result in high parasitemia and mortality while with silvatic strains Costalimai and M226 parasitemia is sub-patent, with very low mortality. H2O2 release peaked at 33,6 and 59 nM/2 x 10(elevado a sexta potência) cells for strains Y and F, respectively, 48 and 50 nM/2 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência) for strains Costalimai and M226, at different days after infection. Histopathological findings of myositis, myocarditis, necrotizing artheritis and abscence of macrophage parasitism were foud for strains F and Costalimai. Y strain infection presented moderate myocarditis and myositis, with parasites multiplying within macrophages. In C. callosus all four strains resulted in patent parasitemia wich was eventually overcome, with scarce mortality. H2O2 release for strains Y or F was comparable to that of mice-peaks of 27 and 53 nM/2 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência) cells, with lower values for strains Costalimai and M226 - 16.5 and 4.6 nM/2 x 10(elevado a sexta potência)cells, respectively. Histopathological lesions with Y and F strain injected animals were comparable to those of mice at the onset of infections; they subsided completely at the later stages with Y strain and partially with F strain infected C. callosus. In Costalimai infected C. callosus practically no histopathological alterations were observed.
Abstract in English:Limiting dilution analysis was used to quantify Trypanosoma cruzi in the lymph nodes, liver and heart of Swiss and C57 B1/10 mice. The results showed that, in Swiss and B1/10 mice infected with T. cruzi Y strain, the number of parasites/mg of tissue increased during the course of the infection in both types of mice, although a grater number of parasites were observed in heart tissue from Swiss mice than from B1/10. With regard to liver tissue, it was observed that the parasite load in the initial phase of infection was higher than in heart. In experiments using T. cruzi Colombian strain, the parasite load in the heart of Swiss and B1/10 mice increased relatively slowly, although high levels of parasitization were nonetheless observable by the end of the infection. As for the liver and lymph nodes, the concentration of parasites was lower over the entire course of infection than in heart. Both strains thus maintained their characteristic tissue tropisms. The limiting dilution assay (LDA) proved to be an appropriate method for more precise quantification of T. cruzi, comparing favorably with other direct microscopic methods that only give approximate scores.
Abstract in English:Metatrypomastigotes of Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920, harvested from LIT medium, were inoculated i.p. or s.c. into 6, 16, and 26g NMRI mice, these representing increasing degrees of immunological maturity. In all cases, similar pleomorphic patterns were observed. Four morphobiometrically differentiable types of trypanosome were encountered in an overlapping temporal sequence. These observations, taken in comparison with those on pleomorphism in this and other species of Trypanosoma by other workers, are consistent with the hypothesis that the pleomorphic types represent the natural development of the parasite, rather than the result of the immune response of the mammal host. Small, slender trypanosomes prevalent at the onset of the parasitemia either reinvade the tissue cells for relatively limited subsequent generations of tissue reproduction, or else differentiate toward the forms that are only capable of colonizing the insect vector.
Abstract in English:A study od Typanosomatidae GC distribution and codon usage is presented. The codon usage patterns in coincidence with the phylogenetical data are similar in Crithidia and Leishmania, whereas they are more divergent in Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi. The analyisis of the GC mutational pressure in these organisms reveals that T. brucei, and to a lesser extent T. cruzi, have envolved towards a more balanced use of all bases, whereas Leishmania and Crithidia retain features of a primeval genetic apparatus. Tables with approximated GC mutational pressure in homologous genes, and codon usage in Trypanosomatidae are presented.
Abstract in English:Reports of natural infections of sylvatic carnivores by adult worms of species similar to Lagochilascaris minor in the Neotropical region led to attempts to estabilish experimental cycles in laboratory mice and in cats. Also, larval development was seen in the skeletal muscle of an agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) infected per os with incubated eggs of the parasite obtained from a human case. In cats, adult worms develop and fertile eggs are expelled in the feces: in mice, larval stages of the parasite develop, and are encapsulate in the skeletal muscle, and in the adipose and subcutaneous connective tissue. From our observations, we conclude that the larva infective for the mouse is the early 3rd stage, while for the final host the infective form is the later 3rd stage. A single moult was seen in the mouse, giving rise to a small population of 4th stage larvae, long after the initial infection.
Abstract in English:Pterigodermatites (P.) spinicaudatis sp.n. from Dromiciops australis is proposed and described. The simple morphology of the ovijector and the presence of a well developed spine between the two cuticular projections at the caudal extremity of the female distinguish the studied nematode from the remainder species of the genus parasitizing South American Edentata, marsupials and cricetid rodents. The distribution area of the hosts of the different species of P. (P.) are given. The studied genus does not parasitize any Australian marsupials. It was found in the endemic South American Microbiotheriidae. This fact suggests from a parasitological point of view that D. australis is not related to the Australian marsupials but to the South American ones.
Abstract in English:The life cycle of Ascocotyle (Leighia) hadra n.sp. was experimentally reproduced, starting from cercariae from naturally infected Littoridina parchappei, collected from Los Ranchos stream, near Mercedes city, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Metacercariae were found encysted in the liver and mesentery of experimentally and naturally infected fishes Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and Jenynsia lineata. Adults were obtained experimentally in chicks and mice. The natural host is unknown. The new species is compared with Ascocotyle (Leighia) mcintoshi Price 1936 as described by Leigh, 1974, differing in behavior and morphology of cercarial, metacercarial and adult stages
Abstract in English:Biomphalaria prona from Lake Valencia, Venezuela (type locality) has a polymorphic shell wich in the great majority of specimens is wider, with fewer rapidly expanding whorls, the outer one subcarinate on the left side and more or less strongly deflected leftward. Besides those modal forms there are little frequent variants characterized by narrower shell with less rapidly expanding, regularly curved whorls directed forward. Recent studies have shown that such variants constitute the predominant shell phenotype in extralacustrine populations, but are anatomically and biochemically indistinguishable from the modal class of the Lake. In the present paper it is demonstrated that the nominal species Planorbis meridaensis Preston, 1907, from Mérida, Venezuela, is identical with B. prona (Martens, 1873) of wich it must be considered a junior synonym.
Abstract in English:The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hispolii in 12 ppm concentration (12 mg/l) caused 100% mortality for a Biomphalaria tenagophila population in a lotic habitat after 9 hr of dripfeed application. For sentinel snails, in cages placed at the water surface and buried under 0.10 m, the mortality rates varied with the distance from the application point and were: 100% (0 m); 92.6% (50 m) and 94.7% (100). No lethal effects were observed for the other living species in this habitat (Pomacea haustrum and Poecilia reticulata).
Abstract in English:A cross-sectional study for schistosomiasis was carried out in the localities of Aliança, Alegre and Coroatá (districts of Cururupu, São Bento and São João Batista, respectively) in the lowland of the state of Maranhão, after respectively 13, 11 and 4 mass treatments with oxamniquine in the period of ten years (1977-1987). The study included clinical and quantitative fecal examination, skin test for Shistosoma mansoni infection, evaluation of man-water contact of the total population (829 persons) in the three localities and other epidemiological investigations such as infection rate and dynamics of the snail population. After 13 mass treatments in Aliança, the prevalence of S. mansoni infection was reduced from 57.9% to 7.4%. In Coroatá with 11 mass treatments the prevalence fell from 69.2% to 12.8% and in Alegre, with only 4 mass treatments there was pratically no reduction in prevalence: 22.9% to 21%. After mass treatments the type II hepatointestinal clinical form was 10.8% in Aliança, 17.9% in Alegre and 18% in Coroatá. The hepatosplenic (type III) form was not seen in Aliança and Coroatá but unexplanably it was 7.6% in Alegre. There was no correlation between the egg load elimination and the clinical forms.
Abstract in English:During the 1981 dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) Cuban epidemic, bronchial asthma (BA) was frequently found as a personal or family antecedent in dengue hemorragic fever patients. Considering that antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) plays an important role in the etiopathogenic mechanism of DHF/DSS, we decide to study the Dengue 2 virus (D2V) capability of replication in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from asthmatic patients and healthy persons. In 90% of asthmatic patients and 53.8% of control group it was obtained PBL with a significant D2V enhancing activity (X² p < 0.01). Power enhancement was higher in asthmatic group. This is the first in vitro study relating BA and the dengue 2 virus immuno enhancement. The results obtained support the role of BA as a risk factor for DHF/DSS as already described on epidemiological data.
Abstract in English:Mosquito cell cultures infected with human sera from dengue-1 and dengue-2 outbreaks, started in Rio de Janeiro by 1986 and 1990 respectively, were examined by electron microscopy at different times post the infection of cell cultures. More information was obtained about cell penetration of virus particles in the presence or not of antibodies, their pathway inside the cells, replication mode and exit. Infectiveness of the virus at those different stages can only be attributed to the particles appearing inside the trans-Golgi vesicles; most of all newly formed virus particles remain inside the RER-derived cell vesicles or inside lysosomes, even during cell lysis. Groups of larges particles, 65-75 nm in diameter at dengue-2 infections, persist during cell passage. The large amounts of smooth membrane structures, as vesicles or tabules inside the RER are attributed to a cell response to viral infection.
Abstract in English:The few studies already published about phagocyte functions in Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) has stated that neutrophils present slow rate of bacterial killing but normally ingest microorganisms. In the present study, both phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus were verified to be in neutrophils from two patients with CHS when these functions were simultaneously evaluated by a fluorochrome phagocytosis assay. Electron microscopic examination showed morphologic differences among neutophils from CHS patients and normal neutrophils regarding the cytoplasmic structures and the aspects of the phagolysosomes. It was noteworthy the presence of giant phagolysosomes enclosing bacteria in active proliferation commonly observed in CHS neutrophils after 45 min of phagocytosis, wich corresponded with the impaired bactericidal activity of these leukocytes. The present results suggest that phagocytosis may also be defective in CHS, and point out to the sensitivity of the fluorochrome phagocytosis assay and its application in clinical laboratories.
Abstract in English:Passage of malaria infected blood through a two-layered column composed of acid-washed glass beads and CF 11 cellulose removes white cells from parasitized blood. However, because use of glass beads and CF 11 cellulose requires filtration of infected blood separately through these two resins and the addition of ADP, the procedure is time-consuming and may be inapropriate for use in the field, especially when large numbers of blood samples are to be treated. Our modification of this process yields parasitized cells free of contaminating leukocytes, and because of its operational simplicity, large numbers of blood samples can be processed. Our procedure also compares well with those using expensive commercial Sepacell resins in its ability to separate leukocytes from whole blood. As a test of usefulness in molecular biologic investigations, the parasites obtained from the blood of malaria-infected patients using the modified procedure yield genomic DNA whose single copy gene, the circumsporozite gene, efficiently amplifies by polymerase chain reaction.