Abstract in English:A review of epidemiological aspects of endemic areas for schistosomiasis, especially in Brazil, will be presented. These studies, performed by several authors from different states of the country, have been very useful in indicating the relative efficacy of control measures. For example quoting only one aspect, specific treatment was demonstrated by Brazilian researches to be the most important individual tool for morbidity control. More recently the study of risk factors in endemic areas has been seen to be a very important approach when transmission control is the final goal.
Abstract in English:The passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies, direct vaccination and in vitro assays have all shown that antigens associated with the tegumental membranes of Schistosoma mansoni are capable of mediating protective immune responses against the parasite in animal models. Furthermore, the principal antigens are highly antigenic during natural infection in man and stimulate strong humoral and cellular responses although, at present, their role in mediating protective immune responses in man remains equivocal. This presentation will review the current state of knowledge of the structure and expression of the major antigenic tegumental proteins of the schistosome and will attempt to relate the relevance of their structural features to possible function both in terms of protective immunity and parasite's ability to survive within the definitive host. A focus will be recent advances that have been made in the identification of means of anchoring of the antigenic proteins to the tegumental membrane. In addition, the implications of the structural complexity of the tegumental proteins in terms of their possible utility in vaccination and diagnosis will be considered.
Abstract in English:In this review the authors analyze the effector and regulatory mechanisms in the immune response to schistosomiasis. To study these mechanisms two animal models were used, mouse and rat. The mouse totaly permissive host like human, show prominent-T cell control in the acquisition of resistance. But other mechanisms like antibody mediated cytotoxity (ADCC) involving eosinophils and IgG antibodies described in humans, are observed in rats. Also in this animal, it is observed specific IgE antibody high production and blood and tisssue eosinophilia. Using the rat model and schistosomula as target, some ADCC features have emerged: the cellular population involved are bone marrow derived inflammatory cell (mononuclear phagocytes, eosinophils and platelets), interacting with IgE through IgE Fc receptors. Immunization has been attempted using the recombinant protein Sm28/GST. Protection has been observed in rodents with significant decrease of parasite fecundity and egg viability affecting the number, size and volume of liver egg granulomas. The association of praziquantel and immunization with with Sm28/GST increases the resistance to infection and decreases egg viability. The authors suggest the possibility of the stablishment of a future vaccine against Schistosoma mansoni.
Abstract in English:Facilitated and improved by advances in molecular biology, techniques for the immunodiagnosis of schistosomiasis, including assays based on the detection of antigens circulating in the serum and/or excreted in the urine, have now reached the stage of multi-centre trials. There is a need to complement parasitological techniques as some national programmes are becoming increasingly succesful in establishng control of the disease and the classical approach frequently fails to reveal low-intensity infection. Epidemiological survey teams in some areas have tentatively started to use serology and their experience indicates that antibody detection suffies in eradicated or controlled areas with low expected prevalence but that detection of circulating antigens is needed for assessment of the incidence of infection or reinfection in areas recently brought under control. Before reagents and procedures can be recommended for routine use of national control programmes, the assays must be standardized with sera from clinically well-characterized patients in geographically defined regions, hence emphasizing the need for a reference serum bank. Implementation of serological testing, carried out by nationsl public health laboratories using standardized testing systems, would permit valid comparisons between different areas providing support for decisions regarding national health polices.
Abstract in English:The frequency of hepatosplenomegaly in endemic areas is not proportional to the fecal ova count. This may be explained by epidemiological genetic. The occurrence of two or more cases of schistosomal hepatosplenomegaly in nuclear family is much higher than expected. The concentration is higher among siblings than it is among mothers and children of further and children. It is not significant between father and mother. If the mother, instead of the father has hepatosplenic schistosomiasis the relative risk for the child to acquire hepatosplenomegaly is at least five times (the maternal affect). The inbreeding is highler in the hepatosplenic than in the hepatointestinal patients. In some areas in Brazil the hepatosplenic form of the schistosomiasis mansoni occurs with much higher frequency in whites than in blacks. After treatment, reversion of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis occurs more frequently in non-whithers. It seems that the resistance of blacks to the hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis may be related to the glyoxalase system , perhaps associated to another genetic marker. The hepatosplenic schistosomiasis is less frequent in longilineal individuals. In some areas the hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis is more frequent in A blood group of ABO sistem. The family heredograms do not suggest a single mendelian inheritance, but probably a multifactorial and possibility poligenic one.
Abstract in English:I have been employed by several different organizations during over 30 years working on schistosomiasis, the majority spent in endemic areas of Caribean, South America, Africa and the Western Pacific. Much of the work is best classified as applied research but sometimes it strayed to the extremes of either public health control programmes or pure research. Over this period, there have been several significant research developments that have altered our whole approach to control. Ideally, research and control should complement each other but, in reality, they sometimes have conflicting objectives. Public health workers understandably wish to provide immediate, shot-term protection to the communities in their care, but research workers may, within ethical limits, reasonably want to observe untreated communities for extended periods in order to understand the underluing process of transmission, disease pathogenesis and immunity to help develop more effective control measures. An example of this situation has occured recently in Senegal where water development projects seem to have favoured the introduction and spreed of Schistosoma mansoni in the Senegal River Basin. I have been asked to be the scientific consultant to the newly formed ESPOIR programme, linking European research organizations and the Senegal Ministry of Health, to reconcile the conflictiong aims of public health workers, wishing to use whatever funds can be obtained for an immediate chemotherapy to try to eliminate the focus, at present confined to the vicinity of a relatively small, commercially run sugar irrigation scheme; and research workers who see a rare chance to study the development of immune mechanisms in a adults in a community not previously exposed to the infection. This information could prove invaluable in understanding the development of immunity and the pathogenesis of disease, leading eventually to the development of vaccines to revolutionise the future approach to schistosomiasis...
Abstract in English:Previous evidences reported by us and by other authors revealed the presence of IgG in sera of Schistosoma mansoni-infected patients to immunodominant antigens which are enzymes. Besides their immunological interest as possible inductors of protection, several of these enzume antigens might be also intersting markers of infection in antibody-detecting immunocapture assays which use the intrinsic catalytic property of these antigens. It was thus thought important to define some enzymatic and immunological characteristics of these molecules to better exploit their use as antigens. Four different enzymes from adult worms were partially characterized in their biochemical properties and susceptibility to react with antibodies of infected patients, namely alkaline phosphatase (AKP, Mg*+, pH 9.5), type I phosphodiesterase (PDE, pH 9.5), cysteine proteinase (CP, dithiothreitol, pH 5.5) and N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, pH 5.5). The AKP and PDE are distinct tegumental membrane-bound enzymes whereas CP and NAG are soluble acid enzymes. Antibodies in infected human sera differed in their capacity to react with and to inhibit these enzyme antigens. Possibly, the specificity of the antibodies related to the extent of homology between the parasite and the host enzyme might be in part responsible for the above differences. The results are also discussed in view of the possible functional importance of these enzymes.
Abstract in English:Protein extracts obtained from male and female shistosomes were incubated with a gender-specific gene, F-10, transcribed only in adult females and encoding a major egg-shell protein. The protein/DNA interaction was measured using the band shift, DNase-I-footprinting and UV cross-linking techniques. The results showed a clear band shift when a 302 bp restriction fragment containing the 3'end of the gene was incubated with either female or male proteins. This fragment also contained a putative steroid hormone regulatory element (HRE). In contrast, only the male proteins produced a shift with the 495 bp fragment corresponding to the middle region of the gene. DNase I footprinting showed that proteins from males and females interacted with the F-10 gene by binding to multiple adjacent sites along the DNA, thus generatingrelatively long protected fragments of approximately 100 bp. This result suggested that the adjacent binding of several moles of proteins occured at the 5'end of the gene. UV cross-linking between schistosome proteins and a 21 bp synthetic oligonucleotide the F-10 HRE, evidence proteins having MWS of 30,45 and 65 kDNA. These proteins are presumably involved in the regulation of transcription of the F-10 gene.
Abstract in English:We have studied the gene expression, especially of the oncoproteins, and its regulation in schistosomes. Schistosomes have a complex life cycle with defined dimorphic lifestyle. The parasite are so far unique in biology in expressing oncogene products in their adult stage. In order to characterize the expression and developmental regulation, a lambda gt 11 cDNA library and lambda EMBL4 genomic DNA library of each growth stage of Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum was constructed, and was screened with various monoclonal antibodies against ongogene products. One positive plaque reacted to anti-p53 antibody (Ab-2, Oncogene Science, Inc.) was further analyzed. This fusion protein was about 120 KDa in molecular weights, and expressed as 1.4 Kb RNA in the adult stage. P53 gene is well-known as the negative regulator of the cell cicle, and the mutations in the gene are turning out to be the most common genetic alterations in human cancers. The comparison of the gene structure among species and stages were being conducted. Chromosome structures, C-band formation, and the results of in situ hybridization using the phage probe would be discussed.
Abstract in English:The induction of granuloma formation by soluble egg antigens (SEA) of Schistosoma mansoni is accompanied by T cell-mediated lymphokine production that regulates the intensity of the response. In the present study we have examined the ability of SDS-PAGE fractioned SEA proteins to elicit granulomas and lymphokine production in infected and egg-immunized mice. At the acute stage of infection SEA fractions (<21, 25-30, 32-38, 60-66, 70-90, 93-125, and > 200 kD) that elicited pulmonary granulomas also elicited IL-2, IL-4 lymphokine production. At the chronic stage a diminished number of fractions (60-66, 70-90, 93-125, and > 200 kD) were able to elicit granulomas with an overall decrease in IL-2, IL-4 production. Granulomas were elicited by larval-egg crossreactive and egg-specific fractions at both the acute and chronic stage of the infection. Examination of lymphokine production from egg-immunized mice demonstrated that as early as 4 days IL-2 was produced by spleen cells stimulated with <21, 32-38, 40-46, 93-125, and >200 kD fractions. By 16 days, IL-2production was envoked by 8 of 9 fractions. IL-4 production at 4 days in response to all fractions was minimal while at 16 days IL-4 was elicited with the < 21, 25-30, 50-56, 93-125, and > 200 kD fractions. The present study reveals differences in the range of SEA fractions able to elicit granulomas and IL-2, IL-4 production between acute and chronic stages of infection. Additionally, this study demonstrates sequential (IL-2 followed by IL-4) lymphokine production during the primary egg antigen response.
Abstract in English:Cytokines are important in the cell-mediated response to Schistosoma mansoni eggs. We have found that Th2 cytokine responses (e.G. IL-4 and IL-5) are argumented after egg laying begins while the response (IL-2 and IFN-*) are down regulated in S. mansoni infected mice. Treatment of mice with anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibodies (Mab) suppressed the eosinophil response almost completley but did not affect granuloma size and slightly increased hepatic fibrosis. Anti-IL-4 treatment abolished IgE responses in infected mice and decreased hepatic fibrosis slightly. Anti-IFN-* treatment had no effect on hepatic pathology. Anti-IL-2 treatment decreased granuloma size significantly and decreased hepatic fibrosis markedly. Anti-IL-2 treatment dramatically decreased IL-5 secretion by splenic cells in vitro and decreased peripheral blood and tissue eosinophilia. In contrast IL-4 secretion was unaffected and serum IgE was normal or increased. IL-2 and IFN-* secretion by splenic cells of treated mice were slightly but not significantly increased suggesting that anti-IL-2 treatment affecting Th2 rather than Th1 responses.
Abstract in English:Mouse infection models are described that demonstrate reduction of egg production in Schistosoma haematobium infections and both worm loss and reduced fecundity in S. bovis infections. Neither phenomenum could be shown in S. mansoni infected mice. The immunological basis for these anti-adult responses was inferred by comparison with infections in T-cell deprived mice and by the serum transfer of the ability to reduce a S. bovis worm burden into immunocompromised hosts. Vaccination with irradiation attenuated parasites was also shown to have consequences for the adults of a challenge infections of S. haematobium and S. bovis specifically. Prior vaccination resulted in an abrogation of the anti-fecundity and adult worm elimination that occurred in non-vaccinated similary infected mice. hese models are being used to define the targets and mechanisms involved in anti-adult attrition. A serological assay, quantitation of a circulating antigen (CAA) has been assessed for its ability to measure worm burdens of different species of schistosome in mice. This assay will be used to question whether anti-adult immunity contributes to the pattern of infection with S. mansoni and S. haematobium in man.
Abstract in English:For many years the epidemiological significance of immunity in human schistosomiasis has been the subject of inconclusive debate. Recently, the results of studies from Brazil and Kenya, on Shistosoma mansoni and from Zimbabwe and The Gambia on S. haematobium have confirmed the importance of protective immunity. In communities in endemic areas the development of immunity to infection only occurs after many years of exposure. In part this due to the slow development of antibodies wich are protective but also to the earlier development of antibody isotypes which lack protective capacity and wich are capable of interfering with the functioning of protective antibodies. Protective antibodies appear to be of the IgE class but some IgG subclasses may be also be important. Initially, blocking antibodies were thought to be predominantly IgM and IgG2 but IgG4 also seems to posses blocking activity. The early production of blocking antibodies and late production of protective antibodies may be indicative of cytokine induced immunoglobulin class swiching caused by the sequential involvment of different lymphokines.
Abstract in English:Schistosoma mansoni infected Kenyan patients were treated and the intensities of their reinfections were followed over the next two years. in addition, their pre- and six month post-treatment serum levels of IgG1-4, IgM, and IgE, specific for schistosoma, egg and adult worm, were measured in ELISA. No reinfection took place before six months post-treatment. Reinfection intensities varied with age; the younger children becoming reinfected at significantly higher intensities than older individuals. When antibody and reinfection levels were compared, only the six month post-treatment IgE response against adult worm correlated negatively with intensities of reinfection and, therefore, was predictive of resistance or immunity to reinfection. IgE and IgG specific Western Blots were carried out. The adult worm antigens recognized by IgE were restricted compared with the IgG responses of the same patients, although no individual antigen was uniquely recognized by the IgE isotype. A dominant 22 kDa antigen was recognized by most but not all high IgE responders. Patients with IgE responses against this antigen suffered significantly lower subsequent levels of reinfection, compared with non-responders. A monospecific rabbit antiserum against the 22KDa adult worm antigen showed that this antigen is specifically located in the tegument of the adult worm and of 'lung' and 'liver' stage schistosomula, but is absent from the early 'skin' schistosomula. It is possible that this antigen is a target for human IgE mediated immune effector mechanisms active against the post skin stage schistosomula and that this is boosted by the death of adult worms.
Abstract in English:In C57Bl/6 strain mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni immune elimination of challenge parasites occurs in the lungs. Leococytes were recovered from the lungs of such mice by bronchoalveolar lavage and cultured in vitro with larval antigen; the profile of cytokines released was then analyzed. From 14 days after vaccination, BAL cultures contained infiltrating lymphocytes wich produced abundant quantitties of IFN-g and IL-3. Challenge of vaccinated mice resulted in a second influx of IFN-g nd IL-3- producing cells, earlier than after vaccination or in the appropriate contropls. Ablation studies revealed that CD4+ T cells were the source of IFN-g. The timing of cytokine production after vaccination, and challenge was coincident with the phases of macrophage activation previously reported. At no time could lymphocytes in BAL cultures to stimulated to proliferate with either larval Ag or mitogen, in contrast to splenocytes from the same mice. Furthermore, T cell growth factor activity was not detected in BAL cultures stimulated with Ag. We suggest that the lymphocytes recruited to the lungs are memory/effector cells, When Ag. released challenge schistosomula is presented to these cells, they respond by secreting cytokines wich mediate the formation of cellular aggregates around the parasites, blocking their onward migration.
Abstract in English:Schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni became resistant to antibody-dependent complement damage in vitro after pre-incubation with normal human erythrocytes (NHuE) whatever the ABO or Rh blood group. Resistant parasites were shown to acquire host decay accelerating factor (DAF) , a 70 kDa glycoprotein attached to the membrane of NHue by a GPI anchor. IgG2a mAb anti-human DAF (IA10) immunoprecipitated a 70 kDa molecule from 125I-labeled schistosomula pre-incubated with NHuE and inhibited their resistance to complement-dependent killing in vtro. Incubationof schistosomula with erytrocytes from patients with paroxsimal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNHE) or SRBC, wich are DAF-deficient, did not protect the parasites from complement lesion. Supernatant of 100,000 x g collected from NHuE incubated for 24 h in defined medium was shown to contain a soluble form of DAF and to protect schistosomula from complement killing. Schistosomula treated with trypsin before incubation with NHuE ghosts did not become resistant to complement damage. On the other hand, pre-treatment with chymotrypsin did not interfere with the acquisition of resistance by the schistosomula. These results indicate that, in vitro, NHuE DAF can be transferred to schistosomula in a soluble form and that the binding of this molecule to the parasite surface is dependent upon trypsin-sensitive chymotrypsin-insensitive polipeptide(s) present on the surface of the worm.
Abstract in English:Morbidity in schistosomiasis mansoni occurs primaryly as a result of the complications of hepatic fibrosis. Yet, the pathogenesis of schistosomal hepatic fibrosis is poorly understood. The fact that hepatic egg granuloma is the hallmark of this infection suggests a potential role for granulomatous inflamation in hepatic fibrogenesis. Our studies in a murine schistosomiasis model indicate that hepatic granuloma cells secrete a variety of fibrogenic cytokines that may initiate the scarring process. Among these cytokines, we identified a novel protein that we designated fibroplast stimulating factor-1 (FsF-1). FsF-1 is a lymphokine that can stimulate fibroplast growth and matrix synthesis. A notable feature of hepatic fibrosis in this model is that production of FsF-1 and other granuloma-derived fibrogenic cytokines is down-regulated in chronic infection, an event that may be under immunological control. The spontaneous reduction of FsF-1 secretion presumably accounts for reduced scar formation late in infection of mice. In the context of relevant clinical studies, our findings engender the hypothesis that Symmer's fibrosis may develop in a small suppopulation of individuals as a result of immunogenetically-determined dysregulation of fibrogenic cytokine production.
Abstract in English:Serum laminin level was measured in chronic schistosomiasis. A significant increase in the mean serum laminin levels was observed in patients with hepatosplenic (HS) schistosomiasis (2,57 ± 0,83U/ml), as compared to those in patients with the hepatointestinal (HI) form of the disease (1,38 ± 0,45-U/ml) and in the control group (1,15 ± 0,31 U/ml). In the HS patients there was a significant direct relatiom between serum laminin and percutaneous splenic pulp pressure (r = 0,68). These findigs are compatible with an increased production of lamin in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis with may be related to the observed enlarged liver and spleen basement membranes in such disease.
Abstract in English:Optical and electron microscopical evidences of focal matrix degradation were frequently seen in liver sections taken from patients with periportal ("pipe-stem") fibrosis caused by schistosomiasis mansoni. Besides present of focal areas of rarefaction, fragmentation and dispersion of collagen fibers, the enlargend portal spaces also showed hyperplasia of elastic tisue and disarray of smooth muscle fibers following the destrution of portal vein branches. Ultrastructural cahnges represented by focal lytic and/or electron dense alterations of colagen fibrils were similar to those first seen in experimental material and designated as "chronic collagen degradation". Elastin and related microfibrils were also affected by focal condensation, fragmentation, distorsion and dissolution. Schistosome eggs were scanty in the tissue sections examined. Matrix degradation represented involuting changes related to the progressive diminution of parasite aggression, which occurs spontaneously with age or after cure by chemotherapy. Changes of focal matrix degradation now being described represent the basic morphological counterpart of periportal fibrosis involution documented clinically, especially by ultrasonography, in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis submitted to curative chemotherapy.
Abstract in English:Crude extracts of eggs (SEA) adult worms (SWAP) or cercariae (Cerc) have been used to stimulate Peripheral Blood Mononuclear cells (PBMC) and have provided rather distinct profiles of responses in different types of patients. In genenral it is clear that patients with early infections respond strongly to SEA while response to SWAP are developed more slowly. As infection progresses into the more chronic phases, a general pattern is seen whic leads to lower anti-SEA proliferative responses in the face of higher responses to SWAP and variable anti-cerc responsiveness. Cured not re-exposed patients express very high levels of anti-SEA proliferation. It has recently been seen that those individuals who live in endemic areas and have continued water contact, but are reapeatedly stool-negative (who are presumed to have self-cured or be putatively resistant; endemic normals) are strongly responsive to antigenic extracts, particularly to SEA. Furthermore, our results show that endemic normal individuals have significantly higher IFN gamma production upon PBMC stimulation with schistosome antigens than infected individuals. With the emergence of more studies it is becoming apparent that both the intensity and the prevalence of a given area may influence or shape the general responsiveness of the population under study.
Abstract in English:Ultrasonography can reveal most of the manifestations of portal hypertension complicating hepatosplenic, schistosomiasis. However, direct demonstration of gastroesophageal varices by ultrasonography is still very difficult. An attempt was done to correlate sonographic features of portal hypertension with the degree of fibrosis to screen patients having varices and predicting their chance of bleeding. The results obtained were found to be consistent with the esophagogastric endoscopy and with history of hematemesis. Four parameters were used, size of spleen, degree of periportal fibrosis, presence of collaterals and portal vein diameter. A pilot field survey was also done adopting the same principle.
Abstract in English:Conventional ultrasonography highly contributes to a non invasive diagnosis of HS schistosomiasis (Cerri et al., 1984). The introduction of Dopple allowed new advances in the knowledge of the portal dinamics of this disease (Taylor et al., 1985; Moriyasu et al., 1986). The aim of this paper was to analize the hemodinamic behavior of the portal vessels, considering caliper, maximum flow speed, direction of flow and preferential disposition of the collateral vessels. Thirty two patients with schistosomiasis mansoni with confirmed hepatosplenic form (HSSM), were analyzed. Fourteen patients with the intestinal form, have been analyzed as a control group. The results demonstrated that the maximum speed of the portal vein in the two groups has not been significantly diferent. Nevertheless, the diameter of the PV in the hepatosplenic group has been larger. The splenic vein presented speed and caliper larger than the superior mesenteric vein. The hepatic artery has been detectly in only 40% of the cases. The hepatic veins presented normal caliper and spectral pattern. The duplex proved to be an useful technich complementar and non-invasive, in the study of the HSSM.
Abstract in English:In spite of the recent decline in financial support on the part of some major donors, the overall international support for schistosomiasis research in current US dollars has been holding steady. However, when adjusted for inflation, a clear decline during the last decade appears and only in a few countries has this decline been balanced by increased national or bilateral funding. The prevailing level of support for schistosomiasis research is barely sufficient to maintain estabilished laboratories and researchers, and highlights the need to attract young investigators. The important goal of brunging a new generation of scientists into the field of schistosomiaisis can only be achieved by a considerable long-term increase in funding, both at the national and the international levels. A break-through in current research emphasizing improved techniques for control is needed to encourage donors and governments to improve the situation.
Abstract in English:This paper describes new approaches to social and economic research being developed by the Social and Economic Research component of the Special Programme for Research and Trainning in Tropical Diseases of the World Health Organization. One of these is a study to acess the possibility of identifying high risk communities for urinary schistosomiasis through a "mailed"questionaire approach distributed through an existing administrative system, thereby eliminating the need for face-to-face interviews by the research or disease control team. This approach, developed by the Swiss Tropical Institute in Ifakara, Tanzania, i s currently being tested in seven other African countries. The paper also describes a change of emphasis of economic research on schistosomiasis, focusing on the intra-household effects of the disease on rural households, rather than, as previously done, studying the impact of the disease on the productivity of individual wage labourers. Other priorities involve the identification of epidemiological information neede for improoved decision-making regarding acceptable treatment strategies in endemic areas with limited financial capacity, as well as research on how the adverse effects of economic development projects can be alleviated.
Abstract in English:The dual function of eosinophils is clearly illustred in schistosomiasis. Well equipped in membrane receptors for immunoglobulins and complement, and due to the presence of granule basic proteins, eosinophils can become cytotoxic for parasite larvae and thus participate to protective immunity. However mediators can also exert their cytolytic effect on normal cells or tissues, inducing therefore pathology. Through ADCC mechanisms against schistosome larvae in vitro involving different antibody isotypes (IgG, IgE and IgA) and also in experiments performed in vivo, eosinophils have been clearly involved in protective immunity. Although no direct evidence of the protective role of eosinophils were brought in humans, the striking association of eosinophil-dependent cytotoxic antibody isotypes with resistance to reinfection (for instance IgE and IgA antibodies), whereas in vitro blocking antibody isotypes (IgG4, IgM) were detected in susceptible subjects, strongly, suggested the participation of eosinophils in antibody-dependent protective immune response. However eosinophils could also participate to granuloma formation around S. mansoni eggs and consequently to the pathological reactions induced by schistosomiasis.
Abstract in English:After the acute hyperergic phase of schistosomal infection, the chronic phase of the disease corresponds to the estabilishment of a relative equilibrium between the host and the parasite. This involves: (1) A shift from the predominance of the TH2 response observed in the acute phase, to the predominance of the TH1 response in the chronic phase of the disease, with modification of lymphokine and immunoglobulin secretions patterns. (2) Redistribution of hosts responses to parasite, with predominance of systemic controls in the acute phase, and a shift towards local tissue responses in the chronic phase. This redistribution relieves the hyperergic responses involving the whole body of the host, and delimits cellular and molecular reactions to parasites to only those tissues that are directly involved by the adult parasites and their eggs. Mobilization of eosinophil granulocytes in schistosomal periovular granulomas is one of examples of this redistribution.
Abstract in English:Cross-sectional and evolutive studies on schistosomiasis mansoni were carried out before and after mass treatment in the endemic areas of Capitao Andrade and Padre Paraíso, state of Minas Gerais, Riachuelo, state of Sergipe, Alhandra, state of Paraíba, and Aliança, Alegre and Coroatá, lowland of the state of Maranhao, Brazil, in the last eighteen years. The studies included clinical and fecal examination by the Kato-Katz quantitative technique, skin testfor Schistosoma mansoni infection, evaluation of man-water contact and other epidemiological investigations such as infection rate and dynamic of the snail population. Results showed: (1) Higher prevalence of S. mansoni infection, greater egg load elimination and higher and earlier morbidity of the chronic froms of the disease in the southeast areas of Capitao Andrade and Padre Paraíso; (2) The incidence of hepatosplenic form is higher in some family clusters, in whites and mullattos in all the endemic areas but develop earlier in the southeast; (3) The prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis are decreasing both in the mass treated northeast and in the untreated southeast areas; (4) The mass treatment reduces rapidily the prevalence of the infection and the morbidity of the disease but can not control it because of the frequent reinfections due to the intensity of man-water contact.
Abstract in English:In heavily infected young patients, there is a "non-congestive" phase of the disease with splenomegaly which can improve after chemoterapy. A strong correlation between hepatosplenic form and worm burden in young patients has been repeatedly shown. The pattern of vascular intrhepatic lesions seems to depend on two mechanisms: (a) egg embolization, with a partial blocking of the portal vasculature; (b) the appearance of small portal collaterals along the intrahepatic portal sistem. The role played by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and C virus infections in the pathogenesis of liver lesions is variably considered. Selective arteriography shows a reduced diameter of hepatic artery with thin and arched branches outlining vascular gaps. A rich arterial network , as described in autopsy cases, is usually not seen in vivo, except after splenectomy or shunt surgery. An augmented hepatic arterial flow was demonstrated in infected animals. These facts suggest that the poor intrahepatic arterial vascularization demonstrated by selective arteriography in humans is due to a "functional deviation"of arterial blood to the splenic territory. The best results obtained in treatment of portal hypertension were: esophagogastric desvascularization and splenectomy (EGDS), although risk of rebleeding persists; classical (proximal) splenorenal shunt (SRS) should be abandoned; distal splenorenal shunt may complicate with hepatic encephalopaty, although later and in a lower percentage than in SRS. Propranolol is currently under investigation. In our Department, schistosomotic patients with esophageal varices bleeding are treated by EGDS and, if rebleeding occurs, by sclerosis of the varices.
Abstract in English:Experiences with population-based chemotherapy and other methods for the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in two subsaharan foci are described. In the forest area of Maniema (Zaire), intense transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, high prevalences and intensities of infection, and important morbidity have been documental. Taking into account the limited financial means and the poor logistic conditions, the control strategy has been based mainly on targeted chemotherapy of heavily infected people (>600 epg). After ten years of intervention, prevalences and intensities have hardly been affected, but the initial severe hepatosplenic morbidity has almost disappeared. In Burundi, a national research and control programme has been initiated in 1982. Prevalences, intensities and morbidity were moderate, transmission was focal and erratic in time and space. A more structural control strategy was developed, based on screening and selective therapy, health education, sanitation and domestic water supply. Prevalences and intensities have been considerably reduced, though the results show focal and unpredicatable variations. Transmission and reinfection were not signifcantly affected by chemotherapy alone, and eventual outcome of repeated selective treatment appears to be limited by the sensitivity of the screening method. Intestinal morbidity was strongly reduced by community-based selective treatment, but hepatosplenic enlargement was hardly affected; this is possibly due to the confounding impact of increasing malaria morbidity. The experiences show the importance of local structures and conditions for the development of an adapted control strategy. It is further concluded that population-based chemotherapy is a highly valid tool for the rapid control of morbidity, but should in most operational conditions not be considered as a tool for transmission control. Integration of planning, execution and surveillance in regular health services...
Abstract in English:The specific treatment of schistosomiasis has been though to prevent or revert severe forms of the disease, since 1957. Starting in 1977, prospective and controlled studies performed in different endemic areas of Brazil were able to confirm such facts. The new drugs, of high efficacy and well tolerated - Oxamniquine and Praziquantel - can actually prevent and cure the severe forms of some patients, contributing to change the morbidity pattern of the disease, thus being considered as important weapons in its control. Analysis of the Brazilian articles on the subject is presented.
Abstract in English:Severity of urinary tract morbidity increases with intensity and duration of Schistosoma haematobium infection. We assessed the ability of yearly drug therapy to control infection intensity and reduce S. haematobium-associated disease in children 5-21 years old in an endemic area of Kenya. In year I, therapy resulted in reduced prevalence (66% to 22%, P < 0.001) and intensity of S. haematobium infection (20 to 2 eggs/10 mL, urine), with corresponding reductions in the prevalence of hematuria (52% to 19%, P < 0.001). There was not, however, a significant first-year effect on prevalence of urinary tract abnormalities detected by ultrasound. Repeat therapy in years 2 and 3 resulted in significant regression of hydronephrosis and bladder abnormalities (41% to 6% prevalence, P< 0.001), and further reductions in proteinuria. Repeat age-targeted therapy was associated with decreased prevalence of infection among young children (< 5yr) entering into the target age group. Two years after discontinuation of therapy, intensity of S. haematobium infection and ultrasound abnormalities remained suppressed, but hematuria prevalence began to increase (to 33% in 1989). Reinstitution of annual therapy in 1989 and 1990 reversed this trends. We conclude that annual oral therapy provides an effective strategy for control of morbidity due to S. haematobium on population basis, both through regression of disease in treated individuals, and prevention of infection in untreated subjects.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study is to determine whether various hycanthone resistant strains of schistosomes which have been independently isolated are all affected in the same gene. A strain obtained from a Brazilian patient was compared with a strain of Puerto Rican origin selected in the laboratory. If the mutation conferring resistance involved two different genes, one would expect that the progeny of a cross between the two strains would show complementation, i.e. it would be sensitive to the drug. We have performed such a cross and obtained F1 hybrid worms wich were essentially all resistant, thus suggesting that the mutation conferring resistance in the two strains involves the same gene.
Abstract in English:Measures for for the control of schistosomiasis were implemented in Egypt begining 1922. This shows that developing endemic countries are facing this problem for near 70 years. However, results in the control of this infection have not been satisfactorily obtained in spite of the technologies and strategies recently developed. The idea that the social and economic components are relevant in the control of schistosomiasis is not new although its extension and profundity have not usually been well understood. More recently; most of the workers have recognized that the distribution of the prevalence rates of schistosomiasis should not be neglected in the control of the infection. At present field work projects on the control of schistosomiasis are being developed in rural areas of two Brazilian states (Espirito Santo and Pernanbuco). The adopted strategy aims to interfere in the complex relationships between amn and his bio-social-cultural environment, without forgeting tha the unequal distribution of the space is a consequence of the political and economic organization of the Society.
Abstract in English:Our views are based, on a recent study of a district of Uniao dos Palmares (Alagoas). Although being a very compact community (32 city blocks holding two thousand families), transmission is very uneven, the geometric mean egg counts in the various blocks ranging between extremes of 96 and 1920. (Results do not correlate with the availability of domestic water supply). We thus are led to conclude that: (a) transmission is primarily peridomestic, resulting from pollution of open ditches and other collections of water; (b) control of transmission can be done on a selective basis, requiring quite medest investments. Given the inefficacy of population-based chemotherapy, when used alone, the author insists that this alternative cannot any longer be overlooked. He also regrets the emphasis placed upon vaccine development; allegations that this would, at any rate, prevent severe morbidity can be dismissed, since-whatever the cause-morbidity due to schistosomiasis has been rapidly declining in Northeast Brazil.
Abstract in English:Schistosomiasis in Americawith the exception of Brazil, behaves as a chronic mild disease with few clinical manifestations due to low parasite burden. These features restrict the clinical and parasitological diagnosis. The most commonly used stool examination method, Kato-Katz, becomes intensitive when the majority of individuals excrete less than 100 eggs/g of feces. In view that antigen-detecting techniques have not been able to reveal light infections, the antibody detecting assays remain as a very valuable diagnostic tool for epidemiological surveillance. The Venezuelan Schistosomiasis Research group (CECOICE) has designed a mass chemotherapy strategy based on sero-diagnosis. Since blood sampling is one of the important limitating factors for large seroepidemiological trials we developed a simple capillary technique that sucessfully overcomed most of the limitations of blood drawing. In this sense, ELISA seems to be the most adecuate test for epidemiological studies. Soluble egg Schistosoma mansoni antigen (SEA) has been largely used in Venezuela. The sensitivity ELISA-SEA in our hands is 90% moreover its specific reach 92% when populations from non-endemic areas but heavily infected with other intestinal parasites are analyzed. The Schistosomiasis Control Program is currently carrying out the surveillance of endemic areas using ELISA-SEA as the first screening method, followed by the Circumoval Precipitin test for validation assay. The results with these two serological techniques allowed us to defined the criteria of chemotherapy in populations of the endemic areas. On the search of better diagnostic technique, Alkaline Phosphatase Immunoenzyme Assay (APIA) is being evaluated in field surveys.
Abstract in English:The schistosomiasis is transmitted by Biomphalaria tenagophila in our study area (Pedro de Toledo, Sao Paulo, Brazil). From 1980 to 1990 epidemiological surveys in a population of 4.000 inhabitants, has shown that: prevalence Kato-Katz (KKT), immunofluorescence (FT) and intradermal (IDT) techniques were 22.8%, 55.5% and 51.8% respectively; intensity of infection was low, 58.5 eggs per gram of faeces (epg); there were no symptomatic cases; prevalences were higher in mates, children and rural zone; index of potential contamination was 57.5% in the age group 5 to 20 years; 2/3 of patients were autochtonous; cases were no-randomly aggregated; transmission was focal and only 0.4% of snails were infected; water contacts through recreation showed the most important odds ratio; knowledge, attitudes and practices were satisfatory. From the epidemiological control findings a control programme was carried out; yearly faeces exams, chemotherapy, molluscocide, health education and sanitation. Thus, the prevalence decreased sharply to 3.3% and intensity of infection to 30.3 epg; the incidence rates ranged between 0.4% and 2.5% annualy; the sanitation became better and the youngsters were the main target in prophylaxis. To improve control, immunodiagnosis has to be conducted and the involvment of the population should be increase. However, we cannot forget that re-infection and the involvment of the population should be increase. However, we cannot forget that re-infection, therapeutic failure, etc, could play a major role in the maintnance this residual prevalence.
Abstract in English:Achievements and successes have been obtained in schistosomiasis control in China. An epidemic survey was carried out and its results analyzed.
Abstract in English:Cercarial shedding tests do not provide species identification of the shistosomes concerned and cannot detect prepatent schistosomal infections. We have demonstrated that both immunodetection by ELISA of schistosomal antigens in snail hemophlymph, and dot hybridization of snail extracts by DNA probe representing highly repeated sequences, proved suitable for detecting infected snails during prepatnecy as well as patency. A group-specific monoclonal antibody was found to be suitable for detecting Schistosoma mansoni infection in Biomphalaria sp., but not for positive identification of S. haematobium in Blulinus sp. Comparative evaluation of the diagnostic qualities, and technical aspects and cost of these tests, point to the superiority of the immunodetection approach for large scale detection of snails prepatently infected with S. mansoni. This approach is potentially useful for providing extended information on schistosome-snail epidemiology that may facilitate rapid evaluation of the danger of post-control reinfection, and help make decisions on the time and place of supplementary control measures. In this context the potential usefulness of the immunodetection or DNA probing approach for facilitating catalytic model representation of schistosome-snail epidemiology warrants further evaluation. Specific identification of S. haematobium in Bulinus by either of these approaches may be possible depending on the development of suitable antibodies or DNA probes.
Abstract in English:A detailed knoledge of distribution patterns schistosome intermediate hsts and their populations dynamics and factors affecting these patterns will provide useful information about the possibilities and desirability of conducting snail control measures in various transmission situations. On the basis of various case studies the association between the occurence of human water contacts and the presence of schistosome intermediate hosts or infections in the intermediate hosts is illustrated. Other parameters affecting snail distribution patterns and density fluctuations are discussed. It is concluded that ecological studies on the intermediate host are extremely relevant, either to optimally apply existing control measures or to develop alternative measures of snail control, such as ecological or biological control.
Abstract in English:After several Brazilian researches, the author examines the capacity of two species of rodents Cricetidae, Holochilus brasiliensis and Nectomys squamipes, to maintain the biological cycle of Schistosoma mansoni in the field and to be parasite reservoir: (a) the role they are able to play in human endemy; (b) the methods necessary to characterize the population of Schistosoma mansoni related either to man, either to rodents, either to both.
Abstract in English:Baboons develop a syndrome, including eosinophilia and transient fever, after infection with carcariae of Schistosoma mansoni that is consistent with the human syndrome of acute schistosomiasis. Radiotelemetry can be used to follow the course of fever in infected baboons. Individual variations in intensity of disease were noted in baboons. These symptoms and signs were more closely linked to the onset of oviposition by the newly matured worms than they were to the presence of migrating schistosoma or maturing worms. The baboon is concluded to be a suitable and useful model for human acute schistosomiasis mansoni.
Abstract in English:Schistosomiasis control seems to be different in countries were low parasitic burden and asymptomatic clinical patients are the features of majority of cases. Immunological methods must substitute the traditional coprologic techniques used for some decades in the Control Program. Circumoval Precipitin Test (COPT), intradermal test and ELISA with soluble egg antigen (SEA) are evaluated for using as tools for seroepidemiologic studies. COPT and ELISA were performed after treatment to known their utility when impact of chemotherapy must be assessed. One hundred sixty five persons were followed up 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment. The mean sensitivity of CPT studied by age groups was 95.6% which is very important considering that 88.4% of the studied population excreted less than 100 egg/gr of feces, while sensitivity of intradermal test was 58.2%. Children showed the highest ractivity to COPT. When treatment is effective, COPT reactivity progressively disminish until become negative one year later. In the non cure group, the COPT reactivity disminished but never below 20%. ELISA-SEA did not modify one year after treatment. Effort should be made to isolate fractions of eggs Schistosoma mansoni whose antibodies disappear after treatment.
Abstract in English:We have identified the specific ultrasonographical (US) changes in Schistosoma japonicum infected patients with the serological changes in general liver function markers. The US examination with the following haematological and biochemical serum analysis was performed on 102 patients in Shistosomiasis Hospital, Leyte, Philippines. The US liver images were classified into 4 patterns according to the development of periportal fibrosis and the patterns of echogenic bands. Among various haematological and biochemical serum parameters of liver damage. The serum levels of total bile acid (TBA) and procollagen-III-peptide (P-III-P) correlated well with the development of hepatic fibrosis and the portal hypertension. These patients were subsequently treated with praziquantel (3 x 20 mg/kg), and improvement of the thickening of the portal vein wall and the dintensity of the echogenic band formation was detected 6 months after treatment. The significant US changes could not be detected in the patients with severe hepatic fibrosis caused in the long term infection. The results revealed that the US examination with the serum TBa level would provider a sensitive tool monitor the severity of the infection and also the improvement occured shortly after praziquantel treatment.
Abstract in English:A 1% (W/V) formulation of Niclosamide (2', 5-Dichloro-4-nitrosalicylanilide) (TAP) was tested on Cebus apella monkeys as a topical prophylatic against schistosomiasis mansoni. Two experiments were conducted using the same formulation. In the first experiment, the TAP provided complete protection against schistosomiasis for 3 days. Of the 4 monkeys treated with TAP 7 days before exposure to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, 2 were completely protected. The remaining 2 monkeys of the 7 day treatment group had a 78% or greater reduction in adult worm buderns when compared to the placebo treated monkeys. The second experiment was designed determine the time between day 3 and 7 when the TAP no longer provided complete protection. However, all of the TAP treated monkeys in this experiment were completely protected, even the monkeys treated 7 days earlier. In both experiments, all monkeys used as infection controls and those receiving only the placebo became infected and showed typical experimental schistosomiasis. These results demonstrate that the TAP could provide fast acting, short-term protection to people who must enter cercariae infested water.
Abstract in English:The biological literature contains many examples of mutual influences between different species of parasites, especially with respect to concomitant helminth infections. Several situations are known in wich the association of infection by Shistosoma mansoni with other pathogens in the same host results in a type of disease wich differs from the simple summation of the individual effects of each infection. The present study concerns concomitant infections involving S. mansoni and enterobacteriaceae; S. mansoni and other helmints such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostomids, Toxocara canis and species of the genus Hymenolepis; S. mansoni and different protozoa such as Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei, Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium berghei. The interaction between hepatitis B virus and S. mansoni, leading to prolonged viremia and worsening of liver damage, is also discussed. The paper also treats the simultaneous occurrence of schistosomiasis and other aggravating factors such as malnutrition and neoplasias wich may alter the host's response to the trematode.
Abstract in English:In northeast Brazil, nutritional deficiency diseases and schistosomiasis mansoni overlap. An experimental model, wich reproduces the marasmatic clinical form of protein-energy malnutrition, was developed in this laboratory to study these interactions. Albino Swiss mice were fed with a food association ingested usually by human populations in northeast Brazil. This diet (Regional Basic Diet - RBD) has negative effects on the growth, food intake and protein utilization in infected mice (acute phase of murine schistosomiasis). Nitrogen balance studies have also shown that infection with Schistosoma mansoni has apparently no effect on protein intestinal absorption in well nourished mice. However, the lowest absorption ratios have been detected among RBD - fed infected animals, suggesting that suprerimposed schistosome infection aggravated the nutritional status of the undernourished host. The serum proteins electrophoretic pattern, as far as albumins are concerned, is quite similar for non-infected undernourished and infected well-fed animals. So, the significance of albumins as a biochemical indicator of the nutritional status of human populations residing in endemic foci of Manson's schistosomiasis, is discussable.
Abstract in English:In population surveys in wich the Schistosoma mansoni intensity of infection is low, or in localities where the schistosomiasis control program had success the parasitologic methods lack in sensitivity. Despite of some limitations the immunological methods are useful to provide valuable information in such field conditions. Thus, the prevalaence of schistosomiasis in untreated population can be determined by the detection of IgG or IgM antibodies, as well as the incidence by the IgA antibodies , employing mainly immunofluorescence (IF) and immunoenzymatic (ELISA), and in some extent hemagglutination (HA) or even skin test. The true prevalence and incidence of schistosomiasis can be estimated using a probabilistic model equation, since knowing before-hand the sensitivity and specificity of emploved test. The sensitivity and the specificity of serologic test become higher in low aged group, under 14. The geometric mean IF titers also gives a positive correlation with the intensity of infection. Presently there are need of serologic tests wich are economic and pratical in soroepidemiologic inquires, requiring no specialized personnel to collect population blood or serum and also easily interpret the test results. The reagents for such tests are desired to be stable and reproducible. Moreover, it is expected that the tests can distinguish an ative infection.
Abstract in English:The Brazilian planorbidical chart is slowly but progressively been increased by new data. Distribution of vector species of Schistosoma mansoni, according to Paraense, 1986, may be thus resumed: Biomphalaria glabrata - delimited by paralells 13 and 21-S and meridians 39 and 45-W, area of greater dominance (Southerst Bahia, oriental half of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). It is observed along the coast line of the state of Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte. Starting from there, it is found towards the southwest, in the direction to the Sao Francisco River and South-Center of Minas Gerais. Isolated population may be observed in other states. Its presence is probably, associated to the transmission of schistosomiasis in all areas where it occurs. B. tenagophila - extends it self through a wide strip of coast-line the South of Bahia (17-45"S, 39-15'W), RS(33-41'S, 53-27'W). In Sao Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul states it is found further inland. It is important in schistosomiasis transmission in the Paraíba valley (SP). Isolated populations are observed in the Federal District and Minas Gerais state. B. straminea - better adapter species to climatic variation, having a more dense ditribution in the northeast (41-Wand 110-S), south of Bahia and northeast of Minas Gerais (150 and 180-S, 400 and 440-W) It is less susceptible than B. glabrata, being however the most important responsible for the transmission of S. mansoni in the northeast, chiefly in the northeastern dry area, where it is almost the only transmissive species.
Abstract in English:Specific identification of the snail vectors: (a) shell features; (b) animal features (genital organs); (c) biochemical techniques (electrophoresis). The snail infection rates: (a) exposure to light and cercarial identification; (b) snail crushing and identification or the larval forms in the tissues.
Abstract in English:The control measures preconized by Ministério da Saúde/Fundaçao Nacional de Saúde for 1990/1991, started to have a new focus when significant advances were evidenced in the two last decades and after internal meetings with participation of the cientific community interested in accompanting the actions directed to the control of schistosomiasis in our country. Since then, the priority started to be the suppressing of the occurence of advanced clinical forms, having as an objective, the detection and treatment of all carrier of Schistosoma mansoni. Beyond the control measures, factors that may interfere in the application of those measures were also boarded, the diverse phasis of field operations, the work methodology and results obtained in the first semester of 1991.
Abstract in English:The acute toxemic form of schistosomiasis mansoni is studied under anatomic and clinical point of view, according to classification made by Neves, Raso and Bagliolo in 1975. The first phase is characterized by the following facts: cutaneous (immediate and late) manifestations; high fever or in progressive elevation; intense diaphoresis abdominal disconfort; intense acquous diarrhea; dehidratation; loss of weight, dry cough; painful hepatosplenomegaly; discreet lymphademegaly, progressive increase of blood leucocytes and eosinophisles; radiological pulmonary alterations; absence of alterations in serum protein and hepatic functional tests; the hepatic function byopsy shows focus of acute hepatitis. The second stage or properly named toxemic period was clinically characterized by the neat aggravation of the previously observed phenomena. At last, the evolutive course of the disease has implication derived not only of the worm's presence, but from the intense dissemination of eggs in the tissue. In the pre-laying phase one studied the forms of cercarian dermatitis, prodromic and innapparent. In the post laying phase, the properly named acute toxemic form, with its types: pseudocholeraic, pseudotyphous, pseudodysenteric-bacillary, pseudonophritic, pseudoenterovirotic, the reactivated, the ischemic enterocolitis and others; whenever possible clinical and anatomic correlation will be made.
Abstract in English:Even with all progress in the search of sensitive and methods for the immunological diagnosis of schistosomiasis, the microscopic detection of eggs of the parasite in the stool still remains the most widely used tool for the actual diagnosis of active infection. Among the coproscopic methods, Kato's technic modified by Katz et al (Kato/Katz) has the advantages of higher sensitivity, the possibility of egg quantification, its low operational cost and its feasibility in areas with minimal infra-structure. The oorgram of the rectal mucosa is valuable in initial clinical trials of schistosomicides, when it is needed to observe egg morphology in tissue. It could be an alternative method for individual diagnosis, being more sensitive than a single stool exam in low intensity infection. However, the increased sensitivity of a higher number of fecal exams makes that invasiveprocedure unnecessary. In the assessment of cure of schistosomiasis, Kato/Katz method (three fecal samples in one, three and six months after treatment) and the rectal biopsy four months after treatment, are equally reliable.
Abstract in English:In the last years, the knowledge about immunodiagnosis in schistosomiasis has increased considerably. This was due to a better immunologic understanding of the host-parasite interaction and the evolution of the technical procedures by the introduction of new concepts and techniques. The search of more sensitive, specific, practical and less expensive diagnostic tests has led to the development of a great number of immunological tests that could complement the limitations of the parasitological diagnosis. The antigens of differnt life cycle stages of Schistosoma mansoni may be used as target for immunodiagnostic tests and the anti-schistosome antibodies in sera of infected patients can be detected. The research of circulating schistosome antigens, the production of specific antisera and the application of these antibodies in immunodiagnostic tests have also been discussed.
Abstract in English:In this paper a discussin is made on the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis mansoni in mice, presented from the perspectives of "processes", "mediators", "strategies for study" and vasculitis are discussed. The role of mediators, including cells, antibodies and immune complexes, cytokines and distal mediators is commented as related to the pathological processes occuring in schistosomiasis. Finally, strategies for study are presented, followed by a discussion on the etiopathogenesis of the different clinical stages and pathologic manifestations of schistosomiasis mansoni.
Abstract in English:It is the specific treatment of mansoni schistosomiasis that aims to act directed on the parasite, through chemotherapy. Constitutes fundamental indication to the treatment of schistosomiasis active forms, that is, these determined by the presence of living eggs in the feces or in material from rectal biopsy, since eventual contra indications are respected. Two are the medicaments actually used: oxamniquine, used in the single dosage of 15mg/kg, V.O. for adults and 20mg/kg V.O. for children divided in two doses, offers a percentage of 30 to 40% of cures, evaluated by quantitative "oogram" and prazinquantel, in the single dose of 60 mg/kg V.O., presents a cure index of 30% however in seriate doses, of 60mg/kg during 3 days or 30mg/kg, 6 days, cure percentage is elevated to 95% evaluated by oogram. The evaluation of the treatment by quantitative or qualitative examination methods does not show the same sensibility. The percentage of cure according to feces examination, the quantitative of Kato-Katz or the qualitative (sedimentation), showed indexes from 90 to 100% for either one of the drugs, even in single dose, which evidences the difference of methodology of therapeutic evaluation. Tolorance to both medicaments is from good to regular, with collateral effects in 30 to 40% of the patients.
Abstract in English:To assess the therapeutic possibilities of injection sclerosis in schistosomotic portal hypertension, a 5-year prospective study was conducted in northeast Brazil, where this parasitosis is endemic. Fifty patients undergoing endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal hemorrage from rupture of esophageal varices from July through December 1981 were chosen for the study. The 32 consenting patients were submitted to injection sclerotherapy paravariceally, using ethanolamine oleate; the 18 refusing to participate were assigned to the control group. The incidence of rebleeding was 28.1% in the former and 44.5% in the latter, a difference wich was not statistically significant (Fisher's test, p = 0.017). Since sclerotherapymarkedly improved the long-term survival rate of the patients, this procedure is advocated for the treatment of esophageal varices in cases of portal hypertension due to schistosomiasis.
Abstract in English:There are over 100.000 patients affected by schistosomotic portal hipertension, that may suffer rupture of the esophageal varices. Besides the portal hypertension, local factors must be emphazised as responsible for the three distal centimeters of the esophagus, called "zona vulnerável" (vulnerable zone). The beter liver functional reserve of these schistosomotic patients as compared to the cirrhotic, present two favorable condititions: (1) beter possibility of conservative treatment during acute hemorrhage; (2) elective surgical treatment may be undergo without a mandatory step of large portal descompression. The Author only indicate surgical treatment in patients with hemorrhage antecedence and his preference consist in splenectomy plus obliterative suture of the varices at the "vulnerable zone" and when possible, ligature of left gastric vein also; 358 patients were undergone surgery with operative mortality 3.07%, 347 were followed during 1 to 25 years; late mortality 8.38%; recurrence hemorrage 11.58%; none porto-sustemic encephalopaty was observed.