Abstract in English:The eggs of Anopheles cruzii and An. bellator are described and illustrated using scanning electron micrographs. Hatching was observed, and larval exit documented. No morphological differences were found between the eggs of the two species.
Abstract in English:The spatial and temporal distribution of anopheline larvae was studied in two coastal malarious areas of Sucre, State, Venezuela. Seven habitat types were sampled in the village of Guayana and eight species of Anopheles were collected. Anopheles aquasalis was the predominant species collected and was most abundant in the brackish marsh habitat (71 larvae per 100 samples). It was most abundant during the rainy season. At the second location, Santa F e, six habitat types were sampled and four anopheline species were collected. Habitats where An. aquasalis was most abundant were temporary freshwater ponds (34 larvae per 100 samples) and mangroves (10.5 larvae per 100 samples). At this location it was also most abundant in the rainy season. During the dry season it was collected in small numbers in river pools (1.3 larvae per 100 samples) along with large numbers of An. pseudopunctipennis (479 larvae per 100 samples). Larval control could be an important component of the malaria control program because major habitats could be defined and presence and abundance of larvae was limited to specific times of year.
Abstract in English:The principal vector of malaria in eastern Venezuela, Anopheles aquasalis, is exophagic and exophilic. Control using indoor insecticide house sprays has failed to lower the number of malaria cases. Therefore, studies were initiated in two villages of the eastern coastal state of Sucre to better understand this vector's biology and develop a more integrated control program. An. aquasalis was found to have a crepuscular biting behavior with a major peak at dusk and a minor peak at dawn. Mosquitos were collected more outdoors than indoors. Forty-seven percent of the biting took place before people went to bed (22:30 hr) and 69% of the mosquitos biting during this time period bite outdoors. Outdoor biting could be the reason why indoor spraying alone did not lower malaria cases. Seasonal abundance was greater in the rainy season compared to the dry season. Seasonal parous rates were high (78.3%-100%) and similar indoors and outdoors and between dry and wet season in Santa F e. In Guayana, the seasonal parity was lower (34.6%-42.2%) than Santa F e with indoor parity slightly higher than outdoors. Malaria cases were higher in Santa F e, but adult mosquito density was much lower than in Guayana. This difference could have been due to higher parity in Santa F e compared to Guayana. The greater distance to the nearest breeding site and presence of alternative hosts in Guayana can not be discounted as factors which contributed to the difference in malaria transmission between locations. We concluded that knowledge on seasonal occurrence, biting activity, resting behavior and breeding site location can be used to design a new control strategy for this vector.
Abstract in English:Continuing to review the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotomiane) some specimens of sandflies from the vexator series were examined. Taxonomic remarks, geographic distribution and drawings of those species are presented.
Abstract in English:Because of the relative epidemiological significance of Triatoma sordida, T. guasayana and T. patagonica, and the need to resolve doubts about their taxonomic validity, we report here a detailed taxonomic comparison of the three species using multivariate analysis of morphometric measures combined with comparisons of their genitalia and antennal structures. From the 17 metric variables studied, the length of the second segment of the rostrum and the anteocular length provided a discrimination function able to separate without error T. sordida from T. guasayana and T. patagonica. The multivariate discriminant functions classified T. guasayana and T. patagonica with an error of 2.44%. Comparison of the male genitalia of T. guasayana and T. sordida showed that there are minor differences in the articulatory apparatus, the median process of the pygophore, the phallosome support and the vesica, with bigger differences in the endosomal process and the phallosome. However, the already described male genitalia of T. patagonica is very similar to that of T. sordida. Analysis of antennal structure by scanning electron microscope showed that sensilla distribution around the pedicel is slightly different in the three species and sensilla density is highest in T. sordida and lowest in T. patagonica. The study showed that the three species form a closely related group. The results confirm the earlier classification of sordida and guasayana as separate species, but they raise some doubts about the taxonomic status of T. patagonica.
Abstract in English:Oenocytes of adult workers and queens of Apis mellifera L. were studied in different ages or life stages, by means of morphometric and histologic techniques. In workers, the oenocytes were found in the head, near the mandibles and in the abdomen, immersed in the parietal fat body mainly below the sterna, close to the wax gland. In queens, two populations of oenocytes different in size and localization were found within the parietal and visceral fat body, respectively. The oenocytes of workers and queens show the presence of acid lipids and acid phosphatase. The role of these cells in the castes differences is discussed.
Abstract in English:A new parasite species of Leishmania is described, L. (Leishmania) forattinii sp. n., which was isolated from a pooled triturate of liver and spleen of a opossum (Didelphis marsupialis aurita) and from skin samples from a rodent (Proechmys iheringi denigratus), captured in primary forest on the Atlantic Cost of Brazil. Our results on the basis of biological and molecular criteria indicate that this taxonomically distinct parasite ias a new species of the L. mexicana complex, but closely related to L. (L.) aristidesi Laison & shaw, 1979, as revelated by phenetic and phylogenetic numerical analyses of the enzyme data. L. forattinii was clearly distinguishable from other Leishmania species of the genus usisng enzyme electrophoresis, monoclonal antibodies, molecular karyotypes, analysis of restriction enzyme digestion patterns of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), as well as the use of kDNA hybridization procedures.
Abstract in English:We have applied both enzyme cytochemistry and immunological labeling techniques to characterize the enzyme 5'-nucleotidase (5'-Nase), at the ultrastructural level, in promastigote forms of four Leishmania species: Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania donovani and Leishmania chagasi. The cerium phosphate staining was localized at the surface of the cell body, the flagellum and the flagellar pocket membranes of all the parasites studied. The immunogold labelling technique confirmed these results. In this report we localized 5'-Nase in L. chagasi and L. amazonensis which have been implicated respectively in visceral and cutaneous forms of leishmaniasis. In addition, we confirmed the localization of this phosphomonoesterase in the other two species studied. The superior quality of the images, obtained with both methodologies, confirms that these parasites possess mechanisms capable of hydrolyzing nucleotide monophosphates, and that the expression of 5'-Nase is associated with the outer surface of the plasma membrane.
Abstract in English:This paper reports on the standardization of four serological reactions currently used in human serodiagnosis for the detection of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in naturally and experimentally infected dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT) and hemagglutination test (IHAT) were standardized, and complement fixation test (CFT) and direct agglutination test (DAT) were used for diagnostic confirmation. Four hundred and eighty one mongrel dogs that were studied by xenodiagnosis were used: (1) parasitemic dogs of two localities of endemic area (EA) of Santiago del Estero province in Argentina (n = 134); (2) non-parasitemic dogs of the same area (n = 285); (3) dogs experimentally infected with T. cruzi in the patent period (n = 6); (4) non-infected dogs (n = 56) which were born in the city of Buenos Aires (BA), one non-EA for Chagas' disease. For IFAT, parasitemic dogs EA showed 95% of reactive sera. Non parasitemic dogs EA showed 77% of non reactive sera. None sera from BA were reactive for dilutions higher than four. For IHAT, 84% of sera of parasitemic dogs EA showed serological reactivity and among non parasitemic dogs BA, 61% were non reactive, while the remainder showed at most titres of 1/16. The cut-off titres for IFAT and IHAT were 1/16 and 1/32 respectively, and for CFT and DAT 1/1 and 1/128 respectively. Sensitivity for IFAT, IHAT, CF and DAT were 95%, 84%, 97% and 95% respectively.
Abstract in English:The observation that murine thymocytes increase their proliferation to interleukin 1 (IL-1) in the presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) when pre-incubated with interleukin 2 (IL-2) allowed the introduction of a modified assay for the measurement of IL-1 or the search of thymocyte-inducing proliferative activities in biological samples. Pre-incubation of thymocytes for 24 hr with 50 u/ml IL-2, followed by washings, elicited their maximal response to IL-1 in the usual lymphocyte activating factor (LAF) assay. This suggests that sequential events lead to thymocyte activation. The responsiveness is three to five fold greater than, and the total time of assay is the same as that of the LAF assay. Interestingly, pre-incubation with IL-2 renders thymocytes more sensitive than responsive to crude monocyte conditioned media. The use of the MTT colorimetric method for the assessment of thymocyte proliferation, and of the lectin jacalin as a co-mitogen are suggested as alternatives to be used in co-stimulatory assays.
Abstract in English:To study the frequency of Blastocystis hominis among healthy individuals, feces were collected from 153 children and 20 staff members of some municipal day-care centers. Three separate stool specimens of each individual were processed by Lutz and Faust methods. From 173 studied individuals, 60 (34.7%) showed B. hominis, frequently in association with other intestinal parasites and/or commensals. B. hominis was found mainly in adults and children between 36 and 72 months old. All positive cases were detected only by Lutz method and the use of three stool specimens increased the positivity of the parasitological diagnostic.
Abstract in English:The influence of the subminimal inhibitory concentrations (1/3 and 1/4 of the MIC) of penicillin on growth rate and on haemolysin production of a strain of group G Streptococcus was studied. It was shown that 1/3 of the MIC almost completely inhibited the bacterial growth, but it was not able to inhibit haemolysin activity in the culture supernate. The generation time of bacteria grown in 1/4 of the MIC was approximately twice longer than that of the control culture. In all cultures, the haemolysin, after being produced (or liberated), reached a peak and decreased to low levels, which could suggest that group G Streptococcus produces some end products of metabolism that are able to inhibit haemolysin activity.
Abstract in English:Proctocaccum dorsale n. sp. is described and Caimanicola marajoara Freitas & Lent, 1938 is redescribed based on specimens collected from Caiman crocodilus yacare (Daudin) from the Pantanal Mato-grossense, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. This report extends south ward the known geographic distribution of C. marajoara. It is the first record of the genus Proctocaccum in South America, and in the caiman. Proctocaccum dorsale n. sp. differs from the other eight species in the genus by the dorsal location of the anal openings, instead of being lateral or in the posterior extremity of the body.
Abstract in English:Fine, long, fibrous septa were observed as a late change developing in the acinar zone III of the liver of rats experimentally infected with the helminth Capillaria hepatica. Hepatic septal fibrosis begun 30 days after inoculation of embryonated eggs into the stomach of rats and became clearly evident from the 40th day onwards. Experimental observation was undertaken for 170 days. Septal fibrosis increased progressively with time and was most marked when the parasitic nodules formed around larvae, disintegrating worms and eggs were involving. Septal fibrosis of the liver has not been previously recognized as a manifestation of hepatic capillariasis. The presence of sequestered parasite antigens, probably being slowly released within the liver, appears to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of hepatic septal fibrosis observed in rats with C. hepatica infection.
Abstract in English:The finding in 1985 of a well-established population of Biomphalaria straminea in a pond in Grande Terre of Guadeloupe constitutes a new species record for the freshwater molluscan fauna of that island. The following years a rapid extension of the species was documented on Grande Terre and Marie Galante. However, it was never found in the neighboring island of Basse Terre. The invasion of the whole hydrographic system of this island by Melanoides tuberculata during the last decade and the current presence of well-established and dense populations of this snail may explain the failure of the colonization by B. straminea.
Abstract in English:The present work was carried out in a watercress garden in Alto da Boa Vista, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The investigation was carried out in two phases. The first one (1985-86) involved the sampling of Biomphalaria tenegophila in two areas to determine its relative populational densities. The results showed that the populations presented similar densities and dynamics. The second phase (1988-89) involved the study of the influence of some environmental factors on the establishment of B. tenagophila in watercress garden. Two factors were identified as responsible for the establishment of B. tenagophila in the garden: (1) the quality of the water entering the irrigation system, to which domestic sewage is added, and (2) alterations in the nature of the substrate, due to inadequate fertilization techniques, which employ organic matter from adjacent pigsties. Aquatic plants and hydrological parameters of the irrigation system were subsidiary factors to the establishment of B. tenagophila in the garden.
Abstract in English:We describe a biphallic specimen of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) from the municipality of Caeté, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The conformation of the two penial complexes, with a common genital pore on the left side. suggests that both have copulatory capacity. Based on a review of literature type of biphally appears to be reported for the first time in planorbids.
Abstract in English:The life-cycle parameters of the snail Lymnaea (Radix) luteola and the factors influencing the same have been studied under laboratory conditions. Ins each month, from July 1990 to June 1991, a batch of 100 zero-day old individual were considered for studies. The snails of April batch survived for 19.42 days while those in December batch survived for 87.45 days. The May batch individual though survived for 65.67 days gained maximum shell size (15.84 mm in length) and body weight (419.87 mg). All individuals of April batch died prior to attainment of sexual maturity. In the remaining 11 batches the snails became sexually mature between 32 and 53 days. At this stage, they were with varying shell lengths, 9.3 mm to 13,11 mm in respect to batches. The reproduction period varied from 1-67 days. An individual laid, on an average, 0,25 (March batch) to 443.67 (May batch) eggs in its life-span. A batch of such snails would leave 24312, 22520, 720268, 80408, 76067, 418165, 214, 9202, 0, 0, 2459386 and 127894 individuals at the end of 352nd day. Since the environmental conditions were almost similar the 'dynamic' of population dynamics seems to be involved with the 'strain' of the snail individuals of the batches concerned.
Abstract in English:Veronicellid slugs are considered the most important intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis, an intra-arterial nematode of rodents. Studies undertaken in three localities in southern Brazil led to identification of molluscs other than veronicellid slugs as hosts of A. costaricensis: Limax maximus, Limax flavus and Bradybaena similaris. These data indicate a low host specificity of larval stages of A. costaricensis, as it has been reported to other congeneric species.