Abstract in English:A cross-sectional survey conducted among evening students was used to determine the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Maceió, capital of the State of Alagoas, northeast Brazil. A single thick-blood smear was used, being collected between 10 p.m. and 12 a.m. From a total of 29,551 students enrolled at evening elementary schools in the 33 city sectors, 16,569 (56.4%) were random selected for inclusion in the study. From those, 10,857 (65.5%) were interviewed and examined and 73 (0.7%) were found to have microfilaraemia. Autochthonous W. bancrofti carriers live in 10 of the 33 city sectors, suggesting a focal distribution. Moreover, 84% of infections were diagnosed among 29% of all students examined, inhabiting three contiguous sectors at the city central area, presenting infection rates up to 5.3%. Students living in city sectors with prevalence of microfilariae carriers greater than 1% were found to have a higher risk for infection when compared to students from the rest of the town [Relative Odds (RO) 12.8, 95% CI 6.7 - 25.1]. Eleven positive individuals from non endemic areas were living in Maceió for more than 10 years; time of residence in the area was a major risk factor for infection among students not born in the region (p<0.01). Regarding sex, male students presented a higher proportion of positive (RO 1.7, 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9).
Abstract in English:From January 1989 to April 1995, 465 specimens of Triatoma vitticeps were collected in the locality of Triunfo, 2nd District of Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, State of Rio de Janeiro. The bugs were found indoors by local residents with predominance of adults. The flight activity was high in hot months when the incidence in the domicile also increased. Two hundred and two bugs (111 alive and 91 dead) were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This was detected in 31 of the dead bugs (34%) and 88 (79%) of the live bugs examined. With a view to investigate the possible vertebrate hosts of the T. cruzi isolates, the blood of 122 mammals was examined through Giemsa-stained smears, hemocultures and xenodiagnosis. T. cruzi was detected in three specimens of Didelphis marsupialis and T. (M.) theileri was detected in one specimen of Bos taurus. The parasites were isolated from triatomine feces, xenoculture and hemoculture. No evidence of human infection was detected in 58 inhabitants examined, as evaluated by indirect imunofluorescence technique using T. cruzi epimastigotes as antigens. These results show that T. vitticeps is still a sylvatic species although nymphs have been found inside the domicile. Thus, an epidemiological vigilance is necessary to know the behaviour of this species following the continuous modifications promoted by the presence of man.
Abstract in English:Sixteen species of ectoparasites were collected from 50 wild rodents, from August 1990 to August 1991, in an area of Araucaria augustifolia forest, in the municipality of Tijucas do Sul, State of Paraná, Brazil. Ectoparasites infested 98% of the rodents, with the highest indices of infestation found in the dry-cool season. Species that occurred in single or multiple infestations were recorded. Ectoparasite/host associations were significant (p<0.01) for Gigantolaelaps wolffsohni/Oryzomys nigripes, Polygenis pradoi/Oxymycterus sp. and Amblyopinus sp./Oxymycterus sp. The following represent new host records: Polygenis (Polygenis) tripus from Akodon serrensis and Hoplopleura sciuricola from Sciurus aestuans. New geographic records are given for two species of flea and one sucking lice.
Abstract in English:Seropositivity for Chagas disease was evaluated in 834 children aged between 7 and 14 from the Municipal Teaching System in the district of Londrina, State of Paraná. A seroprevalence rate of 0.1% was found through the use of an indirect immunofluorescent test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This low rate of seroprevalence provides evidence that the vectorial transmission of Chagas disease has been eliminated in Londrina. The main reason for the elimination of vectorial transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, as evaluated by serological tests, may be a remarkable change in the economic structure of the northern region of Paraná in the 1960's. At that time coffee production was almost completely replaced by soy beans, wheat and grazing in the rural areas. This change deeply affected the rural ecology and caused an exodus of the population from rural to urban areas as well as a decrease in the total number of the population of that region. The measures introduced for controlling the disease through the Program of Chagas Disease Control established by the Fundação Nacional de Saúde of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, certainly, had a positive impact on the reduction of American trypanosomiasis prevalence in the area under study. However, it does not seem that this was the most relevant factor responsible for the elimination of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease in Londrina.
Abstract in English:Eimeria minasensis n. sp. is described in the domestic goat Capra hircus from Brazil. Oocysts ellipsoidal are 35 x 24.5 (32-37.7 x 20.9-27.9) mm. Sporocysts elongate-ellipsoid are 15.2 x 9 (12.3-18.4 x 7.8-10.2) mm, with a Stieda body at the narrow end. Oocyst wall smooth and bilayered; outer layer about 1.2 (0.8-1.6) mm and colorless; inner layer about 0.5 (0.4-0.8) mm and dark-brown. Micropyle, a mound-shaped micropylar cap 1,6 x 8,9 (0,8-2 x7-10,2) easily dislodged; one or more oocyst polar granules present. Oocyst residuum absent. Sporocyst residuum present, composed of many scattered granules. Sporozoites elongate, lying lengthwise, "head to tail" in the sporocysts; one or two refractile globules are usually visible. Sporulation time was 120 hr at 27oC, prepatent period, 19 to 20 days and patent period 15 to 25 days. Gamonts, gametes and oocysts present in cecum and colon. Prevalence was 12.8% (6/47) in goats from Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Abstract in English:Hysterothylacium geschei n. sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae) is described from the intestine of Cauque mauleanum (Steindachner) (Pisces: Atherinidae) from Lake Panguipulli (39º43'S; 72º13'W), Chile. Eleven (78.6%) out of 14 fish were infected, with a mean intensity (range) of 14.4 (1-55) worms. The new species can be differentiated from the two previously described species of freshwater fishes from South America by the presence of lateral alae, the number of caudal papillae, and the length of the spicules, oesophagus, intestinal caecum, distance vulva-anterior extremity and the length ratio intestinal caecum: ventricular appendix. From the fishes examined in Lake Panguipulli, including the introduced salmonid species Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and the authochthonous species Basilichthys australis Eigenmann (Atherinidae) and Percichthys trucha (Valenciennes) (Percichthyidae), only one specimen of P. trucha was found parasitized by a third-stage larva of this species.
Abstract in English:In this study we examined whether the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi by long-time in axenic culture produces changes in gene expression and antigenic profiles. The studies were made with a Dm30L-clone from a low-virulent strain and a non-cloned virulent EP-strain of T. cruzi. Both parasites were maintained, for at least seven years, by successive alternate passage triatomine/mouse (triatomine condition), or by serial passage in axenic medium (culture condition). The comparison of the [35S]methionine metabolic labeling products of virulent and non-virulent parasites by 2D-SDS-PAGE, clearly indicates that the expression of metacyclic trypomastigotes (but not of epimastigotes) proteins have been altered by laboratory maintenance conditions. Western blot analysis of EP and Dm30L-epimastigotes using a serum anti-epimastigotes revealed that although most of antigens are conserved, four antigens are characteristics of triatomine condition parasites and three other are characteristics of culture condition parasites. Anti-metacyclics serum revealed significative differences in EP- and Dm30L-metacyclic trypomastigotes from triatomine condition. However, avirulent metacyclic forms were antigenically very similar. These results suggest that besides a possible selection of avirulent subpopulation from T. cruzi strains genetically heterogeneous when maintained by long time in axenic culture, changes in virulence might be due to post-translational modifications of the antigens induced by the absence of the natural alternability (vertebrate-invertebrate) in the life-cycle of T. cruzi
Abstract in English:Cephalobium magdalensis n. sp. (Rhabditida: Diplogasteridae) found in Magdalena, Buenos Aires, and Cruznema lincolnensis n. sp. (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae) found in Lincoln, Buenos Aires, parasitizing the cricket Gryllodes laplatae (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are described and illustrated. C. magdalensis n. sp. is characterized by having the excretory pore between the pseudobulb and the basal bulb and seven pairs of postanal papillae in the male. C. lincolnensis n. sp. can be distiguished by having meanly two pairs of preanal papillae, one pair of adanal papillae and six pairs of postanal papillae in the male.
Abstract in English:Two cestode species, Fimbriaria fasciolaris (Pallas, 1781) Frölich, 1802 Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) Wolffhügel,1938 collected from Anas bahamensis Linné, 1758 and Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1758) in lagoons of the Maricá District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described. This is the first record of F. fasciolaris parasitizing A. bahamensis. The prevalence, intensity of infection, and mean intensity of infection for both species are given. Overdispersion distribution is reported for F. fasciolaris with 535 specimens collected in a single A. bahamensis. A key for the genera in the Fimbriariinae is presented. Anatomical features of F. fasciolaris and C. megalops are discussed.
Abstract in English:Numerical analyses (correspondence analysis, ascending hierarchical classification, cladistic approach) were applied to the morphological characters of the adults of the genus Phlebotomus Rondani & Berté 1840. They confirm the reliability of the classic classifications, and also redefine the taxonomic and phylogenetic position of certain taxa. Thus, Spelaeophlebotomus Theodor 1948, Idiophlebotomus Quate & Fairchild 1961 and Australophlebotomus Theodor 1948 deserve generic rank. Among the vectors of leishmaniasis, the subgenus Phlebotomus Rondani & Berté 1840 is probably ancient. The results attribute an intermediate taxonomic and phylogenetic position to the taxa Euphlebotomus Theodor 1948 and Anaphlebotomus Theodor 1948, and reveal the probable artificial nature of the latter. The comparatively large numbers of species of subgenera Paraphlebotomus Theodor 1948, Synphlebotomus Theodor 1948 and, above all, Larroussius Nitzulescu 1931 and Adlerius Nitzulescu 1931, suggest that they are relatively recent. The development of adult morphological characters, the validity of their use in taxonomy and proposals for further studies are discussed.
Abstract in English:Numerical analyses (correspondence analysis, ascending hierarchical classification, and cladistics) were done with morphological characters of adult phlebotomine sand flies. The resulting classification largely confirms that of classical taxonomy for supra-specific groups from the Old World, though the positions of some groups are adjusted. The taxa Spelaeophlebotomus Theodor 1948, Idiophlebotomus Quate & Fairchild 1961, Australophlebotomus Theodor 1948 and Chinius Leng 1987 are notably distinct from other Old World groups, particularly from the genus Phlebotomus Rondani & Berté 1840. Spelaeomyia Theodor 1948 and, in particular, Parvidens Theodor & Mesghali 1964 are clearly separate from Sergentomyia França & Parrot 1920.
Abstract in English:Mycolic acids analysis by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) has been employed by several laboratories worldwide as a method for fast identification of mycobacteria. This method was introduced in Brazil by our laboratory in 1992 as a routine identification technique. Up to the present, 861 strains isolated were identified by mycolic acids TLC and by standard biochemical tests; 61% out of these strains came as clinical samples, 4% isolated from frogs and 35% as environmental samples. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains identified by classical methods were confirmed by their mycolic acids contents (I, III and IV). The method allowed earlier differentiation of M. avium complex - MAC (mycolic acids I, IV and VI) from M. simiae (acids I, II and IV), both with similar biochemical properties. The method also permitted to distinguish M. fortuitum (acids I and V) from M. chelonae (acids I and II) , and to detect mixed mycobacterial infections cases as M. tuberculosis with MAC and M. fortuitum with MAC. Concluding, four years experience shows that mycolic acids TLC is an easy, reliable, fast and inexpensive method, an important tool to put together conventional mycobacteria identification methods.
Abstract in English:The electrostatic surface charge and surface tension of mononuclear cells/monocytes obtained from young and adult marsupials (Didelphis marsupialis) were investigated by using cationized ferritin and colloidal iron hydroxyde, whole cell electrophoresis, and measurements of contact angles. Anionic sites were found distributed throughout the entire investigated cell surfaces. The results revealed that the anionic character of the cells is given by electrostatic charges corresponding to -18.8 mV (cells from young animals) and -29.3 mV (cells from adult animals). The surface electrostatic charge decreased from 10 to 65.2% after treatment of the cells with each one of trypsin, neuraminidase and phospholipase C. The hydrophobic nature of the mononuclear cell surfaces studied by using the contact angle method revealed that both young and adult cells possess cell surfaces of high hidrofilicity since the angles formed with drops of saline water were 42.5°and 40.8°, respectively. Treatment of the cells with trypsin or neuraminidase rendered their surfaces more hydrophobic, suggesting that sialic acid-containing glycoproteins are responsible for most of the hydrophilicity observed in the mononuclear cell surfaces from D. marsupialis.
Abstract in English:Prostaglandins (Pgs) have been shown to inhibit the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses. Here we report the effect of prostaglandin (PgA1) on the multiplication of a positive strand RNA virus, Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) in PK15 cells. PgA1 was found to inhibit the multiplication of CSFV. At a concentration of 5 µg/ml, which was nontoxic to the cells, PgA1 inhibitis virus production in 99%. In PgA1 treated cells the size and number of characteristic Classical Swine Fever focus decreased in amount.
Abstract in English:Analysis of zymograms with SDS-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis containing gelatin as substrate, and performed on samples of haemolymph or fat body taken from Rhodnius prolixus inoculated or not with Enterobacter cloacae, demonstrated distinct patterns of protease activities: (i) in the haemolymph two proteases were induced in insects inoculated with bacteria; (ii) two proteases were detected in the fat bodies derived from non-inoculated controls or insect inoculated with sterile culture medium; (iii) haemolymph and fat body had both the same apparent molecular weights proteases (46 and 56 kDa); and (iv) these enzymes were characterized as metallo-proteases. The association of these enzymes in Rhodnius infected with bacteria was discussed.
Abstract in English:This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc sulphate both in vitro and in an animal model against both strains of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis. The in vitro sensitivities of promastigotes and axenic amastigotes of both Leishmania major and L. tropica to zinc sulphate was determined, the LD50 calculated and compared to the standard treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis pentavalent antimony compounds. The results show that the two forms of both strains were sensitive to zinc sulphate and their respective LD50 were lower compared to the pentavalent antimony compound. Furthermore the sensitivities of the forms of both strains were tested using a simple slide method and compared to results of the standard method. To confirm this result, zinc sulphate was administered orally to mice infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis both therapeutically and prophylactically. Results showed that oral zinc sulphate was effective in both treatment and prophylaxis for cutaneous leishmaniasis. These results encourage the use of oral zinc sulphate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis clinically.
Abstract in English:Twenty three isolates of Beauveria bassiana and 13 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae were tested on third instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans, a serious vector of Chagas disease. Pathogenicity tests at saturated humidity showed that this insect is very susceptible to fungal infection. At lower relative humidity (50%), conditions expected in the vector microhabitat, virulence was significantly different among isolates. Cumulative mortality 15 days after treatment varied from 17.5 to 97.5%, and estimates of 50% survival time varied from 6 to 11 days. Maintaining lower relative humidity, four B. bassiana and two M. anisopliae isolates were selected for analysis of virulence at different conidial concentrations and temperatures. Lethal concentrations sufficient to kill 50% of insects (LC50) varied from 7.1x105 to 4.3x106 conidia/ml, for a B. bassiana isolate (CG 14) and a M. anisopliae isolate (CG 491) respectively. Most isolates, particularly B. bassiana isolates CG 24 and CG 306, proved to be more virulent at 25 and 30°C, compared to 15 and 20°C. The differential virulence at 50% humidity observed among some B. bassiana isolates was not correlated to phenetic groups in cluster analysis of RAPD markers. In fact, the B. bassiana isolates analyzed presented a high homogeneity (> 73% similarity).
Abstract in English:Cryptosporidium parvum and C. muris appear to be different species found in calves, with different oocysts size and distribution on the gastrointestinal tract. This work presents new images of C. parvum ultrastructure in calf intestine, mainly its development in nonmicrovillous cells and the presence of microtubular structures in the membrane enveloping the macrogamonts and immature oocysts.
Abstract in English:A survey of Isospora suis performed in 177 faecal samples from 30 swine farms detected thin wall type I. suis oocysts in seven samples. This type of oocyst measuring 23.9 by 20.7 mm had a retracted thin wall similar to that of the genus Sarcocystis. This type of oocysts, isolated from four different faecal samples, was inoculated in four-five-days-old piglets free of contamination in order to verify the life cycle and pathogenicity of the species. The pigs were kept in individual metal cages and fed with cow milk. Daily faecal collections and examinations were performed until the 21st day after infection. MacMaster and Sheather' s methods were used for oocyst counting and identification. Infected piglets produced yellowish-pasty diarrhoea with slight dehydration. The prepatent and patent periods were respectively from 6 to 9 and 3 to 10 days after infection. Oocyst elimination was interrupted on the 10th and 11th days after infection with biphasic cycles. Thin and thick wall oocysts were detected in the same faecal samples. Thin walls were not observed in unsporulated oocysts. The observations suggest that this type of oocysts could appear in specific strains which occur in the later stages of their development. These oocysts seem to be responsible for clinical and pathogenic signs of neonatal isosporosis in pigs.
Abstract in English:A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of local strains of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti to infection with the strain of Wuchereria bancrofti that occurs in Maceió, State of Alagoas, Brazil. Cx. quinquefasciatus blood fed simultaneously on the same microfilariae carrier ingested more blood and 2-3x more microfilariae than Ae. aegypti. Survival rates of both species of insects living for 21 days after blood feeding on microfilaraemic patients were not significantly different from the survival rates of mosquitoes that blood fed on amicrofilaraemic individuals. W. bancrofti parasites underwent normal development in Cx. quinquefasciatus, with third stage larvae first being recorded on the 11th day post infection, and their numbers increasing thereafter. Development of filariae in Ae. aegypti did not proceed beyond the first larval stage, and there was a progressively increasing number of non-viable larvae with the passage of time. It is concluded that Ae. aegypti is not involved in the transmission of W. bancrofti in Maceió.
Abstract in English:Reproductive anomalies associated with the tsetse DNA virus infection in the female tsetse hosts, Glossina morsitans centralis Machado and Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, inoculated with the virus during the 3rd instar larval stage were studied and the data compared to those obtained from the control females injected with sterile physiological saline. Virus infected flies had significantly longer first and second pregnancy cycles (P<0.0001) and produced pupae that were of significantly less weight in milligrams (P<0.0001) compared to controls. Transmission of the virus to progeny was not absolute and only 21% of G. m. centralis and 48% of G. m. morsitans first progeny flies from infected females developed salivary gland hypertrophy as a result of transmission from mother to progeny. The virus infected females produced significantly fewere pupae compared to the controls during the experimental period (P<0.00001).