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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 94, Issue: 3, Published: 1999
  • Association of Lutzomyia columbiana (Diptera: Psychodidae) with a Leishmaniasis Focus in Colombia Due to Species of the Leishmania mexicana Complex Epidemiology

    Montoya-lerma, James; Cadena, Horacio; Segura, Iris; Travi, Bruno Luis

    Abstract in English:

    In Colombia, Leishmania mexicana has a scattered geographical distribution and no sand fly vectors have been associated with its transmission. During the present study, the anthropophilic sand fly Lutzomyia columbiana was found to be the only species collected using diverse methods, in a small focus of Le. mexicana in the municipality of Samaniego, SW Colombia. Ecological data indicate that this sand fly species is present in both peri and intradomestic habitats, where it readily bites man. Further evidence comes from experimental itnfections of wild-caught Lu. columbiana with Le. mexicana after feeding on itnfected hamsters. Based on these results, it is suggested that this sand fly is the most likely vector in the study area, suggesting the existence of a previously unknown sand fly-parasite association.
  • Presence of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in Argentina Epidemiology

    Salomón, Oscar D; Ripoll, Carlos M; Rivetti, Eduardo; Carcavallo, Rodolfo U

    Abstract in English:

    Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus is reported for the first time in Argentina. Four adults were attracted by the light of human dwellings in Calilegua National Park, Jujuy, at 1150 masl within the subtropical humid forest. The individuals were similar to those described in the literature. The epidemiological significance of this species is very low in the area, although deforestation might increase its role in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi.
  • Distribution of Sandflies (Diptera:Psychodidae) on Tree-trunks in a Non-flooded Area of the Ducke Forest Reserve, Manaus, AM, Brazil Epidemiology

    Cabanillas, MRS; Castellón, EG

    Abstract in English:

    Sandflies were collected in the base of tree-trunks in the seasons of high and least rainfall in the Ducke Forest Reserve, near Manaus in the State of Amazonas. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the most abundant sandfly species. Caryocar villosum, Chrysophyllum amazonicum, Dinizia excelsa, Eschweilera atropetiolata and Parkia multijuga were the tree species on which most sandflies were collected and relative abundance were related to trunk characteristics. Seasonal patterns of sandfly distribution in the forest were observed.
  • Dengue in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1986-1998 Epidemiology

    Nogueira, Rita Maria R; Miagostovich, Marize P; Schatzmayr, Hermann G; Santos, Flávia B dos; Araújo, Eliane S M de; Filippis, Ana Maria B de; Souza, Rogério V de; Zagne, Sonia Maris O; Nicolai, Cecília; Baran, Mary; Teixeira Filho, Gualberto

    Abstract in English:

    This paper presents epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical data on 12 years of dengue virus activity in the State of Rio de Janeiro from the time the disease was first confirmed virologically in April 1986 through April 1998. DEN-1 and DEN-2 viruses are the serotypes circulating in the state and were responsible for the epidemics reported during the last 12 years. The results published here show both the impact of dengue virus infections on the population and laboratory advances that have improved dengue diagnosis.
  • Use of Monoclonal Antibodies for the Identification of Leishmania spp. Isolated from Humans and Wild Rodents in the State of Campeche, Mexico Systematics

    CantoLara, Silvia B; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole R; Vargas-González, Alberto; Ojeda-Farfán, Fanny F; Andrade-Narváez, Fernando J

    Abstract in English:

    The genus Leishmania includes 30 described species which infect a wide variety of mammalian hosts. The precise identification of leishmanial parasites at the species level is very important in order to determine whether an organism, causing the disease in a given area, is of the same biotype as that found in suspected mammalian reservoirs. The objectives of the present study were (1) to identify leishmanial parasites isolated from humans and wild rodents from the State of Campeche, an endemic focus of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) in southern Mexico, using an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) with monoclonal antibodies (Mabs); and (2) to determine if the parasites of the two types of hosts were of the same biotype. All the wild rodents (six Ototylomys phyllotis, eight Oryzomys melanotis, five Peromyscus yucatanicus and two Sigmodon hispidus) and 96% (24/25) of the human isolates were identified as Leishmania (L.) mexicana confirming that this specific LCL focus is a wild zoonosis. The presence of one human isolate of L. (Viannia) braziliensis in the State of Campeche, confirmed the importance of an accurate taxonomic identification at species level.
  • Binema bonaerensis n. sp. (Oxyurida: Thelastomatidae) parasite of Neocurtilla claraziana saussure (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Argentina Systematics

    Camino, Nora B; Reboredo, Guillermo R

    Abstract in English:

    The nematode Binema bonaerensis n. sp. (Oxyurida: Thelastomatidae) is described from the intestine of the mole cricket of Neocurtilla claraziana Saussure (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. It is distinguished mainly by having a conical tail; three sclerotized arches in the buccal cavity; an excretory pore inmediately posterior to the base of the esophagus and the presence of five pairs of male genital papillae with one pair preanal and four pairs postanal.
  • Wild birds as hosts of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) (Acari: Ixodidae) Systematics

    Rojas, Rosario; Marini, Miguel Ângelo; Coutinho, Maria Teresa Zanatta

    Abstract in English:

    We evaluated the prevalence, mean intensity and relative density of ticks in 467 wild birds of 67 species (12 families) from forest and cerrado habitats at two protected areas of Minas Gerais, between March and September 1997. Ticks collected (n=177) were identified as larvae and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense and four other species of Amblyomma. We report for the first time 28 bird species as hosts of the immature stages of A. cajennense, demonstrating the lack of host specificity of the larvae and nymphs. A. cajennense had 15% prevalence on birds, with a mean infestation intensity of 0.37 ticks per host sampled, and 2.5 ticks per infested bird. Prevalence varied in relation to host species, diet and between birds from forests at two successional stages. There were no differences in relation to host forest dependence, participation in mixed flocks of birds, and nest type constructed. A. cajennense is a species of medical and veterinary importance, occurring on domestic animals but is known little of its occurrence on wildlife.
  • Restriction fragment length polymorphism of 195 bp repeated satellite dna of Trypanosoma cruzi supports the existence of two phylogenetic groups Systematics

    Bastrenta, Brigitte; Bosseno, Marie France; Barnabé, Christian; Tibayrenc, Michel; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    Abstract in English:

    The restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 195 bp repeated DNA sequence of Trypanosoma cruzi was analyzed among 23 T. cruzi stocks giving a reliable picture of the whole phylogenetic variability of the species. The profiles observed with the enzymes Hinf I and Hae III were linked together and supported the existence of two groups. Group 1 shows a 195 bp repeated unit (Hinf I) and high molecular weight DNA (Hae III), while group 2 presents a ladder profile for each enzyme, which is a characteristic of tandemly repeated DNA. The two groups, respectively, clustered stocks pertaining to the two principal lineages evidenced by isoenzyme and RAPD markers. The congruence among these three independent genomic markers corroborates the existence of two real phylogenetic lineages in T. cruzi. The specific monomorphic profiles for each major phylogenetic lineage suggest the existence of ancient sexuality and cryptic biological speciation.
  • Sabethes (Peytonulus) luxodens, a New Species of Sabethini (Diptera: Culicidae) from Ecuador Systematics

    Hall, Clinton R; Howard, Theresa M; Harbach, Ralph E

    Abstract in English:

    The adult male, larva and pupa of Sabethes (Peytonulus) luxodens, a new species from Ecuador, are described. The species is distinguished from Sabethes aurescens (Lutz), which it closely resembles in all life stages
  • A Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny Indicates Close Relationships between Populations of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) from the Rain-forest Regions of Amazônia and Northeast Brazil Systematics

    Ishikawa, EAY; Ready, PD; Souza, AA de; Day, JC; Rangel, EF; Davies, CR; Shaw, JJ

    Abstract in English:

    Phylogenetic analysis of all 31 described mitochondrial (cytochrome b) haplotypes of Lutzomyia whitmani demonstrated that new material from the State of Rondônia, in southwest Amazônia, forms a clade within a lineage found only in the rain-forest regions of Brazil. This rain-forest lineage also contains two other clades of haplotypes, one from eastern Amazônia and one from the Atlantic forest zone of northeast Brazil (including the type locality of the species in Ilhéus, State of Bahia). These findings do not favour recognizing two allopatric cryptic species of L. whitmani, one associated with the silvatic transmission of Leishmania shawi in southeast Amazônia and the other with the peridomestic transmission of Le. braziliensis in northeast Brazil. Instead, they suggest that there is (or has been in the recent past) a continuum of inter-breeding populations of L. whitmani in the rain-forest regions of Brazil.
  • Genetic Structure of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Domestic Populations from Bolivia: Application on Control Interventions Systematics

    Noireau, François; Zegarra, Mario; Ordoñez, Jackline; Gutierrez, Teresa; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    Abstract in English:

    The genetic population of Triatoma sordida group 1, a secondary vector of Chagas disease in Bolivia, was studied by multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis. A total of 253 nymphal and adult specimens collected from seven neighbouring localities in the Velasco Province, Department of Santa Cruz, were processed. The relatively low genetic variability was confirmed for this species (rate of polymorphism: 0.20). The absence of genetic disequilibrium detected within the seven localities was demonstrated. A geographical structuration appears between localities with distances greater than 20 km apart. Although T. sordida presents a relatively reduced dispersive capacity, its panmictic unit is wider than compared with T. infestans. Genetic distances between T. sordida populations were correlated with geographic distance. Gene flow between geographic populations of T. sordida provides an efficient framework for effective vigilance and control protocols.
  • Triatoma bassolsae sp. n. from Mexico with a key to species of "phyllosoma" complex Systematics

    Aguilar, Ricardo Alejandre; Nogueda Torres, Benjamín; Cortéz Jímenez, Máximo; Jurberg, José; Galvão, Cleber; Carcavallo, Rodolfo

    Abstract in English:

    According to the descriptions of five closely related species of the genus Triatoma Laporte, 1832: T. phyllosoma (Burmeister, 1835), T. pallidipennis (Stal, 1872), T. picturata Usinger, 1939, T. longipennis Usinger, 1939 and T. mazzottii Usinger, 1941 and further published studies, these species could be included in a "specific complex" named as the species formerly described. All these species are typical from Mexico and another species was found in the same country, in the State of Puebla: Triatoma bassolsae sp. n. This species was morphologically compared with the other five of the "phyllosoma" complex, including the external male genitalia. The most important characters used to separate T. bassolsae from T. phyllosoma (which is the most similar to the other species) are the morphometric relationships on the head, with a longer anteocular region and a significant longer second rostral segment, a long and conspicuous pilosity in different areas of the body and specially on the head, and the characters of the anterolateral, lateral and discal tubercles of the pronotum, very long and sharp in the new species. The male genitalia has several differences between T. bassolsae and T. phyllosoma specially significant on the surface of the endosome process and on the branches of the phallosome support, separated at the apex in the new species. Types and paratypes are incorporated in the respective institutions in Mexico DF and Rio de Janeiro.
  • Genomic Classification and Genetic Relationships of a New Variant of Hepatitis A Virus Isolated in Cuba Systematics

    Díaz, Belkis I; Sariol, Carlos A; Martínez, Raiza; Rodríguez, Licel
  • Anomalies of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) Systematics

    Marcondes, Carlos Brisola
  • T Cell Response of Asymptomatic Leishmania chagasi Infected Subjects to Recombinant Leishmania Antigens Immunobiology

    Costa, Sérgio Ricardo; D'Oliveira Júnior, Argemiro; Bacellar, Olívia; Carvalho, Edgar M

    Abstract in English:

    In areas of Leishmania chagasi transmission the ability to control leishmania infection is associated with IFN-g production. In visceral leishmaniasis down-regulation of T cell responses is mediated by interleukin-10 (IL-10). In this study we evaluated the lymphoproliferative response, IFN-g and IL-10 production on lymphocyte cultures stimulated with recombinant leishmania antigens in subjects with asymptomatic L. chagasi infection. There was a statistically significant difference in the lymphoproliferative response of the subjects with asymptomatic infection as compared to patients with visceral leishmaniasis and healthy subjects with respect to crude antigens (p<0.01), gp-63 (p<0.05) and hsp-70 (p<0.01), as well as between asymptomatic L. chagasi infected subjects and patients with visceral leishmaniasis with respect to the response to all antigens tested. The IFN-g production observed in the group with asymptomatic infection with all the three recombinant antigens tested was higher (p<0.01) than that observed in patients with visceral leishmaniasis and in healthy subjects. Furthermore, in individuals with asymptomatic infection, IL-10 levels in cultures stimulated with recombinant antigens were very low. This study shows that lymphocytes from individuals with asymptomatic L. chagasi infection are able to recognize recombinant leishmania antigens with production of a cytokine that is associated with leishmania killing.
  • Humoral Immune Response Kinetics in Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis Infected and Immunized by Trypanosoma cruzi Employing an Immunofluorescence Antibody Test Immunobiology

    Legey, Ana Paula; Pinho, Ana Paula S; Xavier, Samanta C Chagas; Leon, Leonor L; Jansen, Ana Maria

    Abstract in English:

    Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis considered the most ancient mammals and an evolutionary success, maintain parasitism by Trypanosoma cruzi without developing any apparent disease or important tissue lesion. In order to elucidate this well-balanced interaction, we decided to compare the humoral immune response kinetics of the two didelphids naturally and experimentally infected with T. cruzi and immunized by different schedules of parasite antigens, employing an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Both didelphids responded with high serological titers to different immunization routes, while the earliest response occurred with the intradermic route. Serological titers of naturally infected P. opossum showed a significant individual variation, while those of D. marsupialis remained stable during the entire follow-up period. The serological titers of the experimentally infected animals varied according to the inoculated strain. Our data suggest that (1) IFAT was sensitive for follow-up of P. opossum in natural and experimental T. cruzi infections; (2) both P. opossum and D. marsupialis are able to mount an efficient humoral immune response as compared to placental mammals; (3) experimentally infected P. opossum and D. marsupialis present distinct patterns of infection, depending on the subpopulation of T. cruzi, (4) the differences observed in the humoral immune responses between P. opossum and D. marsupialis, probably, reflect distinct strategies selected by these animals during their coevolution with T. cruzi.
  • Comparison between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive and Negative Patients with Tuberculosis in Southern Brazil Clinical Studies

    Henn, Lucélia; Nagel, Fabiano; Dal Pizzol, Felipe

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study is to determine the different characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and negative patients treated for tuberculosis (TBC) in a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. We conducted a retrospective cohort study over a 5-year period, from January 1992 through December 1996. We reviewed medical charts of patients from our institution who received TBC treatment. We reviewed 167 medical charts of patients with confirmed TBC. HIV positivity was detected in 74 patients. There were statistically significant difference between HIV positive and negative patients in sex and age. HIV-infected patients showed significantly more signs of bacteremia than HIV-negative patients. Extra-pulmonary TBC was present respectively in 13 (17.6%) and 21 (22.6%) HIV positive and negative patients. There was a significant difference between chest radiograph presentation in HIV positive and negative patients. There were significantly lower hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocyte and lymphocyte levels in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative patients. Outcome was significantly different in the two groups with a death rate of 36.5% and 10.8% in HIV-positive and in HIV-negative patients. The difference between HIV positive and negative patients may have importance in the diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with TBC.
  • Adenosine Deaminase and Guanosine Deaminase Activities in Sera of Patients with Viral Hepatitis Clinical Studies

    Kalkan, Ahmet; Bulut, Vedat; Erel, Ozcan; Avci, Senel; Bingol, Namik Kemal

    Abstract in English:

    In order to investigate purin and primidin metabolism pathways in hepatitis, adenosine deaminase (ADA) and guanosine deaminase (GDA) activities in sera of patients with different types and manifestations of viral hepatitis disease (A, B, C, D, E, chronic, acute) were investigated and compared with the control group of healthy individuals. Hepatitis cases were classified with respect to their serological findings and clinics. When compared all the hepatitis cases with the controls, levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase enzymes, as well as ADA and GDA, were significantly higher than the control group (p<0.01). Levels of ADA and GDA in hepatitis cases were determined as 26.07±11.98 IU/l and 2.37±1.91 IU/l, respectively. When compared their ADA and GDA levels amongst the classified hepatitis groups, there was no difference in ADA levels amongst cases (p>0.05). However, GDA levels in hepatitis A group were closed to the controls. Increase in serum ADA activities in hepatitis forms may be dependent on and reflect the increase in phagocytic activity of macrophages and maturation of T-lymphocytes, and may be valuable in monitoring in viral hepatitis cases.
  • Increased Pro-inflammatory Cytokines (TNF-a and IL-6) and Anti-inflammatory Compounds (sTNFRp55 and sTNFRp75) in Brazilian Patients during Exanthematic Dengue Fever Clinical Studies

    Pinto, Luzia MO; Oliveira, Solange A; Braga, Elzinandes LA; Nogueira, Rita MR; Kubelka, Claire F

    Abstract in English:

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1b (IL-1b) as well as anti-inflammatory compounds, soluble TNF-Receptor p55 (sTNFRp55), sTNFRp75 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1Ra), were investigated in 34 Brazilian cases of dengue fever (DF) originated from a study of exanthematic virosis. The presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines was detected in sera from these patients by ELISA. TNF-a and IL-6 levels were significantly higher than control subjects in 32% and 52% patients, respectively. To our knowledge this was the first time a receptor antagonist and soluble receptors for cytokines were detected in sera obtained during exanthematic DF without hemorrhagic manifestations. Both sTNFRp55 and sTNFRp75 were consistently elevated in 42% and 84% patients, respectively. Most patients had IL-1b levels not different from those of normal subjects, except for one case. Only 16% patients had altered levels of IL-1Ra. Previous studies in dengue hemorrhagic fever patients demonstrated production of these soluble factors; here we observed that they are found in absence of hemorrhagic manifestations. The possible role of these anti-inflammatory compounds in immune cell activation and in regulating cytokine-mediated pathogenesis during dengue infection is discussed.
  • Detection of Anti-pili Antibodies of Gonococcus Using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Clinical Studies

    Sosa, Jorge; Llop, Alina; Barrero, Erenia
  • Trypanosoma cruzi: Correlations of Biological Aspects of the Life Cycle in Mice and Triatomines General Biology

    Lima, Valdirene S; Mangia, Regina HR; Carreira, João C; Marchevsky, Renato S; Jansen, Ana M

    Abstract in English:

    The infection pattern in Swiss mice and Triatomine bugs (Rhodnius neglectus) of eleven clones and the original stock of a Trypanosoma cruzi isolate, derived from a naturally infected Didelphis marsupialis, were biochemically and biologically characterized. The clones and the original isolate were in the same zymodeme (Z1) except that two clones were found to be in zymodeme 2 when tested with G6PDH. Although infective, neither the original isolate nor the clones were highly virulent for the mice and lesions were only observed in mice infected with the original stock and one of the clones (F8). All clones and the original isolate infected bugs well while only the original isolate and clones E2 and F3 yielded high metacyclogenesis rates. An observed correlation between absence of lesions in the mammal host and high metacyclogenesis rates in the invertebrate host suggest a evolutionary trade off i.e. a fitness increase in one trait which is accompanied by a fitness reduction in a different one. Our results suggest that in a species as heterogeneous as T. cruzi, a cooperation effect among the subpopulations should be considered.
  • Development of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under Constant and Cyclic Conditions of Temperature and Humidity General Biology

    Luz, Christian; Fargues, Jacques; Grunewald, Jörg

    Abstract in English:

    Development of Rhodnius prolixus after eclosion until the adult stage was studied at constant temperatures (T), 15, 20, 25, 28, 35°C, and relative humidities (RH), 75, 86 and 97%, and fluctuating (16/8 hr) temperatures, T I/II, 15/28°C, 20/25°C, 25/28°C and 25/35°C, and relative humidities, RH I/II, 86/75% and 97/75%. Eclosion or molting were not observed at 15°C and 86 or 97% RH, respectively. At 35°C and 75% RH only few insects molted. By alternating T I/II, 15/28°C and 25/35°C, insects developed at high frequency. Cumulating the average lengths of the interphases within independent groups for each instar, R. prolixus reached the adult stage most rapidly (86.7 days) and at highest frequency per instar (mean: 91.8%) at 28°C and 75% RH. Under fluctuating T I/II, development was completed within 100 days or less at 25/28°C and 25/35°C with high rates of hatch and molting. Development was slowest at fluctuating TI/II, 15/28°C and 20/25°C (>185 days), and at constant 20°C (>300 days). Mortality was higher at constant 97% RH or fluctuating RH I, 97%, than at constant or fluctuating 86% RH. Refeeding was minimal at optimal conditions of T and RH for development. The most refeeding was observed at a constant 35°C.
  • Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae) Plant Extracts for Molluscicidal Activity General Biology

    Mendes, Nelymar M; Queiroz, Rogério O; Grandi, Telma SM; Anjos, Antônio MG dos; Oliveira, Alaíde B de; Zani, Carlos L
  • Effects of Non-Susceptible Hosts on the Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the Vector Triatoma infestans: an Experimental Model Experimental Infections

    Vázquez, Diego P; Canale, Delmi; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    Abstract in English:

    We tested experimentally the effects of the presence of non-susceptible hosts on the infection with Trypanosoma cruzi of the vector Triatoma infestans. The experiment consisted in two treatments: with chickens, including two chickens (non-susceptible hosts) and two infected guinea pigs (susceptible hosts), and without chickens, including only two infected guinea pigs. The hosts were held unrestrained in individual metal cages inside a closed tulle chamber. A total of 200 uninfected T. infestans third instar nymphs were liberated in each replica, collected on day 14, and examined for infection and blood meal sources on day 32-36. The additional presence of chickens relative to infected guinea pigs: (a) significantly modified the spatial distribution of bugs; (b) increased significantly the likelihoods of having a detectable blood meal on any host and molting to the next instar; (c) did not affect the bugs' probability of death by predation; and (d) decreased significantly the overall percentage of T. infestans infected with T. cruzi. The bugs collected from inside or close to the guinea pigs' cages showed a higher infection rate (71-88%) than those collected from the chickens' cages (22-32%). Mixed blood meals on chickens and guinea pigs were detected in 12-21% of bugs. Although the presence of chickens would decrease the overall percentage of infected bugs in short term experiments, the high rate of host change of T. infestans would make this difference fade out if longer exposure times had been provided.
  • Effects of Polydispyrenia simulii (Microspora; Duboscqiidae) on Development of the Gonads of Simulium pertinax (Diptera; Simuliidae) Experimental Infections

    Castello Branco Jr, A

    Abstract in English:

    The effects of the infection caused by the microsporidium Polydispyrenia simulii in gonads of the simuliid Simulium pertinax were evaluated. This blackfly species is the main target of control programmes in southeastern Brazil. Infected and noninfected blackflies were reared from larval stage to adults using a laboratory rearing system. There was no significant difference between the oogenic development and dimensions of ovarian follicles of healthy females compared to those reared from infected larvae. Otherwise, there was a significant difference between the fecundity of healthy females and those reared from infected larvae. In males, there was an evident reduction of motility of spermatozoids of males reared from infected larvae. The results obtained suggest that the microsporidium P. simulii have an important effect on the natural population dynamics of S. pertinax.
  • Partial Lack of Susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni Infection of Biomphalaria glabrata Strains from ltanhomi (Minas Gerais, Brazil) after Fourteen Years of Laboratory Maintenance Experimental Infections

    Conceição, Maria José; Corrêa, Acyr; Teixeira, Andréa; Moura, Débora C; Silva, Osvaldo C; Silva, Sônia CF
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Av. Brasil, 4365 - Pavilhão Mourisco, Manguinhos, 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro RJ Brazil, Tel.: (55 21) 2562-1222, Fax: (55 21) 2562 1220 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil
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