Abstract in English:A malaria control pilot project was developed in the Urupá agro-industrial farm that is situated in the State of Rondônia (Western Amazon Region, Brazil). Around 180 inhabitants had been surveyed for the past five years. The control measures were based on (1) training a community agent to perform on the spot microscopical diagnosis of malaria and to treat the uncomplicated cases of malaria; (2) limiting the use of insecticides to a short period before the high transmission season. This resulted in a significant reduction in the time between the onset of clinical symptoms and specific chemotherapy which fell from 3.5 to 1.3 days. In relation to the previous three reference years the total number of malaria cases was reduced to 50% in the first year and to 25% in the second year. The introduction of these measures coincided with pronounced reduction in the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum infections but this was less marked for P. vivax infections. In the second year of the pilot experiment there was no P. falciparum transmission on the farm. During the last decade there was a general decrease in the endemicity of malaria in the State of Rondônia. The linear regression coefficient values indicate that the decline was more pronounced in Urupá than in the general municipality and that the falciparum malaria API in Urupá farm is significantly lower than in the general municipality of Candeias were the farm is situated.
Abstract in English:The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) was used to examine sera of 104 children and adults in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria for anti-toxocaral antibodies, out of which 31 (29.8%) were reactive. The seropositive rates were 30.4% for adults, 29.6% for children, 34% for females and 25.9% for males. However, the differences were not significant by age and sex. A highly significant association (p < 0.001) was observed between seropositivity and geophagia but none between seropositivity and dog ownership (p > 0.05).
Abstract in English:Biological parameters of Triatoma brasiliensis and T. pseudomaculata that could influence the epidemiological importance of these insects as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi were compared. The parameters studied were incubation period, interval between hatching or moulting and first feeding, number of blood meals, development time, mortality, net reproductive rate, instantaneous daily reproductive rate, time-lapse before starting feeding, duration of feeding, blood ingestion capacity, occurrence of defecation and blood ingestion velocity. Most aspects of feeding were similar for the two species, although T. pseudomaculata had a longer life cycle than T. brasiliensis producing one and two generations per year, respectively. The two species had similar instantaneous daily rates of population growth.
Abstract in English:Trypanosome infections were sought in 46 non-human primates captured principally in Amazonian Brazil. Twenty-two (47.8%) were infected with four Trypanosoma species: T. cruzi, T. minasense, T. devei and T. rangeli. These preliminary results confirmed the high prevalence and diversity of natural infections with trypanosomes in primates from Brazilian Amazon and were the first formal record of simian infections with trypanosomes in the State of Acre. The presence of T. cruzi-like and T. rangeli-like parasites are recorded in four new hosts.
Abstract in English:The species Tejidotaenia appendiculata (Baylis, 1947), a parasite found in teju, Tupinambis teguixin is redescribed and a new diagnosis is provided. The species is characterized by the anterior position of the ovary and the peculiar shape of suckers. It is the first record of this species in Brazil.
Abstract in English:In a field collection performed at Pan de Azúcar Island in Northern Chile, 95 specimens representing all instars of Mepraia spinolai were collected. The intestinal contents of 55 specimens were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and were found to be negative. This is the first record of an insular habitat for M. spinolai, where the insects had fed mainly on seabirds (78%), some on marine mammals (5%), and some on reptiles (7%).
Abstract in English:Snails of the genus Biomphalaria from Venezuela were subjected to morphological assessment as well as polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Morphological identification was carried out by comparison of characters of the shell and the male and female reproductive apparatus. The PCR-RFLP involved amplification of the internal spacer region ITS1 and ITS2 of the RNA ribosomal gene and subsequent digestion of this fragment by the restriction enzymes DdeI, MnlI, HaeIII and MspI. The planorbids were compared with snails of the same species and others reported from Venezuela and present in Brazil, Cuba and Mexico. All the enzymes showed a specific profile for each species, that of DdeI being the clearest. The snails were identified as B. glabrata, B. prona and B. kuhniana.
Abstract in English:Two blackfly species Simulium (Cerqueirellum) oyapockense Floch & Abonnenc and S. (Hemicnetha) seriatum Knab are recorded from Argentina, representing the most southern register for both species. S. oyapockense is a species epidemiologically very important, as a vector of onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus. Both species are described and illustrated and their distribution are reported, in similarity to others like S. roraimense Nunes de Mello and S. ganalesense Vargas et al. in reference to S. oyapockense and S. mexicanum Bellardi similar to S. seriatum are discussed.
Abstract in English:A comparison of kDNA restriction-endonuclease fragment patterns from strains representing selected Endotrypanum zymodemes was done by schizodeme analysis. As the degree of heterogeneity within mini-circles varied among species or strains of Endotrypanum, the fingerprint obtained with each of the restriction enzymes was unique for each of these parasites. The data have revealed that this trypanosomatid genus is much more complex than it was originally thought to be.
Abstract in English:Five mixed breed dogs were inoculated intradermally (ID) with cultured virulent stationary phase promastigotes of Leishmania infantum Nicole, 1908 stocks recently isolated. Parasite transformations in the skin of ID infected dogs were monitored from the moment of inoculation and for 48 h, by skin biopsies. Anti-Leishmania antibody levels were measured by indirect immunofluorescence assay, counterimmunoelectrophoresis and direct agglutination test, and clinical conditions were examined. Thirty minutes after ID inoculation the first amastigotes were visualised and 3 to 4 h after inoculation the promastigotes were phagocyted by neutrophils and by a few macrophages. These cells parasitised by amastigotes progressively disappeared from the skin and 24 h after inoculation parasites were no longer observed. Local granulomes were not observed, however, serological conversion for antibodies anti-Leishmania was achieved in all dogs. Direct agglutination test was the only technique positive in all inoculated dogs. Amastigotes were found in the popliteal lymph node in one dog three months after inoculation. This work demonstrates that, with this inoculum, the promastigotes were transformed into amastigotes and were up taken by neutrophils and macrophages. The surviving parasites may have been disseminated in the canine organism, eliciting a humoral response in all cases.
Abstract in English:Much remains to be known about the mechanisms involved in protective immunity against malaria and the way it is acquired. This is probably the reason why, in spite of so much progress, it has not yet been possible to develop an anti-malaria vaccine able to induce parasite specific antibodies (Ab) and/or T-cells. It has been considered in the early 80s that the induction of efficient protection against the blood stage forms of Plasmodium falciparum would not be possible without simultaneously eliciting an autoimmune (AI) response against erythrocytes, even at the price of inducing an AI pathology. Despite the description of the reciprocal relationship, i.e. the protective effect of malaria on the development of AI diseases - demonstrated since 1970 - no effort has been made to verify the possible involvement of the AI response in protection against malaria. With this end in view - and in the light of the knowledge acquired in autoimmunity and the existence of the so called "natural" (not associated with pathology) autoantibodies - we propose to examine the hypothesis that the participation of the AI response (not necessarily restricted to autologous erythrocyte antigens) in the immune protection against malaria is possible or even necessary.
Abstract in English:The cellular nature of the infiltrate in cutaneous lesion of rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was characterized by immunohistochemistry. Skin biopsies from infected animals with active or healing lesions were compared to non-infected controls (three of each type) to quantitate inflammatory cell types. Inflammatory cells (composed of a mixture of T lymphocyte subpopulations, macrophages and a small number of natural killer cells and granulocytes) were more numerous in active lesions than in healing ones. T-cells accounted for 44.7 ± 13.1% of the infiltrate in active lesions (versus CD2+= 40.3 ± 5.7% in healing lesions) and T-cell ratios favor CD8+ cells in both lesion types. The percentage of cells expressing class II antigen (HLA-DR+) in active lesions (95 ± 7.1%) was significantly higher (P < 0.005) from the healing lesions (42.7 ± 12.7%). Moreover, the expression of the activation molecules CD25 (@ 16%), the receptor for interleukin-2, suggests that many T cells are primed and proliferating in active lesions. Distinct histopathological patterns were observed in lesions at biopsy, but healing lesions contained more organized epithelioid granulomas and activated macrophages, followed by fibrotic substitution. The progression and resolution of skin lesions appears to be very similar to that observed in humans, confirming the potential for this to be used as a viable model to study the immune response in human cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Abstract in English:This study examined the role and source of endogenous interleukin-10 (IL) secretion in visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The amounts of endogenous and Leishmania specific IL-10 and interferon-gamma (IFN) secreted by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from VL patients were compared. The correlation coefficient between endogenous IL-10 secretion and Leishmania specific IFN-gamma was -0.77, suggesting a major role for endogenous IL-10 secretion in VL. The effects of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones, isolated from a treated VL patient, on IL-10 secretion were assayed by mixing the clones with autologous, inactivated PBMC. The CD8+ clones mediated increased levels of IL-10 secretion in the presence of PBMC alone suggesting that CD8+ T cells may mediate endogenous IL-10 secretion.
Abstract in English:We describe a simple method using percoll gradient for isolation of highly enriched human monocytes. High numbers of fully functional cells are obtained from whole blood or buffy coat cells. The use of simple laboratory equipment and a relatively cheap reagent makes the described method a convenient approach to obtaining human monocytes.
Abstract in English:Especial conditions were developed for the amplification of five DNA segments from US region of BHV-1 by polymerase chain reaction. In order to eliminate most nonspecific products it was found that addition of three cosolvents DMSO, glycerol and NP 40 was a simple method for increasing the specificity of amplification.
Abstract in English:Automated systems are required when numerous samples need to be processed, offering both high through put and test of a multiple simultaneously. This study was performed to compare the MicroScan WalkAway automated identification system in conjunction with the new MicroScan Combo Neg Panels Type 1S with conventional biochemical methods for identifying ten environmental Serratia plymuthica strains. High correlation between both methods were observed for all the 21 tests evaluated, and the MicroScan system was found capable of correctly identifying all S. plymuthica strains tested. In all tests, the percentage of correlation was 100%, except in raffinose test (91%).
Abstract in English:An in vitro translation system has been prepared from Plasmodium falciparum by saponin lysis of infected-erythrocytes to free parasites which were homogeneized with glass beads, centrifuged to obtain a S-30 fraction followed by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration. This treatment produced a system with very low contamination of host proteins (<1%). The system, optimized for Mg2+ and K+, translates endogenous mRNA and is active for 80 min which suggests that their protein factors and mRNA are quite stable.
Abstract in English:Repeated exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does not always result in seroconversion. Modifications in coreceptors for HIV entrance to target cells are one of the factors that block the infection. We studied the frequency of Delta-32 mutation in ccr5 gene in Medellin, Colombia. Two hundred and eighteen individuals distributed in three different groups were analyzed for Delta-32 mutation in ccr5 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR): 29 HIV seropositive (SP), 39 exposed seronegative (ESN) and 150 individuals as a general population sample (GPS). The frequency of the Delta-32 mutant allele was 3.8% for ESN, 2.7% for GPS and 1.7% for SP. Only one homozygous mutant genotype (Delta-32/Delta-32) was found among the ESN (2.6%). The heterozygous genotype (ccr5/Delta-32) was found in eight GPS (5.3%), in one SP (3.4%) and in one ESN (2.6%). The differences in the allelic and genotypic frequencies among the three groups were not statistically significant. A comparison between the expected and the observed genotypic frequencies showed that these frequencies were significantly different for the ESN group, which indirectly suggests a protective effect of the mutant genotype (Delta-32/Delta-32). Since this mutant genotype explained the resistance of infection in only one of our ESN persons, different mechanisms of protection must be playing a more important role in this population.
Abstract in English:In order to estimate the prevalence of serological markers of exposure to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), 295 subjects were selected at random from the National Registry of human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects. Evidence of exposure to HBV was defined as: testing Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-Hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) positive or anti-HBc positive only. Overall, 133 (45.5%) were positive for anti-HBc and 15 (5.1%) resulted positive to HBsAg. Significant statistical association was found between male sex and exposure to HBV (p<0.01). Homosexual or bisexual behavior was found to be strongly associated to HBV exposure (p<0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of HBV serological markers is higher in Cuban HIV positive subjects compared to the Cuban general population.
Abstract in English:The susceptibility patterns of 108 Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni clinical strains, to six antimicrobial agents was determined by using the E-test and the double dilution agar methods. Using both metods, no strain was found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin, but two (1.8%) were resistant to tetracycline and all to aztreonam. Seven (6.5%) strains were resistant to ampicillin by the E-test and five (4.6%) by the double dilution agar method and by both meyhods. No great discrepancies were observed between both methods.
Abstract in English:A closed colony of Lutzomyia longipalpis was established with specimens collected in the Raposa - Serra do Sol indian reservoir, one of the main foci of visceral leishmaniasis in the State of Roraima, Brazil. Biological observations were made on four generations of a L. longipalpis colony with emphasis on productivity. Aspects studied were the number of laid and retained eggs, and the number of adults (male and female) per generation. During the four generations the percentage of engorged females that laid eggs varied from 64.2% (third generation-F3) to 90.3% (second generation-F2). The mean number of eggs laid per female varied from 23.6 (F3) to 39.9 (first generation-F1). The maximum number of eggs laid per female varied from 84 (F3) to 124 (F1). The mean number of retained eggs per female was 12.7 (parental generation-P and F1) to 22.1 (F2). The number of females exceeded the number of males in all generations. However, significant difference for male/female ratio was found only for F3. Fecundity rates were between 42.1 (F3) and 58.3 (F2). From a total of 439 blood-fed females, 355 females laid 12,257 eggs that yield 5,354 adults (2,525 males and 2,829 females) in four generations. F2 presented maximum productivity and fecundity rates.
Abstract in English:Muscina stabulans, M. domestica, Chrysomya putoria, C. megacephala and Stomoxys calcitrans were the most abundant muscoid flies captured in a poultry facility in southeastern Brazil. We examined the gonadotrophic profiles of the females caught at different sites and different times and found that Mu. stabulans and M. domestica, the predominant species, presented similar gonadotrophic profiles only when captured on the manure under the cages, but very different and sometimes opposite gonadotrophic profiles when sampled from wooden posts, vegetation or electric cords. We also determined sex ratios and relative abundance for these two species and found significant differences between them. More than 50% of the females of both species of Chrysomya captured on manure carried eggs or exhibited signs of recent oviposition. The vast majority of S. calcitrans presented ovaries with eggs or signs of recent oviposition. A small proportion of them had ovaries in the recent emerged condition. Our data on ovarian stages, sex ratio and relative abundance allowed us to associate different gonadotrophic profiles with each site and characterize each site as a resting, ovipositing or mating site.
Abstract in English:Infection of non-adherent TG180 murine sarcoma cells with Toxoplasma gondii was compared, at the ultrastructural level, in both in vivo and in vitro conditions. Suspensions of 3.0 x 10(6) TG180 cells infected in vitro with 1.0 x 10(6) parasites of the RH strain were harvested between the first and 6th day post-infection and processed for transmission electron microscopy. In vivo infection was made by intraperitoneal inoculation in mice of 1.0 x 10(6) TG180 cells, that were co-inoculated with a parasite suspension at the same cell concentration. Cells were harvested 10, 20, 30 min and 24, 48 h post-inoculation and processed for transmission electron microscopy at the same conditions of the in vitro culture. It was observed TG180 murine sarcoma cells with intense and equivalent intracellular parasitism in both conditions. Host cells with parasitophorous vacuoles containing up to 16 parasites, as well as parasites undergoing mitoses or presenting a bradyzoite-like morphology, were frequently seen in both culture methods.
Abstract in English:The nuclear phenotypes of Malpighian tubule epithelial cells of male nymphs of the blood-sucking insect, Panstrongylus megistus, subjected to short- and long-duration heat shocks at 40ºC were analyzed immediately after the shock and 10 and 30 days later. Normal nuclei with a usual heterochromatic body as well as phenotypes indicative of survival (unravelled heterochromatin, giants) and death (apoptosis, necrosis) responses were observed in control and treated specimens. However, all nuclear phenotypes, except the normal ones, were more frequent in shocked specimens. Similarly altered phenotypes have also been reported in Triatoma infestans following heat shock, although at different frequencies. The frequency of the various nuclear phenotypes observed in this study suggests that the forms of cell survival observed were not sufficient or efficient enough to protect all of the Malpighian tubule cells from the deleterious effects of stress. In agreement with studies on P. megistus survival following heat shock, only long-duration shock produced strongly deleterious effects.