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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 95, Issue: 4, Published: 2000
  • Risk Factors for tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. A case-control study in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil (1985-1996) Epidemiology

    Toledo Jr., Antonio Carlos de Castro; Greco, Dirceu Bartolomeu; Antunes, Carlos Maurício Figueiredo

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to identify tuberculosis risk factors and possible surrogate markers among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. A retrospective case-control study was carried out at the HIV outpatient clinic of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais in Belo Horizonte. We reviewed the demographic, social-economical and medical data of 477 HIV-infected individuals evaluated from 1985 to 1996. The variables were submitted to an univariate and stratified analysis. Aids related complex (ARC), past history of pneumonia, past history of hospitalization, CD4 count and no antiretroviral use were identified as possible effect modifiers and confounding variables, and were submitted to logistic regression analysis by the stepwise method. ARC had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.5 (CI 95% - 1.2-10.8) for tuberculosis development. Past history of pneumonia (OR 1.7 - CI 95% 0.6-5.2) and the CD4 count (OR 0.4 - CI 0.2-1.2) had no statistical significance. These results show that ARC is an important clinical surrogate for tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. Despite the need of confirmation in future studies, these results suggest that the ideal moment for tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis could be previous to the introduction of antiretroviral treatment or even just after the diagnosis of HIV infection.
  • Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Leontopithecus rosalia at the Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Epidemiology

    Lisboa, Cristiane V; Dietz, James; Baker, Andrew J; Russel, Nédia N; Jansen, Ana M

    Abstract in English:

    Wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) -- endangered primates that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic coastal forest -- were surveyed for the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi with the use of Giemsa-stained blood smears, hemocultures and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT). Positive IFAT with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:1280 were observed in 52% of the 118 wild tamarins examined and the parasite was isolated from 38 tamarins. No patent parasitemia was observed among the tamarins from which T. cruzi was isolated. Serum conversion and positive hemoculture was observed for three animals that had yielded negative results some months earlier, which indicates that T. cruzi is actively transmitted among tamarins. In contrast to observations with other sylvatic isolates, those from the tamarins were significantly more virulent and most of them produced mortality in experimentally infected Swiss mice. Some variation in the kDNA restriction profiles among the isolates was observed. Electrophoresis with GPI, G6PDH, IDH, MDH and ME enzymes showed a Z2 profile.
  • A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida) of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil Systematics

    Evans, DE; Martins, JR; Guglielmone, AA

    Abstract in English:

    A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida) of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12) of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry), Ixodes loricatus (opossums), Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs), A. calcaratum (anteaters), A. cooperi (capybaras), A. nodosum (anteaters), A. tigrinum (dogs) (Neotropical) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs) (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical) were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle) (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental). Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations) (Neotropical), Ixodes affinis (deer) (Nearctic/Neotropical) and I. auritulus (birds) (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian) are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean) are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses)(Nearctic/Neotropical), but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic) (Nearctic/Neotropical) and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle) (Neotropical) in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic"), Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus) that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens), as both long established and possibly newly locally introduced species in the state, that should be considered as potential and emergent pests and pathogen vectors to humans and their more recently acquired, introduced domestic animal hosts; rural poultry, dogs and horses.
  • Sexing sand fly pupae (Diptera: Psychodidade: Phlebotominae) Systematics

    Brazil, Beatriz Gomes; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    Abstract in English:

    We describe a technique to separate male and female pupae of sand flies. This has reduced the labour to separate flies after emergence and also allows the isolation of unmated adults for behavioural and physiological studies.
  • Mexican Trypanosoma cruzi stocks: analysis of minicircle kDNA homologies by cross-hybridization Systematics

    Bosseno, Marie-France; Espinoza, Bertha; Sánchez, Beatriz; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    Abstract in English:

    Homologies of minicircle kDNA of 27 Mexican stocks were studied by cross-hybridization with four kDNA probes derived from three reference stocks belonging to groups Trypanosoma cruzi I (SO34 cl4 and Silvio) and T. cruzi II (MN) and one Mexican stock. High homologies were only observed with Silvio (six stocks) and Mexican probes (11 stocks). After 30 min exposure (low homology) additional stocks were recognized with SO34 cl4 (three stocks) and Silvio (six stocks) probes; with the Mexican probe only five stocks remained non-reactive. All the stocks were typed by isoenzyme (16 loci) and Mexican stocks belonged to T. cruzi I. Hybridization patterns were not strictly correlated with the observed clustering and cross-hybridization of kDNA minicircles is not available to distinct Mexican stocks.
  • Action of pentoxifylline on experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Immunobiology

    Oliveira, Thiago de Sá; Capp Neto, Mário; Martins, Bernardo José Alves; Rodrigues, Helbert Abe; Antonino, Rosa Maria Parreiras; Magalhães, Albino Verçosa

    Abstract in English:

    In the animal model of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis there is a complex mechanism of the host-parasite interaction. The present study was performed to interfere with the inflammatory reaction to the parasites, through immune modulation. Female C5BL/6 isogenic mice were used, some of which were inoculated on the right ear and others on the right footpad with 3.10(6) stationary phase promastigotes of the MHOM/BR/PH8 strain of L. (L.) amazonensis, and were allocated in three groups: the first received pentoxifylline 8mg/kg every 12 h, since the first day; the second one received the same dose since the 40th day of infection and a control group that did not receive any treatment. All the ears excised were analyzed to determine the variation in weight between both ears and for histopathological analyses. A quantification of the parasites was done using the limiting dilution assay. A significant reduction of the number of parasites, was observed among the animals treated which had an accordingly significant reduction on the weight of the ears. Pentoxifylline reduced the macrophages propensity to vacuolation and induced a more effective destruction of the parasites by these cells. Moreover, the group that began the treatment later did not show the same effectiveness.
  • Comparison of dengue infection in human mononuclear leukocytes with mosquito C6/36 and mammalian Vero cells using flow cytometry to detect virus antigen Immunobiology

    Sydow, Farid FO von; Santiago, Marta A; Neves-Souza, Patricia C; Cerqueira, Denise IS; Gouvea, Adriana S; Lavatori, Maryrose FH; Bertho, Álvaro L; Kubelka, Claire F

    Abstract in English:

    Fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis is useful for the detection of cellular surface antigens and intracellular proteins. We used this methodology in order to detect and quantify dengue antigens in highly susceptible cells such as clone C6/36 (Aedes albopictus) and Vero cells (green monkey kidney). Additionally, we analyzed the infection in vitro of human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML). FACS analysis turned out to be a reliable technique to quantify virus growth in traditional cell cultures of C6/36 as well as Vero cells. High rates of infection were achieved with a good statistical correlation between the virus amount used in infection and the percentage of dengue antigen containing cells detected in infected cultures. We also showed that human monocytes (CD14+) are preferred target cells for in vitro dengue infection among PBML. Monocytes were much less susceptible to virus infection than cell lines but they displayed dengue antigens detected by FACS five days after infection. In contrast, lymphocytes showed no differences in their profile for dengue specific immunofluorescence. Without an animal model to reproduce dengue disease, alternative assays have been sought to correlate viral virulence with clinical manifestations and disease severity. Study of in vitro interaction of virus and host cells may highlight this relationship.
  • Flow cytometry as a tool to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis interaction with the immune system and drug susceptibility Immunobiology

    Bonecini-Almeida, Maria da Gloria

    Abstract in English:

    Flow cytometric analysis is a useful and widely employed tool to identify immunological alterations caused by different microorganisms, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, this tool can be used for several others analysis. We will discuss some applications for flow cytometry to the study of M. tuberculosis, mainly on cell surface antigens, mycobacterial secreted proteins, their interaction with the immune system using inflammatory cells recovered from peripheral blood, alveolar and pleura spaces and the influence of M. tuberculosis on apoptosis, and finally the rapid determination of drug susceptibility. All of these examples highlight the usefulness of flow cytometry in the study of M. tuber-culosis infection.
  • A GBP 130 derived peptide from Plasmodium falciparum binds to human erythrocytes and inhibits merozoite invasion in vitro Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Suarez, Jorge E; Urquiza, Mauricio; Curtidor, Hernando; Rodriguez, Luis E; Ocampo, Marisol; Torres, Elizabeth; Guzman, Fanny; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    Abstract in English:

    The malarial GBP 130 protein binds weakly to intact human erythrocytes; the binding sites seem to be located in the repeat region and this region's antibodies block the merozoite invasion. A peptide from this region (residues from 701 to 720) which binds to human erythrocytes was identified. This peptide named 2220 did not bind to sialic acid; the binding site on human erythrocyte was affected by treatment with trypsin but not by chymotrypsin. The peptide was able to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. The residues F701, K703, L705, T706, E713 (FYKILTNTDPNDEVERDNAD) were found to be critical for peptide binding to erythrocytes.
  • Amino acid sequences of proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Alves, Selmo F; LeFebvre, Rance B; Probert, William

    Abstract in English:

    This report describes a partial amino acid sequences from three putative outer envelope proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona. In order to obtain internal fragments for protein sequencing, enzymatic and chemical digestion was performed. The enzyme clostripain was used to digest the proteins 32 and 45 kDa. In situ digestion of 40 kDa molecular weight protein was accomplished using cyanogen bromide. The 32 kDa protein generated two fragments, one of 21 kDa and another of 10 kDa that yielded five residues. A fragment of 24 kDa that yielded nineteen residues of amino acids was obtained from 45 kDa protein. A fragment with a molecular weight of 20 kDa, yielding a twenty amino acids sequence from the 40 kDa protein.
  • The trypanosomatid evolution workshop London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine The Trypanosomatid Evolution Workshop

    Stevens, Jamie

    Abstract in English:

    The trypanosome evolution workshop, a joint meeting of the University of Exeter and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, focused on topics relating to trypanosomatid and vector evolution. The meeting, sponsored by The Wellcome Trust, The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Disease of World Health Organization and the British Section of the Society of Protozoologists, brought together an international group of experts who presented papers on a wide range of topics including parasite and vector phylogenies, molecular methodology and relevant biogeographical data.
  • Plate tectonics, seaways and climate in the historical biogeography of mammals The Trypanosomatid Evolution Workshop

    Cox, C Barry

    Abstract in English:

    The marsupial and placental mammals originated at a time when the pattern of geographical barriers (oceans, shallow seas and mountains) was very different from that of today, and climates were warmer. The sequence of changes in these barriers, and their effects on the dispersal of the mammal families and on the faunas of mammals in the different continents, are reviewed. The mammal fauna of South America changed greatly in the Pliocene/Pleistocene, when the newly-complete Panama Isthmus allowed the North American fauna to enter the continent and replace most of the former South American mammal families. Marsupial, but not placental, mammals reached Australia via Antarctica before Australia became isolated, while rats and bats are the only placentals that dispersed naturally from Asia to Australia in the late Cenozoic. Little is known of the early history of the mammal fauna of India. A few mammal families reached Madagascar from Africa in the early Cenozoic over a chain of islands. Africa was isolated for much of the early Cenozoic, though some groups did succeed in entering from Europe. Before the climate cooled in the mid-Cenozoic, the mammal faunas of the Northern Hemisphere were much richer than those of today.
  • Insect trypanosomatids: the need to know more The Trypanosomatid Evolution Workshop

    Podlipaev, Sergei A

    Abstract in English:

    Of ten recognized trypanosomatid genera, only two -- pathogenic Trypanosoma and Leishmania -- have been actively investigated for any length of time while the plant flagellates -- Phytomonas -- have recently begun to attract attention due to their role as agricultural parasites. The remaining genera that comprise parasites associated with insects have been largely neglected except for two or three containing popular isolates. This publication reviews current knowledge of trypanosomatids from insects.
  • Future trypanosomatid phylogenies: refined homologies, supertrees and networks The Trypanosomatid Evolution Workshop

    Stothard, JR

    Abstract in English:

    There has been good progress in inferring the evolutionary relationships within trypanosomes from DNA data as until relatively recently, many relationships have remained rather speculative. Ongoing molecular studies have provided data that have adequately shown Trypanosoma to be monophyletic and, rather surprisingly, that there are sharply contrasting levels of genetic variation within and between the major trypanosomatid groups. There are still, however, areas of research that could benefit from further development and resolution that broadly fall upon three questions. Are the current statements of evolutionary homology within ribosomal small sub-unit genes in need of refinement? Can the published phylograms be expanded upon to form `supertrees' depicting further relationships? Does a bifurcating tree structure impose an untenable dogma upon trypanosomatid phylogeny where hybridisation or reticulate evolutionary steps have played a part? This article briefly addresses these three questions and, in so doing, hopes to stimulate further interest in the molecular evolution of the group.
  • Genomic rearrangements in trypanosomatids: an alternative to the "one gene" evolutionary hypotheses? The Trypanosomatid Evolution Workshop

    Dujardin, JC; Henriksson, J; Victoir, K; Brisse, S; Gamboa, D; Arevalo, J; Le Ray, D

    Abstract in English:

    Most molecular trees of trypanosomatids are based on point mutations within DNA sequences. In contrast, there are very few evolutionary studies considering DNA (re) arrangement as genetic characters. Waiting for the completion of the various parasite genome projects, first information may already be obtained from chromosome size-polymorphism, using the appropriate algorithms for data processing. Three illustrative models are presented here. First, the case of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana is described. Thanks to a fast evolution rate (due essentially to amplification/deletion of tandemly repeated genes), molecular karyotyping seems particularly appropriate for studying recent evolutionary divergence, including eco-geographical diversification. Secondly, karyotype evolution is considered at the level of whole genus Leishmania. Despite the fast chromosome evolution rate, there is qualitative congruence with MLEE- and RAPD-based evolutionary hypotheses. Significant differences may be observed between major lineages, likely corresponding to major and less frequent rearrangements (fusion/fission, translocation). Thirdly, comparison is made with Trypanosoma cruzi. Again congruence is observed with other hypotheses and major lineages are delineated by significant chromosome rearrangements. The level of karyotype polymorphism within that "species" is similar to the one observed in "genus" Leishmania. The relativity of the species concept among these two groups of parasites is discussed.
  • Trypanosoma cruzi -- the vector-parasite paradox The Trypanosomatid Evolution Workshop

    Schofield, CJ

    Abstract in English:

    Trypanosoma cruzi and the majority of its insect vectors (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) are confined to the Americas. But while recent molecular studies indicate a relatively ancient origin for the parasite (~65 million years ago) there is increasing evidence that the blood-sucking triatomine vectors have evolved comparatively recently (<5 mya). This review examines the evidence for these ideas, and attempts to reconcile the apparent paradox by suggesting that marsupial opossums (Didelphidae) may have played a role, not just as original reservoir hosts, but also as original vectors of the parasite.
  • Analysis of genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi: an application of riboprinting and gradient gel electrophoresis methods The Trypanosomatid Evolution Workshop

    Stothard, JR; Frame, IA; Carrasco, HJ; Miles, MA

    Abstract in English:

    Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles derived from digestion of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the ribosomal 18S from Trypanosoma cruzi yields a typical `riboprint' profile that can vary intraspecifically. A selection of 21 stocks of T. cruzi and three outgroup taxa: T. rangeli, T. conorhini and Leishmania braziliensis were analysed by riboprinting to assess divergence within and between taxa. T. rangeli, T. conorhini and L. braziliensis could be easily differentiated from each other and from T. cruzi. Phenetic analysis of PCR-RFLP profiles indicated that, with one or two exceptions, stocks of T. cruzi could be broadly partitioned into two groups that formally corresponded to T. cruzi I and T. cruzi II respectively. To test if ribosomal 18S sequences were homogeneous within each taxon, gradient gel electrophoresis methods were employed utilising either chemical or temperature gradients. Upon interpretation of the melting profiles of riboprints and a section of the 18S independently amplified by PCR, there would appear to be at least two divergent 18S types present within T. cruzi. Heterogeneity within copies of the ribosomal 18S within a single genome has therefore been demonstrated and interestingly, this dimorphic arrangement was also present in the outgroup taxa. Presumably the ancestral duplicative event that led to the divergent 18S types preceded that of speciation within this group. These divergent 18S paralogues may have, or had, different functional pressures or rates of molecular evolution. Whether or not these divergent types are equally transcriptionally active throughout the life cycle, remain to be assessed.
  • Chagas disease and human migration The Trypanosomatid Evolution Workshop

    Guhl, Felipe; Jaramillo, Carlos; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Cárdenas A-Arroyo, Felipe; Aufderheide, Arthur

    Abstract in English:

    Human Chagas disease is a purely accidental occurrence. As humans came into contact with the natural foci of infection might then have become infected as a single addition to the already extensive host range of Trypanosoma cruzi that includes other primates. Thus began a process of adaptation and domiciliation to human habitations through which the vectors had direct access to abundant food as well as protection from climatic changes and predators. Our work deals with the extraction and specific amplification by polymerase chain reaction of T. cruzi DNA obtained from mummified human tissues and the positive diagnosis of Chagas disease in a series of 4,000-year-old Pre-Hispanic human mummies from the northern coast of Chile. The area has been inhabited at least for 7,000 years, first by hunters, fishers and gatherers, and then gradually by more permanent settlements. The studied specimens belonged to the Chinchorro culture, a people inhabiting the area now occupied by the modern city of Arica. These were essentially fishers with a complex religious ideology, which accounts for the preservation of their dead in the way of mummified bodies, further enhanced by the extremely dry conditions of the desert. Chinchorro mummies are, perhaps, the oldest preserved bodies known to date.
  • The ecotopes and evolution of triatomine bugs (triatominae) and their associated trypanosomes The Trypanosomatid Evolution Workshop

    Gaunt, Michael; Miles, Michael

    Abstract in English:

    Triatomine bug species such as Microtriatoma trinidadensis, Eratyrus mucronatus, Belminus herreri, Panstrongylus lignarius, and Triatoma tibiamaculata are exquisitely adapted to specialist niches. This suggests a long evolutionary history, as well as the recent dramatic spread a few eclectic, domiciliated triatomine species. Virtually all species of the genus Rhodnius are primarily associated with palms. The genus Panstrongylus is predominantly associated with burrows and tree cavities and the genus Triatoma with terrestrial rocky habitats or rodent burrows. Two major sub-divisions have been defined within the species Trypanosoma cruzi, as T. cruzi 1 (Z1) and T. cruzi 2 (Z2). The affinities of a third group (Z3) are uncertain. Host and habitat associations lead us to propose that T. cruzi 1 (Z1) has evolved in an arboreal, palm tree habitat with the triatomine tribe Rhodniini, in association with the opossum Didelphis. Similarly we propose that T. cruzi (Z2) and Z3 evolved in a terrestrial habitat in burrows and in rocky locations with the triatomine tribe Triatomini, in association with edentates, and/or possibly ground dwelling marsupials. Both sub-divisions of T. cruzi may have been contemporary in South America up to 65 million years ago. Alternatively, T. cruzi 2 (Z2) may have evolved more recently from T. cruzi 1 (Z1) by host transfers into rodents, edentates, and primates. We have constructed a molecular phylogeny of haematophagous vectors, including triatomine bugs, which suggests that faecal transmission of trypanosomes may be the ancestral route. A molecular clock phylogeny suggests that Rhodnius and Triatoma diverged before the arrival, about 40 million years ago, of bats and rodents into South America.
  • Nuclear rDNA-based molecular clock of the evolution of triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), vectors of Chagas disease The Trypanosomatid Evolution Workshop

    Bargues, MD; Marcilla, A; Ramsey, JM; Dujardin, JP; Schofield, CJ; Mas-Coma, S

    Abstract in English:

    The evolutionary history and times of divergence of triatomine bug lineages are estimated from molecular clocks inferred from nucleotide sequences of the small subunit SSU (18S) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of these reduviids. The 18S rDNA molecular clock rate in Triatominae, and Prosorrhynchan Hemiptera in general, appears to be of 1.8% per 100 million years (my). The ITS-2 molecular clock rate in Triatominae is estimated to be around 0.4-1% per 1 my, indicating that ITS-2 evolves 23-55 times faster than 18S rDNA. Inferred chronological data about the evolution of Triatominae fit well with current hypotheses on their evolutionary histories, but suggest reconsideration of the current taxonomy of North American species complexes.
  • Evidence for a neotropical origin of Leishmania The Trypanosomatid Evolution Workshop

    Noyes, HA; Morrison, DA; Chance, ML; Ellis, JT

    Abstract in English:

    Contradictory biogeographic hypotheses for either a Neotropical or a Palaearctic origin of the genus Leishmania have been proposed. Hypotheses constructed on the basis of biogeographic data must be tested against an independent dataset and cannot be supported by biogeographic data alone. In the absence of a fossil record for the Leishmania these two hypotheses were tested against a combined dataset of sequences from the DNA polymerase A catalytic subunit and the RNA polymerase II largest subunit. The phylogeny obtained provided considerable support for a Neotropical origin of the genus Leishmania and leads us to reject the hypothesis for a Palaearctic origin.
  • Further support for a palaearctic origin of Leishmania The Trypanosomatid Evolution Workshop

    Kerr, Sara F; Merkelz, Robert; MacKinnon, Christy

    Abstract in English:

    The fossil record and systematics of murid rodents, reservoirs of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Palaearctic, Oriental, African, Nearctic and Neotropical, strongly support a Palaearctic origin of Leishmania. The fossil record and systematics of phlebotomine sand flies reinforce this idea. Interpretations of molecular data that place the origin of Leishmania in the Neotropical are inconsistent with the natural histories of reservoirs and vectors. The evolutionary pattern of New World rats (Sigmodontinae) indicates that they may be the most important reservoirs of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis throughout their range.
  • Speculations on the origin and evolution of the genus Leishmania The Trypanosomatid Evolution Workshop

    Momen, Hooman; Cupolillo, Elisa

    Abstract in English:

    Recently two hypotheses have been proposed for the evolution of Leishmania involving respectively a Neotropical or Paleartic origin for the species. Here an alternative proposal on the phylogeny of Leishmania based on the major divisions within the genus is presented. In this hypothesis a Neotropic origin is retained for L. (Viannia) and Paraleishmania, a recently desribed section within the genus Leishmania, while an African origin is proposed for L. (Leishmania) and possibly Sauroleishmania. The current distribution of Leishmania in the Neotropics is explained as the product of multiple introductions of Leishmania parasites into the New World. Problems with organismal identity in Sauroleishmania and the use of molecular sequence data in inferring phylogenies are also discussed.
  • Sand fly evolution and its relationship to Leishmania transmission The Trypanosomatid Evolution Workshop

    Ready, PD

    Abstract in English:

    The evolutionary relationships of sand flies and Leishmania are discussed in this report, which draws distinctions between co-association, co-evolution and co-speciation (or co-cladogenesis). Examples focus on Phlebotomus vectors of Le. infantum and Le. major in the Mediterranean subregion.
  • Acidic ribosomal proteins and histone H3 from Leishmania present a high rate of divergence The Trypanosomatid Evolution Workshop

    Montoya, Ysabel; Padilla, Carlos; De Los Santos, Maxy; Barreto, Teresa; Barker, Douglas; Carrillo, Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    Another additional peculiarity in Leishmania will be discussed about of the amino acid divergence rate of three structural proteins: acidic ribosomal P1 and P2b proteins, and histone H3 by using multiple sequence alignment and dendrograms. These structural proteins present a high rate of divergence regarding to their homologous protein in Trypanosoma cruzi. At this regard, L. (V.) peruviana P1 and T. cruzi P1 showed 57.4% of divergence rate. Likewise, L. (V.) braziliensis histone H3 and acidic ribosomal P2 protein exhibited 31.8% and 41.7% respectively of rate of divergence in comparison with their homologous in T. cruzi.
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