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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 95, Issue: 6, Published: 2000
  • Memórias 2000 Editorial

    Momen, Hooman
  • Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. III - daily biting rhythms and lunar cycle influence Epidemiology

    Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gentile, Carla; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; Mello, Rubens Pinto de

    Abstract in English:

    The ecology of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) was studied in areas of the Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The influence of the lunar cycle and the daily biting rhythms of mosquito populations were analyzed. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made in a silvatic environment for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992). A total of 20,591 specimens of adult mosquitoes belonging to 55 species were collected from 545 catches. Sabethini species were captured exclusively during daylight periods, with the exception of Trichoprosopon digitatum, while members of Anophelinae predominated during nocturnal hours. Members of the subfamily Culicinae that were collected primary during nocturnal periods included Culex nigripalpus, Coquillettidia chrysonotum and Cq. venezuelensis while daytime catches included Psorophora ferox and Ps. albipes. Others members of culicines mosquitoes that were collected during both day and night included: Aedes serratus, Ae. scapularis and Ae. fulvus. Lunar cycles did not appear to influence the daily biting rhythms of most mosquito species in the area, but larger numbers of mosquitoes were collected during the new moon. Ae. scapularis were captured mainly during the full moon.
  • Monitoring the domiciliary and peridomiciliary invasion process of Triatoma rubrovaria in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Epidemiology

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Vinhaes, Marcio Costa; Almeida, Josimar Ribeiro de; Silveira, Antonio Carlos; Costa, Jane

    Abstract in English:

    The presence of Triatoma rubrovaria in Brazil has only been confirmed in the States of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul (RS), where it is found naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. In the wild environment it occurs in rocky habitats and has an eclectic diet, feeding from cockroaches, reptiles and mammals. Data from the Chagas Disease Control Program obtained by the Fundação Nacional de Saúde, between 1975 and 1997, indicate a growing domiciliary and peridomiciliary invasion of T. rubrovaria in RS, where it has become the most frequently Triatominae species captured in this state since the control of Triatoma infestans. In order to monitor this process, we analyzed collection data derived from 22 years of control campaigns against T. infestans. Collection data for triatomines from domestic habitats show an inverse relationship, with high numbers of T. infestans and low numbers of T. rubrovaria during 1976-1987, compared to the following ten years, 1986-1997, when the number of T. infestans dropped drastically and that of T. rubrovaria increased. There are no consistent indications of intradomiciliary colonization by T. rubrovaria, since only low numbers of nymphs have been captured in the intradomiciliary ecotopes. Nevertheless, this species appears to have preadaptive characteristics for anthropic ecotopes, and should be kept under constant epidemiological surveillance.
  • Vector competence of Culex quinquefasciatus say from different regions of Brazil to Dirofilaria immitis Epidemiology

    Ahid, Silvia Maria Mendes; Vasconcelos, Pádua Suely da Silva; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    The vector competence of Culex quinquefasciatus from five localities in Brazil to Dirofilaria immitis was evaluated experimentally. Females from each locality were fed on an infected dog (~ 6 microfilariae/µl blood). A sample of blood fed mosquitoes were dissected approximately 1 h after blood meal. These results demonstrated that all had ingested microfilariae (mean, 4.8 to 24.6 microfilariae/mosquito). Fifteen days after the infected blood meal, the infection and infective rates were low in all populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The mean number of infective larvae detected in the head and proboscis of these mosquitoes was 1-1.5. The vector efficiency, the number of microfilariae ingested/number of infective larvae, was low for all populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, the survival rate for all populations was high (range 50-75%). The survival rate of Aedes aegypti assayed simultaneously for comparison was low (24.7%), while the vector efficiency was much higher than for Cx. quinquefasciatus. These data suggest that the vector competence of all assayed populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus to D. immitis in Brazil is similar and that this species is a secondary vector due to its low susceptibility. Nevertheless, vector capacity may vary between populations due to differences in biting frequency on dogs that has been reported in Brazil.
  • Molecular epidemiology of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from newborns in a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Epidemiology

    Loureiro, MM; Moraes, BA de; Quadra, MRR; Pinheiro, GS; Suffys, PN; Asensi, MD

    Abstract in English:

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an organism that is frequently transmitted in hospitals and perinatal units. The MRSA is considered a public health problem in neonatology because of its strong potential for dissemination in the wards associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this study we describe the bacteriological, epidemiological and molecular characteristics of MRSA isolated from anterior nares and blood cultures of newborns hospitalized in a public maternity hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The frequency of MRSA isolated from nasal swabs of newborns was 47.8% (43/90). The genetic analysis of MRSA strains from anterior nares, showed 8 different pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns (PFGE). Upon analysis of PFGE patterns of the 12 MRSA strains isolated from blood cultures, 8 different patterns were observed, 9 (75%) strains were genetic related to nasal secretion isolates patterns. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the importance of screening of newborns for the presence of MRSA in Brazilian hospitals and the usefulness of genetic typing of these pathogen during epidemiologic studies. This should lead to a better knowledge on the significancy and spreading of MRSA in the hospitals.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual and bisexual males from a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus negative volunteers (Project Horizonte), Belo Horizonte, Brazil Epidemiology

    Lignani Jr, L; Oliveira, EI; Carneiro, M; Greco, M; Andrade, J; Antunes, CM; Greco, DB

    Abstract in English:

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are very frequent in the whole world. Males who do not use a condom during their sexual relations are at great risk. We report cases of STD during six months of observation, among homosexual/bisexual males who participate in the Project Horizonte. There were 16 cases of genital warts, 6 cases of human immunodeficiency virus infection, 24 cases of unspecific urethritis, 28 cases of herpes simplex virus infection, 30 cases of syphilis, 58 cases of gonorrhea and 84 cases of pediculosis. We concluded that a condom must be used in all sexual relations and new counseling techniques are needed, to avoid this situation.
  • Effects of flooding and temperature on Aedes albifasciatus development time and larval density in two rain pools at Buenos Aires University City Epidemiology

    Fontanarrosa, M Soledad; Marinone, M Cristina; Fischer, Sylvia; Orellano, Pablo W; Schweigmann, Nicolás

    Abstract in English:

    Aedes albifasciatus is a floodwater mosquito that breeds in temporary waters. This semi-domestic species, widely distributed in Argentina, is a competent vector of the western equine encephalitis. The present study was carried out in two rain pools of the city of Buenos Aires, from April 1998 through March 1999. Samples were taken twice a week during the cold season and daily during the warmer months, starting from October. Immature mosquitoes were collected with a dipper, being the number of dippers proportional to the flooded area. The estimated rainfall thresholds to initiate cohorts of Ae. albifasciatus were: 16-17 mm in the fall-winter period, 25 mm in the spring, and 30 mm in the summer. The development time of the different cohorts and the mean air temperature of their respective periods were estimated in all seasons, ranging from six days (at 24ºC) to 32 days (at 13ºC). The equation that best expresses the relationship between development time and mean air temperature is dt =166,27.e-0,1435.T (R²=0,92). Significantly shorter development times were recorded for larvae of the first three stages as compared to the fourth larval stage and pupae.
  • Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Didelphis marsupialis in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, southern Brazil Epidemiology

    Grisard, Edmundo C; Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos J; Scholz, Afonso F; Toma, Helena K; Schlemper Jr, Bruno R; Steindel, Mário

    Abstract in English:

    Between 1984 and 1993 the prevalence of the Trypanosoma cruzi infection in opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) was studied in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The association of the triatomine bug Panstrongylus megistus with opossums nests and the infection rate of these triatomines by T. cruzi was also studied. Thirteen different locations were studied in Santa Catarina Island (SCI), in which 137 D. marsupialis were collected. Sixty two opossums were collected at the Arvoredo Island (AI), located 12 miles north from SCI. All captured animals were submitted to parasitological examinations that revealed the presence of T. cruzi in 21.9% of the opossums captured in SCI and 45.2% among opossums captured in the AI. The presence of P. megistus was detected in most of the D. marsupialis nests collected in the SCI, however, in the non-inhabited AI only eight triatomines were collected during the whole study. The presence of T. cruzi-infected D. marsupialis associated with P. megistus in human dwellings in the SCI, and the high infection rate of D. marsupilais by T. cruzi in the absence of a high vector density are discussed.
  • Analysis of parity between protein-based electrophoretic methods for the characterization of oral Candida species Systematics

    Rosa, EAR; Rosa, RT; Pereira, CV; Boriollo, MFG; Höfling, JF

    Abstract in English:

    Electrophoretic studies of multilocus-enzymes (MLEE) and whole-cell protein (SDS-PAGE) were carried out in order to evaluate the parity between different methods for the characterization of five Candida species commonly isolated from oral cavity of humans by numerical taxonomy methods. The obtained data revealed that sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is more efficient in grouping strains in their respective species while MLEE has much limited resolution in organizing all strains in their respective species-specific clusters. MLEE technique must be regarded for surveys in which just one species of Candida is involved.
  • Characterization of Biomphalaria orbignyi, Biomphalaria peregrina and Biomphalaria oligoza by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion of the internal transcribed spacer region of the RNA ribosomal gene Systematics

    Spatz, Linus; Vidigal, Teofânia HDA; Silva, Márcia CA; Gonzalez Cappa, Stella Maris; Carvalho, Omar S

    Abstract in English:

    The correct identification of Biomphalaria oligoza, B. orbignyi and B. peregrina species is difficult due to the morphological similarities among them. B. peregrina is widely distributed in South America and is considered a potential intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. We have reported the use of the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA for the molecular identification of these snails. The snails were obtained from different localities of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. The restriction patterns obtained with MvaI enzyme presented the best profile to identify the three species. The profiles obtained with all enzymes were used to estimate genetic similarities among B. oligoza, B. peregrina and B. orbignyi. This is also the first report of B. orbignyi in Uruguay.
  • A new species of predaceous midge of the genus Monohelea Kieffer from Mexico (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Systematics

    Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Huerta, Heron; Ibañez Bernal, Sergio

    Abstract in English:

    A description and illustrations of Monohelea maya, new species, based on male and female characteristics are provided. The specimens were collected in the special biosphere Reserves of Ria Lagartos and Ria Celestun, Yucatan State, Mexico.
  • Simulium (Psaroniocompsa) tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae) in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil Systematics

    Hamada, Neusa

    Abstract in English:

    The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The Juma, a black-water river, is a tributary of the Aripuanã River in the Madeira River hydrographic basin, on the southern part of Amazonas. Females were collected biting humans along the water courses during the sampling period (in the dry season).
  • Description of Eimeria motelo sp. n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the yellow footed tortoise, Geochelone denticulata (Chelonia: Testudinidae), and replacement of Eimeria carinii Lainson, Costa & Shaw, 1990 by Eimeria lainsoni nom. nov. Systematics

    Hurková, Lada; Modrý, David; Koudela, Bretislav; Slapeta, Jan

    Abstract in English:

    Eimeria motelo sp. n. is described from faeces of the yellow-footed tortoise, Geochelone denticulata (L.). Oocysts are irregularly ellipsoidal or cylindrical, with slightly expressed lobed protrusions and irregularities at the poles, possibly caused by wrinkling of the oocyst wall, 17 (15-19) × 9.4 (8.5-11) µm, shape index (length/width) being 1.81 (1.45-2). The oocyst wall is smooth, single-layered, 0.5 µm thick with no micropyle. There are no polar bodies. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 8.9 (7.5-10) × 4.4 (4-5) µm, shape index 2.03 (1.7-2.5). A sporocyst residuum is present, composed of many granules of irregular size. The sporozoites are elongate, lying lengthwise in the sporocysts. Comparison with other species of the genus Eimeria parasitising members of family Testudinidae indicates that the presently described coccidium represents a new species. The name of Eimeria carinii Lainson, Costa & Shaw, 1990 is found to be preoccupied by a homonym, Eimeria carinii Pinto 1928 given to a coccidium from Rattus norvegicus. Therefore, it is replaced by Eimeria lainsoni nom. nov.
  • Neopolystoma fentoni n. sp. (Monogenea: Polystomatidae) a parasite of the conjunctival sac of freshwater turtles in Costa Rica Systematics

    Platt, Thomas R

    Abstract in English:

    Neopolystoma fentoni n. sp. is described from the conjunctival sac of Kinosternon leucostomum (Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril 1851) and Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima (Gray 1855) from the Guanacaste Conservation Area in Costa Rica. The new species differs from all other species of Neopolystoma, except N. elizabethae Platt 2000 in possessing a circle of eight genital spines that are recurved and possess a crescent-shaped base. N. fentoni n. sp. differs from N. elizabethae in lacking cecal diverticula and in a number of morphometric criteria.
  • Differences in Brazilian strains of Schistosoma mansoni evaluated by means of morphometric analysis of cercariae of both sexes Systematics

    Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Silva, Cléber Hooper da; Pereira, Mário José dos Santos; Oliveira, Regina Maria Figueiredo de; Pinto, Roberto Magalhães; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    Abstract in English:

    Morphometrics of Brazilian strains (BH, SJ and CMO) of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were obtained with a computerized image analyzer (IMAGE PRO PLUS, MEDIA CYBERNETICS), considering the following characters: body area, tail, furcae, oral and ventral suckers and distance between them. For statistical analysis, the variance test (one-way Anova) was applied and significant differences of p< 0.05 were considered. All morphometric values in the BH strain were significantly higher (p< 0.05) than in the others. Lower values were obtained in females of SJ strain for all characters, excepting the body area. Only this character showed to be significantly different in males and females of the three strains. Specimens of both sexes in the BH and SJ strains showed significant differences regarding all characters. It was observed that this morphometric analysis permits the characterization of strains and also the sex identification in S. mansoni cercariae. Due to its feasibility, this method can be applied as a tool in laboratories devoid of more complex equipment.
  • Lutzomyia naftalekatzi, a new Species of phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Zona da Mata region, Pernambuco, Brazil Systematics

    Falcão, Alda Lima; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Almeida, Francisco de Assis; Brandão Filho, Sinval P

    Abstract in English:

    Lutzomyia naftalekatzi, a new phlebotomine sand fly belonging to the L. aragaoi species group, is described from specimens collected in Zona da Mata region of Pernambuco, Brazil.
  • Description of males of Parabronema pecariae Ivaschkin, 1960 (Nematoda, Habronematoidea) parasitizing peccaries (Mammalia, Tayassuidae) in Brazil Systematics

    Vicente, J Júlio; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C; Noronha, Dely; Pinto, Roberto Magalhães

    Abstract in English:

    Nematodes studied herein and identified as Parabronema pecariae were collected in 1936 in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Pará and in 1940 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. This species was proposed, with basis on female specimens that had been described earlier as Parabronema sp. Although the presence of males of P. pecariae was previously reported in Brazil, their description was not provided. The present paper deals with the first complete morphometric data on male specimens of P. pecariae recovered from peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari).
  • Characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated from patients with conjunctivitis Systematics

    Sosa, Jorge; Llanes, Rafael; Rodríguez, Wilder; Gutiérrez, Yainelys; Guzmán, Daymi

    Abstract in English:

    The conjunctivitis produced by Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the less frequently reported clinical form of gonococcal infection. We aim to phenotypically characterize N. gonorrhoeae isolated from conjunctivae sites. A total of six cases of this disease were notified in the Camagüey province, Cuba. All the strains isolated were penicillin-producing, showed the serogroup WI and exhibited the same antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and plasmid profile (2.6-3.2-24.5). The results contribute to the characterization of N. gonorrhoeae strains circulating in our environment.
  • A comparative study on the different staining methods and number of specimens for the detection of acid fast bacilli Diagnosis

    Ulukanligil, Mustafa; Aslan, Gonul; Tasçi, Sami

    Abstract in English:

    The presence of acid fast bacilli in multiple specimens was investigated comparatively with Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) and fluorescence microscopy (FM) staining in order to determine sensitivity in detecting tuberculosis (TB). A total of 465 specimens obtained from 295 patients were analysed at Harran University Medical School Hospital between March 1998 and March 2000. The culture was employed as the reference method. Sixty-eight patients (23.1%) were diagnosed as having TB by culture. The ZN and FM staining sensitivities were 67.6% (46/68) and 85.2% (58/68) respectively. Two hundred and one patients (68.1%) submitted one specimen to the laboratory. TB positivity was detected in 42 (20.9%) of these patients by culture. The sensitivities of ZN and FM stains were found to be 61% and 83% in these patients. However, in 18 patients (6.1%) who submitted two specimens to the laboratory, the TB was positive in six of them (33.3%) and ZN and FM sensitivities were 66% and 83% respectively. When three specimens or more were collected from the patients (76 patients, 25.8%), TB positivity was determined in 20 of them (26.3%) and the sensitivities were 80% and 92% in the ZN- and FM-stained smears, respectively. Our data indicate that in the diagnosis of TB, FM has greater sensitivity than ZN. In particular, in the case of a single specimen, the diagnostic value of FM is quite significant. It is, therefore, possible to conclude that both ZN and FM staining can be used for the diagnosis of TB when there are more than two specimens. However, if only one or two specimens are available, FM staining is preferable.
  • Isolation and identification of Adenovirus in hospitalized children, under five years, with acute respiratory disease, in Havana, Cuba Diagnosis

    Pumariega, Tania; Savón, Clara; Muné, Mayra; Cancio, Reynel; González, Grehete; Valdivia, Angel; González, Zoila; Goyenechea, Angel

    Abstract in English:

    Nine Adenovirus (Ad) strains isolated in Cuba, from 128 nasopharingeal swab specimens of children below five years old, with acute respiratory diseases, during 1996 and 1997, were studied by restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA with two endonucleases BamH I and Sma I. All different fragment patterns were compared with the respective prototypes. The identified adenoviruses were Ad 1 (n=4), Ad 2 (n=1) and Ad 6 (n=4). Males were more frequently infected than females. The analysis of the occurrence of these Adenovirus strains of subgenus C revealed that Ad 1 and Ad 6 were the predominant serotypes in 1996 and in 1997, respectively.
  • A simplified method for sample collection and DNA isolation for polymerase chain reaction detection of Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma cruzi in triatomine vectors Diagnosis

    Machado, Evandro MM; Alvarenga, Nelson J; Romanha, Alvaro J; Grisard, Edmundo C

    Abstract in English:

    Due to the overlapping distribution of Trypanosoma rangeli and T. cruzi in Central and South America, sharing several reservoirs and triatomine vectors, we herein describe a simple method to collect triatomine feces and hemolymph in filter paper for further detection and specific characterization of these two trypanosomes. Experimentally infected triatomines feces and hemolymph were collected in filter paper and specific detection of T. rangeli or T. cruzi DNA by polymerase chain reaction was achieved. This simple DNA collection method allows sample collection in the field and further specific trypanosome detection and characterization in the laboratory.
  • Comparison of intervention strategies for control of Triatoma dimidiata in Nicaragua Control

    Acevedo, F; Godoy, E; Schofield, CJ

    Abstract in English:

    The effectiveness of three operational strategies for the control of Triatoma dimidiata was compared by a field trial in the Department of Madriz, Nicaragua. One strategy involved full pretrial evaluation, followed by spraying of all houses irrespective of whether or not they had been found to be infested. The second strategy minimised the pretrial evaluation by considering the locality infested as soon as one house was found to be positive, followed by spraying all houses. The third strategy involved full pretrial evaluation, followed by spraying only those houses found to be positive. Evaluation after twelve months indicated that all three strategies were similarly effective, since all sprayed houses remained free of infestation. However, comparative estimates of the unit intervention costs indicated that strategies 1 and 2 were substantially less efficient than the third strategy of spraying only positive houses.
  • In vitro activity of Brazilian strains of the predatory fungi Arthrobotrys spp. on free-living nematodes and infective larvae of Haemonchus placei Control

    Gomes, APS; Ramos, ML; Vasconcellos, RS; Jensen, JR; Vieira-Bressan, MCR; Araujo, JV

    Abstract in English:

    In vitro tests were carried out to assess the activity of 26 Brazilian isolates of predatory fungi of the genus Arthrobotrys on a free-living nematode (Panagrellus sp.) and on infective larvae of Haemonchus placei, a parasitic gastrointestinal nematode of cattle. The results showed that the free-living nematode Panagrellus sp. was the most preyed upon, compared to H. placei, for all the fungal treatments. Also, variable predatory capacity was observed for different fungal isolates belonging to the same genus when applied to different nematode species.
  • The postembryonic development of the ocellar system of Triatoma infestans Klug (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) General Biology

    Insausti, Teresita C; Lazzari, Claudio R

    Abstract in English:

    Simple eyes or ocelli coexist with compound eyes in many adult insects. The change in the morphology of the ocelli along the five larval instars of Triatoma infestans was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. Our analysis showed that the development of the ocelli of these bugs occurs gradually along the larval life. The photoreceptor layer is present from the second-instar onwards. The cornea appears first at the imaginal stage and grows up to the 18-20th day after the last ecdysis, associated to an increase in the retinal mass. Findings are discussed in a comparative fashion and in relation to the functionality of the ocellar system in T. infestans.
  • Comparative developmental and susceptibility to insecticide of Bolivian and Brazilian populations of Triatoma infestans General Biology

    Pires, Herton Helder Rocha; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    Abstract in English:

    The triatomine bug Triatoma infestans probably originated in Bolivia and dispersed passively over wide areas of South America, where it is the principal vector of Trypanosoma cruzi. In the region of its probable origin this species shows colonization in two different ecotopes, so that it may be encountered in sylvatic as well as in artificial habitats. The sylvatic colonization pattern is not observed in the rest of its range, where T. infestans is exclusive to man-made habitats. The objective of this study was to compare several aspects of two T. infestans populations, one from Minas Gerais (Brazil) and the other from the Cochabamba Valley (Bolivia), with a view to elucidate the factors associated with the different colonization patterns observed for this species. The differences between the developmental cycle, weight, capacity to ingest blood and mortality rate of first instar nymphs should indicate more fragility of Brazilian population that may be related to its elimination possibility.
  • Temporal change of the aggregation response in Triatoma infestans General Biology

    Figueiras, Alicia Nieves Lorenzo; Lazzari, Claudio Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    Adults and larvae of Triatoma infestans spend daylight hours assembled in shaded places. An assembling factor has been demonstrated in the excrement of this species. We analysed different aspects of the dynamics of the response of bugs. Recently fed insects do not aggregate around faeces. They start to show a significant assembling response from the 8th hour after feeding onwards. Just deposited faeces do not evoke assembling, but a significant rejection instead. This reaction switches 3 h after deposition, when the faeces become attractive to the insects. The attractiveness of faeces persists for about 10 days and can be recovered after this time by rehydration. These findings are discussed in relation to the biological role of faeces and the dynamics of the use of refuges by T. infestans.
  • Changes in nuclear phenotypes following cold shock in Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister) General Biology

    Garcia, Simone L; Mello, Maria Luiza S; Garcia, Nancy L; Rodrigues, Vera Lúcia CC

    Abstract in English:

    The nuclear phenotypes of Malpighian tubule epithelial cells of 5th instar male nymphs of the blood-sucking insect Panstrongylus megistus were studied immediately after a short (1 h) cold shock at 0ºC, and 10 and 30 days later. The objective was to compare the responses to a cold shock with those known to occur after hyperthermia in order to provide insight into the cellular effect of cold in this species. Nuclei which usually exhibited a conspicuous Y chromosome chromocenter were the most frequent phenotype in control and treated specimens. Phenotypes in which the heterochromatin was unravelled, or in which there was nuclear fusion or cell death were more abundant in the shocked specimens. Most of the changes detected have also been found in heat-shocked nymphs, except for nuclear fusion which generates giant nuclei and which appeared to be less effective or necessary than that elicited after heat shock. Since other studies showed that a short cold shock does not affect the survival of more than 14% of 5th instar nymphs of P. megistus with domestic habit and can induce tolerance to a prolonged cold shock, heat shock proteins proteins are probably the best candidates for effective protection of the cells and the insects from drastic damage caused by low temperature shocks.
  • Ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the tegument of Atriaster heterodus (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) General Biology

    Santos, Cláudia Portes; Lanfredi, Reinalda Marisa

    Abstract in English:

    The tegument of the polyopisthocotylean monogenean Atriaster heterodus Lebedev & Parukhin, 1969 was studied using transmission electron microscopy. The outer syncytial layer of the tegument is connected to the internal cell bodies by cytoplasmic extensions which interweave between the muscular fibres. The free surface of the syncytium has projections of the external membrane which are similar to microvilli. The undulating basal membrane, with numerous narrow elongate projections, is associated with the basal lamina situated between the syncytial and muscular layers. The cell bodies and syncytial layer of the tegument exhibit two types of vesicles, one with fibrous contents and one with electron-dense contents; these were analysed using two cytochemical tests, the E-PTA and alcian blue methods, used for the first time on monogeneans.
  • Oviposition and eclosion periods of Ixodes didelphidis Fonseca and Aragão, 1951 (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions General Biology

    Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Simons, Simone Michaela; Bonoldi, Virginia Lucia Nazario; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime

    Abstract in English:

    Oviposition and eclosion periods for Ixodes didelphidis were observed under two temperatures (25ºC and 27ºC) and 90-95% humidity. Although there was a significant increase in the eclosion period (p<0.05) and a tendency to increase the oviposition period at 25ºC, there was neither significant differences in the interval (days), until maximum peak of eclosion nor in the number of emerging larvae during the peak nor the total number of emerged larvae. These temperature values are not critical for embryological development of the species. Because at 27ºC and under high humidity the oviposition and eclosion periods are shorter, and the percentage of emerged larvae is higher, we consider this to be the ideal temperature for laboratory studies.
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