Abstract in English:Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy 1856), a nematode parasite, is the etiologic agent of canine heartworm disease and mosquitoes are essential intermediate hosts. Mosquito susceptibility to the worms differ with species, strains and also among individuals of the same strain. To evaluate the degree of susceptibility of Rio de Janeiro laboratory raised strain of Aedes aegypti, we fed mosquitoes on canine blood with different densities of microfilariae (mf). There was no significant difference in the rate of development among the three different densities of mf. Infective larvae were found in the head and proboscis of all mosquitoes provided bloodmeals with different densities of mf after the 11th day post-infection. The infection rate of mosquitoes after ingestion of blood containing 3,000 mf/ml, 5,000 mf/ml and 7,000 mf/ml were 55.3%, 66.7% and 100%, respectively. The vector efficiency indices ranged from 1.6 to 9.3. The finding of L3 stage larvae, high infection rates and vector efficiency indices suggest that Ae. aegypti, Rio de Janeiro laboratory strain, is a potential vector of D. immitis, although of low efficiency.
Abstract in English:The impact of three treatment strategies for Trypanosoma evansi control on horse mortality in the Brazilian Pantanal based on four size categories of cattle ranches is explored. The region's 49,000 horses are indispensable to traditional extensive cattle ranching and T. evansi kills horses. About 13% of these horses would be lost, annually, due to T. evansi if no control were undertaken. One preventive and two curative treatment strategies are financially justifiable in the Pantanal. The best available technology for the treatment of T. evansi from a horse mortality perspective is the preventive strategy, which spares 6,462 horses, annually. The year-round cure spares 5,783 horses, and the seasonal cure saves 5,204 horses on a regional basis relative to no control strategy. Regardless of the strategy adopted, 39% of the costs or benefits fall to the largest ranches, while 18% fall to the smallest ranches.
Abstract in English:Eleven species of fleas were collected from 601 small rodents, from November 1995 to October 1997, in areas of natural focus of bubonic plague, including the municipalities of Nova Friburgo, Sumidouro and Teresópolis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Among 924 fleas collected, Polygenis (Polygenis) rimatus (Rhopalopsyllidae) was the predominant species regarding the frequency, representing 41.3% (N:382), followed by P. (Neopolygenis) pradoi, representing 20% (N:185) and Craneopsylla minervaminerva (Stephanocircidae), representing 18.9% (N:175). The host Akodon cursor harbored 47.9% of these fleas. Other six host species were infested by 52.1% of the remaining fleas. Fleas were found on hosts and in places within the focus not previously reported by the literature.
Abstract in English:Chagas disease control strategies strongly depend on the triatomine vector species involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission within each area. Here we report the results of the identification of specimens belonging to various species of Triatominae captured in Ecuador (15 species from 17 provinces) and deposited in the entomological collections of the Catholic University of Ecuador (Quito), Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Brazil), the Natural History Museum London (UK), the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK), the National Institute of Hygiene (Quito), and the Vozandes Hospital (Quito). A critical review of published information and new field records are presented. We analysed these data in relation to the life zones where triatomines occur (11 life zones, excluding those over 2,200 m altitude), and provide biogeographical maps for each species. These records are discussed in terms of epidemiological significance and design of control strategies. Findings relevant to the control of the main vector species are emphasised. Different lines of evidence suggest that Triatoma dimidiata is not native to Ecuador-Peru, and that synanthropic populations of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in southern Ecuador-northern Peru might be isolated from their sylvatic conspecifics. Local eradication of T. dimidiata and these R. ecuadoriensis populations might therefore be attainable. However, the presence of a wide variety of native species indicates the necessity for a strong longitudinal surveillance system.
Abstract in English:One hundred and thirty cases of diarrhea and 43 age-matched controls, 0 to 5 years old, were studied in a pediatric outpatient unit from a poor peri urban area of Porto Velho, Rondônia. Eighty percent of diarrheal cases were observed in the groups under 2 years of age. Rotavirus (19.2%) was the most frequent enteropathogen associated with diarrhea, followed by Shigella flexneri (6.15%) and S. sonnei (1.5%) and Salmonella sp. (6.9%). Four cases of E. coli enterotoxigenic infections (3.1%), E. coli enteropathogenic (EPEC)(2.3%) one case of E. coli enteroinvasive infection (0.8%) and one case of Yersinia enterocolitica (0.8%) were also identified. Mixed infections were frequent, associating rotavirus, EPEC and Salmonella sp. with Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.
Abstract in English:The sensitivity of parameters that govern the stability of population size in Chrysomya albiceps and describe its spatial dynamics was evaluated in this study. The dynamics was modeled using a density-dependent model of population growth. Our simulations show that variation in fecundity and mainly in survival has marked effect on the dynamics and indicates the possibility of transitions from one-point equilibrium to bounded oscillations. C. albiceps exhibits a two-point limit cycle, but the introduction of diffusive dispersal induces an evident qualitative shift from two-point limit cycle to a one fixed-point dynamics. Population dynamics of C. albiceps is here compared to dynamics of Cochliomyia macellaria, C. megacephala and C. putoria.
Abstract in English:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has a low endemicity in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sexual transmission must play an important role in this virus, but the prevalence and risk factors have never been properly investigated. The aim of this paper is to determine the prevalence and risk factors for HBV infection in patients attending a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In a retrospective study, HBV seroprevalence was investigated in 440 patients. Serum of each patient was assayed for antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs). Demographic and risk factor data were extracted from clinic notes. The overall seroprevalence of exposure markers for HBV (anti-HBc, HBsAg and anti-HBs) were 13%, 3.4% and 8.5% respectively. Homo/bisexual behaviour, anal intercourse, HIV infection, positive serology for syphilis and blood transfusion were predictors of the HBV exposure. Among demographic data, age and place of birth were associated with the anti-HBc seropositivity.
Abstract in English:A white Shannon-type trap was used for captures of female sand flies in the search for natural infection with flagellates, however, due to its low productivity and as a large number of phlebotomines settled on the researchers' black clothes, we decided to compare the relative attractiveness of black and white Shannon-type traps for sand flies. Several pairs of black and white traps were placed side by side in front of caves in four areas in the Serra da Bodoquena, Bonito county, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for a total of 12 observations and 44 h of capture. The experiment resulted in 889 phlebotomines captured, 801 on the black and 88 on the white trap, representing 13 species. The hourly Williams' means were 8.67 and 1.24, respectively, and the black/white ratio was 7.0:1.0. Lutzomyia almerioi, an anthropophilic species closely associated with caves, was predominant (89%). Only two other species, Nyssomyia whitmani and Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, also anthropophilic, were significantly attracted to the black rather than to the white trap (chi2 test; p <= 0.01). The difference between the diversity index of the two traps was not significant at level 0.05. The black trap in these circumstances was much more productive than the white, especially for anthropophilic species.
Abstract in English:A clinical-serological follow-up was carried out in a canine population in endemic foci of Leishmania braziliensis spread in northwestern Argentina. Each dog was studied in at least two visits, 309±15 days (X±SE) apart. Some initially healthy dogs (n=52) developed seroconversion or lesions. The clinical evolution of the disease in dogs resembles in many aspects the human disease. Similarities include the long duration of most ulcers with occasional healing or appearance of new ones and the late appearance of erosive snout lesions in some animals. Yearly incidence rates of 22.7% for seroconversion and of 13.5% for disease were calculated as indicators of the force of infection by this parasite upon the canine population.
Abstract in English:From 1997 to 1999, we identified seven human cases of infection by fourth stage larvae of Pseudoterranova decipiens in Chile. All identified larvae were coughed up by the patients. Subjects were 10-55 years old; five were female. Some patients complained of coughing, expectoration, pharyngeal pain, nausea or anal and nasal pruritus. Larvae of three patients were coughed up from 36 h to 7 days after having eaten raw (cebiche or sushi) or lightly fried fish. P. decipiens has a marine life cycle. Infective third stage larva develop to adult stage in pinniped mammals. The nematode eggs are voided with the host faeces and develop and hatch releasing third stage larvae. Some crustaceans and fish act as hosts of third stage larvae. Man is an accidental host for third or fourth stage larvae.
Abstract in English:We report here the reappearence of Aedes aegypti in the Rimac district, and summarize the history of this mosquito species in Peru since its first detection in 1852. On March 17 2000 were found Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mariscal Castilla town, Flor de Amancaes, San Juan de Amancaes, El Altillo and Santa Rosa in the Rimac district, Lima Province.
Abstract in English:Triatoma dimidiata adults have been frequently found, during the last five years, in a dog kennel and a chicken coop, in the back yard of a well-built house, 15 km from San José, the capital of Costa Rica. In the chicken coop nymphs were also found. Two of the 11 dogs from the kennel were serologically positive for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. The inhabitants of the house, three adults and two children, were negative. This type of colonization by the insect, which is attracted to lights, is becoming common in old and new settlements, with different degrees of success, a fact with epidemiological implications and great relevance in the control strategies that can be applied.
Abstract in English:In Cuba, several Biomphalaria species have been reported such as B. orbignyi, B. schrammi, B. helophila, B. havanensis and B. peregrina; only the latter three are considered as potential hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The specific identification of Biomphalaria species is based on anatomical and morphological characters of genital organs and shells. The correct identification of these snails is complicated by the high variation in these characters, similarity among species and in some cases by the small size of the snails. In this paper, we reported the classical morphological identification, the use of PCR and RFLP analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA genes for molecular identification of seven snail populations from different localities in Cuba. Using morphological and molecular analysis, we showed that among the studied Cuban Biomphalaria populations only B. havanensis and B. obstructa species were found.
Abstract in English:Anacanthorus penilabiatus is referred parasitizing the type-host Piaractus mesopotamicus (Serrasalmidae) and two new hosts, Colossoma macropomum and C. brachypomum (Characidae) from fish ponds of "Departamento Nacional de Obras Contra as Secas", Pentecoste, State of Ceará, Brazil. Table of measurements and the first description of the egg are presented.
Abstract in English:Hydatid disease is caused by Echinococcus granulosus. In this study, we aimed to investigate the benefit of monitoring cases with hydatid cyst by means of immune components in patients in a long-term follow-up after surgery. Eighty-four preoperative and postoperative serum samples from 14 cases undergoing surgery for hydatid disease were evaluated in terms of immune parameters, such as total and specific IgE, IgG, IgM, IgA and complement. Total and specific IgE were determined by ELISA. Specific IgG levels were measured by indirect hemaglutination.Total IgG, IgM, IgA and complement (C3 and C4) were detected by nephelometry. Imaging studies were also carried out during the follow-up. In none of the patients hydatid cysts were detected during the follow-up. Total IgE levels in the sera of the patients decreased to normal six months after surgery. Although specific IgE against echinococcal antigens decreased one year after operation, levels were still significantly high. There were no changes in the levels of anti-Echinococcus IgG and total IgG in follow-up period. Additionally, other parameters, such as IgA, IgM, C3 and C4, were not affected.
Abstract in English:This paper reports the overall effects of three lectins, extracted from Canavalia brasiliensis, Dioclea violacea, and D. grandiflora, on BALB/c mice popliteal draining lymph nodes. These lectins have presented high stimulatory capacity on lymph node T cells. Additionally, they were able to induce apoptosis and inflammation (frequently associated with high endothelial venule necrosis). The data presented here suggest that the Diocleinae lectins studied can stimulate in vivo T cell activation and apoptosis, as well as present important side effects.
Abstract in English:Positive Montenegro's skin test is a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction widely used as indicative of previous infection with Leishmania in both humans and dogs. Montenegro's antigen consists of a crude Leishmania antigen solution, usually containing thimerosal as preserving agent. In this work it is shown that a large proportion of dogs (11 out of 56) examined in an endemic area of leishmaniasis presented induration at the site of injection of a diluent containing thimerosal alone. This clearly demonstrates that thimerosal leads to a high number of false positive skin reactions in dogs and that its use in Montenegro's skin test antigenic preparations should be avoided.
Abstract in English:We compared the diagnostic performance characteristics of newly developed method, the rapid dipstick test, which provides colorimetric determination by developing antibody to the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme of parasites, with conventional standard thick-blood film examination. For the rapid test, OptiMAL commercial kits were used. The results were also evaluated with clinical findings from patients. The parasites were determined by microscopic examination of thick-blood films from 81 patients with vivax malaria from southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. The OptiMAL test results were found to be negative in five patients who were diagnosed clinically and through thick-film testing as having vivax malaria. There was no false positivity observed with the OptiMAL test. We concluded that this rapid malaria test has a lower level of sensitivity than the classical thick-blood-film test for malaria, but that these methods have equal specificity.
Abstract in English:A comparative study of the indirect haemagglutination (IHA), immunofluorescence (IFAT) and immunoenzymatic (ELISA) tests was carried out to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in goats. One hundred seventy-four serum samples were obtained from four goat herds from the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais. The distribution of the animals, according to their origin, was as follow: 71 from herd I; 39 from herd II; 37 from herd III; and 27 from herd IV. Serum samples were analyzed by IHA, IFAT and ELISA, considering the reactivity of the serum samples at dilution ≥ 1:64 as cut off titer for the three tests. A global seroprevalence of 18.4% was observed, with significantly higher positivity rate in the herd II (66.7%) and older animals (> 36 months). A high and significant positive correlation was found between the titers obtained by the IHA versus IFAT, IHA versus ELISA, and ELISA versus IFAT. Therefore, it can be concluded that the three analyzed tests have shown to be highly concordant and appropriate for epidemiological surveys of Toxoplasma infection in goats. Although the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in goats is relatively low in this region as compared to other regions of the country, adequate management might be useful and essential to control the infection in the goat herds.
Abstract in English:The identification of arthropod bloodmeals is important in many epidemiological studies, as, the understanding of the life cycle of vectors and the patogens they transmit, as well as helping to define arthropods' control strategies. The precipitin test has been used for decades, but ELISA is slowly becoming more popular. To compare the two tests for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to detect small insect bloodmeals, Aedes aegypti or Ae. fluviatilis mosquitoes were fed either on feline, canine or human hosts. Mosquitoes were frozen at 6, 12, 24, 48 or 72 h after feeding. Precipitin test showed better specificity and accuracy and ELISA test showed higher sensitivity. Better results with both tests were achieved when mosquitoes were frozen within 48 h from feeding.
Abstract in English:α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (α-GPDH-EC.126.96.36.199) has been considered absent in Trypanosoma cruzi in contradiction with all other studied trypanosomatids. After observing that the sole malate dehydrogenase can not maintain the intraglycosomal redox balance, GPDH activity was looked for and found, although in very variable levels, in epimastigotes extracts. GPDH was shown to be exclusively located in the glycosome of T. cruzi by digitonin treatment and isopycnic centrifugation. Antibody against T. brucei GPDH showed that this enzyme seemed to be present in an essentially inactive form at the beginning of the epimastigotes growth. GPDH is apparently linked to a salicylhydroxmic-sensitive glycerophosphate reoxidizing system and plays an essential role in the glycosome redox balance.
Abstract in English:Genetic and phenotypic virulence markers of different categories of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli were investigated in 106 strains of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) serogroup O86. The most frequent serotype found was O86:H34 (86%). Strains of this serotype and the non motile ones behaved as EPEC i.e., carried eae, bfpA and EAF DNA sequences and presented localised adherence to HeLa cells. Serotypes O86:H2, O86:H6, O86:H10, O86:H18, O86:H27 and O86:H non determined, belonged to other categories. The majority of the strains of serotype O86:H34 and non motile strains produced cytolethal-distending toxin (CDT). The ribotyping analysis showed a correlation among ribotypes, virulence markers and serotypes, thus suggesting that CDT production might be a property associated with a universal clone represented by the O86:H34 serotype.
Abstract in English:Phenotypic diversity has been described in the central repeated region of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) from Plasmodium vivax. Two sequences VK210 (common) and VK247 (variant) have been found widely distributed in P. vivax isolates from several malaria endemic areas around the world. A third protein variant called P. vivax-like showing a sequence similar to the simian parasite P. simio-ovale has also been described. Here, using an immunofluorescent test and specific monoclonal antibodies, we assessed the presence of two of these protein variants (VK210 and VK247) in laboratory produced sporozoite. Both sequences were found in parasite isolates coming from different geographic regions of Colombia. Interestingly, sporozoites carrying the VK247 sequence were more frequently produced in Anopheles albimanus than sporozoites with the VK210 sequence. This difference in sporozoites production was statistically significant (p <0.05, Kruskal-Wallis); not correlation was found with parameters as the total number of parasites or gametocytes in blood from human donors used to feed mosquitoes. Previous studies in the same region have shown a higher prevalence of anti-VK210 antibodies which in theory may suggest their role in blocking the development of sporozoites carrying the CSP VK210 sequence.
Abstract in English:Trypanosoma cruzi is usually transmitted by contact with the excreta of infected Triatominae; among non-vectorial infections, direct transmission through coitus has been proposed. We investigated this possibility by instilling, through the external meatus of the vagina and the penis of previously anesthetized NMRI albino mice, blood of mice infected with strains isolated from Didelphis marsupialis (opossum, strain CO57), Rattus rattus (rat, strain CO22) and human (strain EP). Some animals were allowed to copulate the same day of the instillation. In other experiments, the strains were inoculated in the scrotum. To determine the effect of immunosuppression, some mice were treated with cyclophosphamide 30 days post-instillation. Controls were instilled orally and ocularly. Vaginal instillation with strain CO22 produced systemic infection with tropism to the heart, skeletal muscle, skin, duodenum, pancreas, ovary and sternum. Scrotal inoculation with strain EP likewise invaded liver, spleen, lung, lymph nodes and urogenital organs; while strain CO57 invaded skeletal and cardiac muscle, pancreas, testis, and vas deferens. Penile infection with strain CO22 was detected by xenodiagnosis. Immunosuppression did not increase parasitemia of vaginally infected mice or controls. Mating did not produce infection. Our results show that contact of blood trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with genital mucosa can produce blood and tissue infections. These results are discussed in relation to reports of frequent experimental tropism of T. cruzi toward urogenital organs.
Abstract in English:Biomphalaria glabrata, highly susceptible to Schistosoma mansoni, were seen to shed less and less cercariae along the time of infection. Histological examination kept a close correlation with this changing pattern of cercarial shedding, turning an initial picture of no-reaction (tolerance) gradually into one of hemocyte proliferation with formation of focal encapsulating lesions around disintegrating sporocysts and cercariae, a change that became disseminated toward the 142nd day post miracidial exposure. Findings were suggestive of a gradual installation of acquired immunity in snails infected with S. mansoni.
Abstract in English:There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal effects; and also inhibits carcinogenesis and cancer growth. In vivo, there are experiments showing the anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory potency of curcumin and extracts of C. longa L. by parenteral and oral application in animal models. In this present work we make an overview of the pharmacological activities of C. longa L., showing its importance.
Abstract in English:Five field populations of Musca domestica L. collected in poultry farms were bioassayed in order to detect possible resistance to the larvicide cyromazine in Brazil. The concentrations used were 0, 0.5, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 1, 2, 4 and 8 ppm. Three populations (Petrópolis, RJ, Montes Claros, MG and Promissão, SP) were resistant, while the other two populations (Ibiuna, SP and Monte Mor, SP) were more susceptible than the reference pathern used by the World Health Organization. The presence of three resistant house fly populations to cyromazine in Brazilian poultry farms strongly suggests that the operational aspects of larvicide use are important for the resistance development. Cyromazine is applied as a feed-through, both in Brazil and in the USA, where resistance has already been documented. However, in Denmark, where it was approved only as a topical manure spray, no case of resistance has yet been detected.
Abstract in English:Variation between aeropile numbers of the right and left peritrematic plate in male and female Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897) is reported from a site in Brazil. From January to December 1998, 146 males and 247 females of A. nitens were recovered from Equus caballus L. in Silva Jardim District, State of Rio de Janeiro. Asymmetry of numbers of aeropiles between right and left plates occurred in 83.6% of the males and 82.2% of the females. Differences in the number of aeropiles between the sexes were not significant. Quantitative variation of aeropiles was correlated to the period of recovery, with significant asymmetry detected in August-September and November-December, mainly in males. Results suggest an adaptation, especially in the male ticks, that expresses itself as greater variation in the number of aeropiles in some periods of the year.
Abstract in English:Specimens of Biomphalaria tenagophila exposed to miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni were submitted to different desiccation periods as follows: group I: 24 h after exposure, desiccated for 28 days; group II: after cercariae elimination, desiccated for 7 days; group III: 21 days after exposure, desiccated for 7 days; group IV: 14 days after exposure, desiccated for 14 days; group V: 7 days after exposure, desiccated for 21 days. From the obtained data it was verified that desiccation was not capable of interrupting the development of larvae of S. mansoni in mollusks. A delay in the development of S. mansoni larvae in groups I, III, IV and V was observed. A pause was verified in the development of S. mansoni larvae in groups II, III, IV and V. Some larvae, in groups I, III, IV and V, did not suffer as a result of desiccation and continued their development. Larvae in the cercariae stage were shown to be more sensitive to desiccation. It was possible to obtain clearing of mollusks infected by sporocysts II and cercariae using a period of 7 days of desiccation.