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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 96, Issue: 6, Published: 2001
  • Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus markers among malaria-exposed gold miners in Brazilian Amazon Epidemiology

    Souto, Francisco José Dutra; Fontes, Cor Jésus Fernandes; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra

    Abstract in English:

    Hepatitis B and C virus markers were assessed during a survey on malaria in gold mine camps in southern Brazilian Amazon in order to identify risk factors associated to these viral diseases. The study comprised 520 subjects, most of them were gold miners. Missing subjects totaled 49 (8.6%). Among these 520, 82.9% had HBV markers and 7.1% were HBsAg positive. Previous hospitalization, surgery, sexually transmitted diseases and incarceration were quite common among surveyed people, but there is no association between total HBV markers and these factors. On other hand, HBsAg was independently associated to history of sexually transmitted diseases and history of surgery after adjustment. The most frequent HBsAg subtypes identified, adw2 (59%), predominates in populations of Northeast Brazil. The most surveyed people were immigrants coming from that area suggesting that immigrants carried HBV themselves to the study area. Immunoblot (RIBA) confirmed-anti-HCV were found in 2.1%. The only variable associated to anti-HCV in multivariate analysis was illicit intravenous drug. Lack of HCV infection in subjects with such a high HBV markers prevalence reinforces the opinion that HCV is transmitted by restricted routes when compared to HBV. Furthermore, gold miners in Amazon may be considered as a risk group for HBV infection, but not for HCV.
  • Entomological and ecological aspects of six sylvatic species of triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) from the collection of the National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica, Central America Epidemiology

    Zeledón, Rodrigo; Ugalde, Jesús A; Paniagua, Luis A

    Abstract in English:

    A total of 797 specimens of wild adult triatomines, belonging to six species from the entomological collections of the Costa Rican National Biodiversity Institute, was studied from the standpoint of their relative abundance, as reflected by light traps, distribution in the country, seasonal variations and climatic and altitudinal preferences. Triatoma dimidiata was the most abundant species (32.9% of the total specimens), with a very extensive distribution in different ecological zones, being more common between 100 to 400 m above sea level mainly at the end of the dry season. T. dispar was the third in frequency (21.5%), with narrower distribution, more abundant between 600 to 800 m and scarce during the dry season. Panstrongylus geniculatus and P. rufotuberculatus, second and fourth in frequency (22.1% and 15.1%, respectively), were widely distributed on both the Pacific and Caribbean basins, the former being more common between 80 to 270 m all year round and the latter below 800 m mainly during the first semester. Eratyrus cuspidatus which represented only 4.9% of the insects, was also present on both basins mainly below 200 m with a tendency to be scarce during certain months of the year, and was found in all types of ecological zones. Finally, Rhodnius pallescens, the least abundant species (3.6%) was restricted to very humid areas below 20 m, on the north side and Caribbean basin. With the exception of R. pallescens, males were more commonly found than females. Some epidemiological implications related to the six species are discussed.
  • Hepatitis C prevalence and risk factors in hemodialysis patients in Central Brazil: a survey by polymerase chain reaction and serological methods Epidemiology

    Carneiro, Megmar AS; Martins, Regina MB; Teles, Sheila A; Silva, Simonne A; Lopes, Carmen L; Cardoso, Divina DP; Vanderborght, Bart OM; Yoshida, Clara FT

    Abstract in English:

    An hemodialysis population in Central Brazil was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serological methods to assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and to investigate associated risk factors. All hemodialysis patients (n=428) were interviewed in eight dialysis units in Goiânia city. Blood samples were collected and serum samples screened for anti-HCV antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive samples were retested for confirmation with a line immunoassay (LIA). All samples were also tested for HCV RNA by the PCR. An overall prevalence of 46.7% (CI 95%: 42-51.5) was found, ranging from 20.7% (CI 95%: 8.8-38.1) to 90.4% (CI 95%: 79.9-96.4) depending on the dialysis unit. Of the 428 patients, 185 were found to be seropositive by ELISA, and 167 were confirmed positive by LIA, resulting in an anti-HCV prevalence of 39%. A total of 131 patients were HCV RNA-positive. HCV viremia was present in 63.5% of the anti-HCV-positive patients and in 10.3% of the anti-HCV-negative patients. Univariate analysis of risk factors showed that the number of previous blood transfusions, transfusion of blood before mandatory screening for anti-HCV, length of time on hemodialysis, and treatment in multiple units were associated with HCV positivity. However, multivariate analysis revealed that blood transfusion before screening for anti-HCV and length of time on hemodialysis were significantly associated with HCV infection in this population. These data suggest that nosocomial transmission may play a role in the spread of HCV in the dialysis units studied. In addition to anti-HCV screening, HCV RNA detection is necessary for the diagnosis of HCV infection in hemodialysis patients.
  • The marsupial Didelphis albiventris is an improbable host of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in an endemic area of paracoccidioidomycosis in Minas Gerais, Brazil Epidemiology

    Silva-Vergara, ML; Martinez, R; Malta, MEB; Ramirez, LE; Franco, FA

    Abstract in English:

    To determine whether Didelphis albiventris is naturally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, 20 specimens of this mammal were studied by both direct cultivation of their viscera (spleen, liver and lungs) and by inoculation of Swiss mice by the intraperitoneal route with a suspension of fragments of these viscera. No fungal growth or structures similar to this fungus were detected. Probably D. albiventris is not frequently infected with P. brasiliensis.
  • Experimental evidence for a demographic cline in Panstrongylus megistus populations Epidemiology

    Barbosa, Silvia E; Soares, Rodrigo PP; Pires, Herton HR; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    Abstract in English:

    The population biology of three populations of Panstrongylus megistus was compared to determine possible influence on the behaviour and epidemiological importance of this species. The results demonstrated differences in terms of egg eclosion time, nymphal mortality and development rates, and feeding and defaecation rates. These differences appeared to follow a geographical cline, primarily reflecting different degrees of adaptation to domestic habitats.
  • Sporotrichosis: an emergent zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro Epidemiology

    Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Gutierrez Galhardo, Maria Clara; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Monteiro, Paulo Cezar Fialho; Reis, Rosani Santos; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Cuzzi-Maya, Tullia; Blanco, Tânia Cristina Moita; Marzochi, Keyla Belizia Feldman; Wanke, Bodo; Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do

    Abstract in English:

    During the period from 1987 to 1998, 13 cases of human sporotrichosis were recorded at the Research Center Evandro Chagas Hospital (CPqHEC) in Rio de Janeiro. Two of these patients related scratch by a sick cat. During the subsequent period from July 1998 to July 2000, 66 human, 117 cats and 7 dogs with sporotrichosis were diagnosed at the CPqHEC. Fifty-two humans (78.8%) reported contact with cats with sporotrichosis, and 31 (47%) of them reporting a history of a scratch or bite. This epidemic, unprecedented in the literature, involving cats, dogs and human beings may have started insidiously before 1998.
  • Distinction among the puparia of three blowfly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) frequently found on unburied corpses Systematics

    Amorim, JA; Ribeiro, OB

    Abstract in English:

    Calliphorid larvae are important in the decomposition of carrion. Since these larvae are present in the primary stages of succession on carcasses, they may be important indicators of death time and the movement of corpses in homicide investigations. In this study we examined the morphological differences among puparia of Chrysomya megacephala, C. putoria and Cochliomyia macellaria. Puparia of the three species (N=30, each) were obtained from the F2 generation bred in culture medium at 25° C, and 60% relative humidity on a 12 h photoperiod. The interspecific differences found were related to the conspicuousness of six tubercles located in the region near the posterior spiracles and to the distance between the two peritrema involving the spiracles. The latter were (mean ± SD) 15.2 ± 3.1 mum for C. megacephala, 18.8 ± 2.8 mum for C. putoria and 16.5 ± 3.5 mum for C. macellaria. The results of the present study may be useful in forensic entomology.
  • Morphometric comparison of Simulium perflavum larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) in relation to season and gender in Central Amazônia, Brazil Systematics

    Alencar, Yamile B; Hamada, Neusa; Magni-Darwich, Sandra

    Abstract in English:

    Number of larval instars, age structure and environmental effects on these parameters represent basic information in the study of insect population biology. When species have economic importance, this information is essential in order to choose the best period to apply different control methods and to determine the stages of the life cycle of the insect that are most susceptible to each treatment. The family Simuliidae has many species of medical/veterinary importance in the world, and some studies in the temperate region have suggested that the number of larval instars and the larval size can vary according to the season, gender and some environmental factors, such as temperature and diet. This study, with the zoophilic species Simulium perflavum Roubaud, is the first in the Neotropics observing some of these factors and will serve as a template for other species of medical importance in the region. S. perflavum larvae were collected in five streams in Central Amazônia (Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo counties, State of Amazonas), in Sept./Oct. 1996 (dry season) and Feb./Mar. 1997 (rainy season). These larvae were measured (lateral length of head capsule and width of cephalic apodema) to determine the number of larval instars (n=3985), to compare the larval size between seasons and genders (last and penultimate larval instars, n=200). Seven larval instars were determined for this species using frequency distributions, t-tests and Crosby´s growth rule. Significant differences were not detected (t-test, p>0.05) in larval size between seasons and genders. Our results differ from some found in temperate regions suggesting that in the Neotropical region the larval size in different seasons and different genders remains constant, although some environmental parameters, such as diet, change depending on the season.
  • Lutzomyia aldafalcaoae sp. n. a new species of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Systematics

    Santos, Soraya Oliveira; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Honer, Michael R

    Abstract in English:

    A new sand fly species, Lutzomia aldafalcaoae is described from males collected in Vila Trindade, an urban district in Aquidauana county, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in October 1996. Taxonomic remarks and a description of the new species is presented.
  • Leishmania (Leishmania) major-infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) develop varying levels of resistance against homologous re-infections Immunobiology

    Amaral, VF; Teva, A; Porrozzi, R; Silva, AJ; Pereira, MS; Oliveira-Neto, MP; Grimaldi Jr, G

    Abstract in English:

    Seven rhesus macaques were infected intradermally with 10(7) promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) major. All monkeys developed a localized, ulcerative, self-healing nodular skin lesion at the site of inoculation of the parasite. Non-specific chronic inflammation and/or tuberculoid-type granulomatous reaction were the main histopathological manifestations of the disease. Serum Leishmania-specific antibodies (IgG and IgG1) were detected by ELISA in all infected animals; immunoblot analyses indicated that numerous antigens were recognized. A very high degree of variability was observed in the parasite-specific cell-mediated immune responses [as detected by measuring delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction, in vitro lymphocyte proliferation, and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production] for individuals over time post challenge. From all the recovered monkeys (which showed resolution of the lesions after 11 weeks of infection), 57.2% (4/7) and 28.6% (2/7) animals remained susceptible to secondary and tertiary infections, respectively, but the disease severity was altered (i.e. lesion size was smaller and healed faster than in the primary infection). The remaining monkeys exhibited complete resistance (i.e. no lesion) to each rechallenge. Despite the inability to consistently detect correlates of cell-mediated immunity to Leishmania or correlation between resistance to challenge and DTH, lymphocyte transformation or IFN-gamma production, partial or complete acquired resistance was conferred by experimental infection. This primate model should be useful for measuring vaccine effectiveness against the human disease.
  • A simple modification of the Baermann method for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis Diagnosis

    Hernández-Chavarría, Francisco; Avendaño, Leticia

    Abstract in English:

    The diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infections is routinely made by microscopic observation of larvae in stool samples, a low sensitivity method, or by other, most effective methods, such as the Baermann or agar culture plate methods. We propose in this paper a practical modification of Baermann method. One hundred and six stool samples from alcoholic patients were analyzed using the direct smear test, agar culture plate method, the standard Baermann method, and its proposed modification. For this modification the funnel used in the original version of the method is substituted by a test tube with a rubber stopper, perforated to allow insertion of a pipette tip. The tube with a fecal suspension is inverted over another tube containing 6 ml of saline solution and incubated at 37°C for at least 2 h. The saline solution from the second tube is centrifuged and the pellet is observed microscopically. Larva of S. stercoralis were detected in six samples (5.7%) by the two versions of the Baermann method. Five samples were positive using the agar culture plate method, and only in two samples the larva were observed using direct microscopic observation of fecal smears. Cysts of Endolimax nana and Entamoeba histolytica/dyspar were also detected in the modification of Baermann method. Data obtained by the modified Baermann method suggest that this methodology may helps concentrate larvae of S. stercoralis as efficiently as the original method.
  • Mycobacterium bovis: polymerase chain reaction identification in bovine Lymphonode biopsies and genotyping in isolates from Southeast Brazil by spolygotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism Diagnosis

    Zanini, MS; Moreira, EC; Lopes, MTP; Oliveira, RS; Leão, SC; Fioravanti, RL; Roxo, E; Zumarraga, M; Romano, MI; Cataldi, A; Salas, CE

    Abstract in English:

    Diagnosis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by direct PCR of mediastinal lymphnode DNA and microbiological tests were compared in cattle suspicious of bearing tuberculous-like lesions detected during slaughter. The PCR procedure applied on DNA samples (n=54) obtained by adding alpha -casein into the thiocyanate extraction mix was positive in 70% of the samples. PCR confirmed the identification of 23 samples (100%) that grew in culture, 9 samples (60%) that failed to grow in culture, plus 6 (37.5%) samples that resulted in growth of bacterial contaminants. Genotyping by IS6110-RFLP and DR-spoligotyping analysis of seven samples revealed the presence of several polimorphisms. Seven of the isolates contained multiple copies of IS6110, thus defining the existence of five singular genotypes.
  • An improved method for concentrating rotavirus from water samples Diagnosis

    Kittigul, Leera; Khamoun, Porntip; Sujirarat, Dusit; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa; Chitpirom, Kitja; Chaichantanakit, Nattasai; Vathanophas, Kanda

    Abstract in English:

    A modified adsorption-elution method for the concentration of seeded rotavirus from water samples was used to determine various factors which affected the virus recovery. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the rotavirus antigen after concentration. Of the various eluents compared, 0.05M glycine, pH 11.5 gave the highest rotavirus antigen recovery using negatively charged membrane filtration whereas 2.9% tryptose phosphate broth containing 6% glycine; pH 9.0 was found to give the greatest elution efficiency when a positively charged membrane was used. Reconcentration of water samples by a speedVac concentrator showed significantly higher rotavirus recovery than polyethylene glycol precipitation through both negatively and positively charged filters (p-value <0.001). In addition, speedVac concentration using negatively charged filtration resulted in greater rotavirus recovery than that using positively charged filtration (p-value = 0.004). Thirty eight environmental water samples were collected from river, domestic sewage, canals receiving raw sewage drains, and tap water collected in containers for domestic use, all from congested areas of Bangkok. In addition, several samples of commercial drinking water were analyzed. All samples were concentrated and examined for rotavirus antigen. Coliforms and fecal coliforms (0->1,800 MPN/100 ml) were observed but rotavirus was not detected in any sample. This study suggests that the speedVac reconcentration method gives the most efficient rotavirus recovery from water samples.
  • Parasite persistence in treated chagasic patients revealed by xenodiagnosis and polymerase chain reaction Diagnosis

    Britto, Constança; Silveira, Celeste; Cardoso, Maria Angelica; Marques, Patricia; Luquetti, Alejandro; Macêdo, Vanize; Fernandes, Octavio

    Abstract in English:

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was compared with xenodiagnosis performed 20 years after trypanocidal chemotherapy to investigate parasite clearance. Eighty-five seropositive individuals for Chagas disease presenting a positive xenodiagnosis were treated with specific drugs; 37 in the acute phase and 48 in the chronic phase. Fifteen chronic assymptomatic patients received a placebo. Treatment in the acute phase led to PCR negative results in 73% of the cases, while xenodiagnosis was negative in 86%. In the chronic phase, PCR was negative in 65% of the patients and 83% led to xenodiagnosis negative results. Regarding the untreated group (placebo), 73% gave negative results by xenodiagnosis, of which 36% were positive by PCR. Individuals that were considered seronegative (n=10), presented unequivocally negative results in the PCR demonstrating the elimination of parasite DNA. Seventeen individuals had their antibodies titers decreased to such a level that the final results were considered as doubtful and 16 of them presented negative PCR. The molecular method represents a clear advantage over conventional techniques to demonstrate persistent infections in Chagas disease patients that underwent chemotherapy.
  • Helminth parasites in six species of shorebirds (Charadrii) from the Coast of Belize Diagnosis

    Canaris, Albert G; Kinsella, John M

    Abstract in English:

    Thirteen species of helminth parasites were recovered from six species of charadriid shorebirds (Aves: Charadriiformes) from Belize: the ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres, the snowy plover, Charadrius alexandrinus, the semipalmated plover, C. semipalmatus, the killdeer, C. vociferus, the white-rumped sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis, and the black-bellied plover, Pluvialis squatarola. Cestode species were predominant (N = 8), followed by trematode species (N = 3) and acanthocephala (N = 2). The trematode, Paramaritremopsis solielangi infected four of the six species of hosts. The cestodes, Nadejdolepis litoralis and N. paranitidulans infected three and two host species respectively. Helminth parasite species were contagious (clumped) and not evenly distributed among hosts. Twelve of the 13 species were generalists. The one specialist Microphallus kinsellae was recovered from one C. fuscicollis. Three of the four types of feeding guilds were present and in approximately the same number. All but M. kinsellae have been reported from other species of hosts, mostly from Eurasia and North America.
  • Polygodial, the fungitoxic component from the Brazilian medicinal plant Polygonum punctatum Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Alves, Tânia Maria de Almeida; Ribeiro, Fabiane Lacerda; Kloos, Helmut; Zani, Carlos Leomar

    Abstract in English:

    Polygonum punctatum (Polygonaceae) is an herb known in some regions of Brazil as "erva-de-bicho" and is used to treat intestinal disorders. The dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of this plant showed strong activity in a bioautographic assay with the fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum. The bioassay-guided chemical fractionation of this extract afforded the sesquiterpene dialdehyde polygodial as the active constituent. The presence of this compound with antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic properties in "erva-de-bicho" may account for the effects attributed by folk medicine to this plant species.
  • Identification of a differentially expressed mRNA in axenic Leishmania panamensis amastigotes Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Gutiérrez, José Arturo; Puentes, Fabiola; Moreno, Alberto; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Murillo, Luis Angel

    Abstract in English:

    Differential display technique was applied in order to identify transcripts which are present in axenic amastigotes but not in promastigotes of the Leishmania panamensis parasites. One of them was cloned and the sequence reveals an open reading frame of 364 amino acids (aprox. 40 kDa). The deduced protein is homologous to the serine/threonine protein kinases and specially to the mitogen activates protein kinases from eukaryotic species. Southern blot analysis suggest that this transcript, named lpmkh, is present in the genome of the parasite as a single copy gene. These results could imply that lpmkh could be involved in the differentiation process or the preservation of amastigotes in axenic conditions.
  • Deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars have a potent anti-feeding and insecticidal effect on Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia migonei Control

    David, John R; Stamm, Luisa M; Bezerra, Haroldo Sergio; Souza, Raimundo Nonato; Killick-Kendrick, Robert; Lima, José Wellington Oliveira

    Abstract in English:

    Deltamethrin-impregnated PVC dog collars were tested to assess if they were effective in protecting dogs from sand fly bites of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lu. migonei. A protective effect against Old World species Phlebotomus perniciosus was demonstrated before. Four dogs wearing deltamethrin collars and three dogs wearing untreated collars (not impregnated with deltamethrin) were kept in separate kennels for over eight months in a village on the outskirts of Fortaleza in Ceará, Brazil. Periodically, a dog from each group was sedated, placed in a net cage for 2 h in which 150 female sand flies had been released 10-15 min before. Lu. longipalpis were used 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 27, and 35 weeks after the attachment of the collars. Lu. migonei were used 3, 7, 11, 15, 22, 26, and 36 weeks after attachment. During 35 weeks, only 4.1% (81 of 2,022) Lu. longipalpis recovered from the nets with the deltamethrin collared dogs were engorged, an anti-feeding effect of 96%. Mortality initially was over 90% and at 35 weeks was 35% with half of the sand flies dying in the first 2 h. In contrast, 83% of the 2,094 Lu. longipalpis recovered from the nets containing the untreated collared dogs were engorged and the mortality ranged from zero to 18.8% on one occasion with 1.1% dying in the first 2 h. Similar findings were found with Lu. migonei: of 2,034 sand flies recovered over this period, only 70 were engorged, an anti-feeding effect of 96.5%, and mortality ranged from 91% initially to 46% at 36 weeks. In contrast, engorgement of controls ranged from 91 to71% and a mortality ranged from 3.5 to 29.8%. These studies show that deltamethrin impregnated collars can protect dogs against Brazilian sand flies for up to eight months. Thus, they should be useful in a program to control human and canine visceral leishmaniasis.
  • The early use of yellow fever virus strain 17D for vaccine production in Brazil - a review Control

    Post, Paulo Roberto; Carvalho, Ricardo de; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Galler, Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    The use of yellow fever (YF) virus 17D strain for vaccine production adapted in Brazil since its introduction in 1937 was reviewed. This was possible due to the availability of official records of vaccine production. The retrieved data highlight the simultaneous use of several serially passaged 17D substrain viruses for both inocula and vaccine preparation that allowed uninterrupted production. Substitution of these substrain viruses became possible with the experience gained during quality control and human vaccination. Post-vaccinal complications in humans and the failure of some viruses in quality control tests (neurovirulence for monkeys) indicated that variables needed to be reduced during vaccine production, leading to the development of the seed lot system. The 17DD substrain, still used today, was the most frequently used substrain and the most reliable in terms of safety and efficacy. For this reason, it is possible to derive an infectious cDNA clone of this substrain combined with production in cell culture that could be used to direct the expression of heterologous antigens and lead to the development of new live vaccines.
  • Evaluation of a new tablet formulation based on Bacillus thuringiensis sorovar. israelensis for larvicidal control of Aedes aegypti Control

    Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal de; Sanches, Elizabeth Gomes; Jesus, Fernando Justino de; Regis, Lêda

    Abstract in English:

    The effect of sunlight on the efficacy and persistence of an experimental tablet formulation based on Bacillus thuringiensis sorovar. israelensis (C4P1) was evaluated against Aedes aegypti larvae under simulated field conditions. The initial mortality ranged from 93 to 100%, and the residual activity ( > or = 70% mortality) recorded in containers exposed to sunlight or shade were, respectively, 13-35 days and 40-54 days. The results suggest that C4P1 can provide long-term larvicidal effect and operational advantages.
  • In vitro interaction of Brazilian strains of the Nematode-trapping fungi Arthrobotrys spp. on Panagrellus sp. and Cooperia punctata General Biology

    Gomes, APS; Vasconcellos, RS; Ramos, ML; Guimarães, MP; Yatsuda, AP; Vieira-Bressan, MCR

    Abstract in English:

    In vitro tests were carried out to verify the activity of 26 Brazilian isolates of predatory fungi of the genus Arthrobotrys on a free-living nematode (Panagrellus sp.) and on infective larvae of Cooperia punctata, a parasitic gastrointestinal nematode of cattle. The results showed that the free-living nematode Panagrellus sp. was the most preyed upon, compared to C. punctata, for all the fungal treatments. Also, variable predatory capacity was observed for different fungal isolates belonging to the same genus when applied to different nematode species.
  • A new continuous cell line from the mosquito Psorophora confinnis (Diptera: Culicidae) and its susceptibility to infections with some arboviruses General Biology

    Bello, Felio J; Rodríguez, Jaime A; Escovar, Jesús; Olano, Víctor A; Morales, Alberto; González, Martha; Rey, Gloria

    Abstract in English:

    A new cell line, PC-0199-BR, was established from embryonated eggs of the mosquito Psorophora confinnis. To date (September 2000) it has had 62 continuous passages. This is the first report of a cell line of mosquitoes belonging to the genus Psorophora. Cell growth initially was achieved in the MM/VP12 medium, supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum; however, the subcultures were later adapted to Grace's medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. Cell morphology in the primary cultures was heterogeneous; but later in the established cell line, the predominant cell type was epithelioid. Cultured cells were predominantly diploid (2n=6); however, chromosome abnormalities were observed in a small proportion of the cells in later passages. C and G band patterns were also determined in the karyotype. The cell line isozyme profiles coincided with pupae and adult samples of the species taken from the same colony. A preliminary arbovirus susceptibility study for the cell line was undertaken. No evidence was observed of contamination of the cell line with bacteria, fungi or mycoplasma.
  • Prey choice by facultative predator larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) General Biology

    Faria, Lucas Del Bianco; Godoy, Wesley Augusto Conde

    Abstract in English:

    In this study we investigated predation rates on third instar larvae of Chrysomya putoria and C. megacephala by third instar larvae of C. albiceps in a two-choice situation. The highest predation rate occurred on C. putoria larvae and this result is compared to previous experiments, in which C. macellaria larvae were present. Our results suggest that, when C. macellaria is absent C. albiceps larvae attack more C. putoria than C. megacephala larvae. Prey choice decisions and its implications for introduced and native blowflies are discussed.
  • Biology of Triatoma flavida Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under laboratory conditions General Biology

    Cabello, Daniel R; Lizano, Eliezer

    Abstract in English:

    The complete life cycle of Triatoma flavida, weekly fed on hens, was studied at 28±2°C and 80±10% RH. Aspects related to hatching, life span, mortality and feeding behavior for each stage of its life cycle were evaluated. The hatching rate observed for 100 eggs was 93% with an average incubation period of 27.2 days. Sixty-two nymphs completed the cycle and the mean egg to adult development time was 230.4 days. Mean duration of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar nymphs was 22.1, 25.3, 36.7, 49.7 and 69.4 days, respectively. The number of blood meals on each nymphal stage varied from 1 to 7. The mortality rate was 6.5% for NI, 23% for NIII and 7.5% for NV nymphs. Mean number of laid eggs per female was 283.1. Adult survival rates were 344.8 ± 256.4 days for males and 285.3 ± 201.8 days for females.
  • Characteristics of the bological cycle of Lutzomyia evandroi Costa Lima & Antunes, 1936 (Diptera: Psychodidae) under experimental conditions General Biology

    Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo; Maciel, Janaína Cunha; Jerônimo, Selma Maria Bezerra

    Abstract in English:

    Lutzomyia evandroi Costa Lima and Antunes, 1936 is found in Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil, in areas of visceral and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and follows the same geographic distribution of L. longipalpis. The biological cycle, oviposition, morphological and behavioral characteristics of the species were studied under experimental conditions. The average number of eggs per wild caught female varied from 21 to 50 eggs along the year, with a peak occurring between January and March and another in August, with oviposition lasting for 4 to 12 days. The mean larval phase was 24 days. Ovipositing rates were influenced by rainfall and temperature indexes, with an increase of eggs per oviposition at the beginning and at the end of the rainy season, and a decrease at the peak of the rainy season.
  • Health statistics from the Americas, 1998 edition Book Review

    Leite, Iúri da Costa
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Av. Brasil, 4365 - Pavilhão Mourisco, Manguinhos, 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro RJ Brazil, Tel.: (55 21) 2562-1222, Fax: (55 21) 2562 1220 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil
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