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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 98, Issue: 5, Published: 2003
  • Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the Southern Cone countries Review

    Moncayo, Alvaro

    Abstract in English:

    Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts 6 to 8 weeks. After several years of starting the chronic phase, 20% to 35% of the infected individuals, depending on the geographical area will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, esophagus, colon and the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980's as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies carried out in countries where accurate information was not available. A group of experts met in Brasília in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country program in the Southern Cone countries the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and by blood transfusion has been interrupted in Uruguay in1997, in Chile in 1999, and in 8 of the 12 endemic states of Brazil in 2000 and so the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi in the whole continent has decreased by 70%. Similar control multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been recorded to ensure the interruption of the transmission of Chagas disease by 2005 as requested by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly approved in 1998. The cost-benefit analysis of the investments of the vector control program in Brazil indicate that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the program is a health investment with good return. Since the inception in 1979 of the Steering Committee on Chagas Disease of the Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases of the World Health Organization (TDR), the objective was set to promote and finance research aimed at the development of new methods and tools to control this disease. The well known research institutions in Latin America were the key elements of a world wide network of laboratories that received - on a competitive basis - financial support for projects in line with the priorities established. It is presented the time line of the different milestones that were answering successively and logically the outstanding scientific questions identified by the Scientific Working Group in 1978 and that influenced the development and industrial production of practical solutions for diagnosis of the infection and disease control.
  • Prevalence of Toxocara infection in schoolchildren from the Butantã region, São Paulo, Brazil Epidemiology

    Alderete, Jussara MS; Jacob, Cristina MA; Pastorino, Antonio C; Elefant, Guita R; Castro, Ana PM; Fomin, Angela BF; Chieffi, Pedro P

    Abstract in English:

    Visceral larva migrans syndrome by Toxocara affects mainly children between 2 and 5 years of age, it is generally asymptomatic, and the seroprevalence varies from 3 to 86% in different countries. A total of 399 schoolchildren from 14 public schools of the Butantã region, São Paulo city, Brazil, were evaluated by Toxocara serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Epidemiological data to the Toxocara infection obtained from a protocol were submitted to multiple logistic regression analysis for a risk profile definition. Blood was collected on filter paper by finger puncture, with all samples tested in duplicate. Considering titers > 1/160 as positive, the seroprevalence obtained was 38.8%. Among infected children, the mean age was 9.4 years, with a similar distribution between genders. A significant association was observed with the presence of onychophagia, residence with a dirty backyard, living in a slum, previous wheezing episodes, school attended, and family income (p < 0.05). All data, except "living in a slum", were considered to be determinant of a risk profile for the acquisition of Toxocara infection. A monthly income > 5 minimum salaries represented a protective factor, although of low relevance. Toxocara eggs were found in at least one of the soil samples obtained from five schools, with high prevalence of Toxocara infections, indicating the frequent soil contamination by this agent.
  • Epidemiology

    Souza, Karla P; Luz, Jônio A; Teles, Sheila A; Carneiro, Megmar AS; Oliveira, Luciana A; Gomes, Adriane S; Dias, Márcia A; Gomes, Selma A; Yoshida, Clara FT; Martins, Regina MB

    Abstract in English:

    A survey was conducted in the hemodialysis population of the state of Tocantins, Brazil, aiming to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to analyze associated risk factors, and also to investigate these viruses genotypes distribution. During January and March 2001, all patients (n = 100) were interviewed at the unique dialysis unit in Tocantins. Blood samples were collected and serum samples were screened for HBV serological markers. Hepatitis B surface antigen positive samples were tested for HBV DNA. All samples were also tested for anti-HCV antibodies and HCV RNA. An overall prevalence of 45% was found for HBV infection (4% were HBsAg/anti-HBc positive, 2% were anti-HBc only and 39% had anti-HBc/anti-HBs markers). Concerning HCV infection, anti-HCV and HCV RNA were detected in 13% and 14% of the subjects, respectively. Three patients were HCV RNA positive and anti-HCV negative, resulting in an overall HCV prevalence of 16%. Univariate analysis of risk factors showed that only shift and length of time on hemodialysis were associated with HBV and HCV positivity, respectively. Among the four HBsAg-positive samples, HBV DNA was detected in three of them, which were identified as genotype A by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. All 14 HCV RNA-positive samples were genotyped by INNO-LiPA. Genotypes 1a and 3a were found in 85% and 15%, respectively. The present data show low HBsAg and HCV prevalence rates. The risk factors associated with HBV and HCV positivity suggest that nosocomial transmission may influence in spreading these viruses in the dialysis unit studied.
  • Electrocardiographic findings in Mexican chagasic subjects living in high and low endemic regions of Trypanosoma cruzi infection Epidemiology

    Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Mazariego-Aranda, Miguel; Hernández-Becerril, Nidia; Garza- Murillo, Verónica; Cárdenas, Manuel; Reyes, Pedro A; Hirayama, Kenji; Monteón, Victor M

    Abstract in English:

    In México the first human chronic chagasic case was recognized in 1940. In spite of an increasing number of cases detected since that time, Chagas disease in México has been poorly documented. In the present work we studied 617 volunteers subjects living in high and low endemic regions of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with seroprevalence of 22% and 4% respectively. Hemoculture performed in those seropositive subjects failed to demonstrate circulating parasites, however polymerase chain reaction identified up to 60% of them as positives. A higher level of anti-T. cruzi antibodies was observed in seropositive residents in high endemic region, in spite of similar parasite persistence (p < 0.05). On standard 12 leads electrocardiogram (ECG) 20% to 22% seropositive individuals from either region showed right bundle branch block or ventricular extrasystoles which were more prevalent in seropositive than in seronegative individuals (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the frequency or type of ECG abnormality was influenced by serologic status but not by endemicity or parasite persistence. Furthermore, Mexican indeterminate patients have a similar ECG pattern to those reported in South America.
  • Correlation of male genital filaments and female spermathecal ducts in New World sand flies of the Lutzomyia intermedia species complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) Systematics

    Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Alexander, Bruce

    Abstract in English:

    The lengths of the male genital filaments and female spermathecal ducts were measured in phlebotomine sand flies of the Lutzomyia intermedia species complex and the ratios between these characters calculated. Ratios for L. intermedia s. s. from Northeast vs Southeast Brazil (Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais), Espírito Santo/Minas Gerais vs Rio de Janeiro/São Paulo and L. intermedia vs L. neivai were significantly different at P < 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 respectively when compared using ANOVA. The spermathecal ducts and genital filaments of L. intermedia were significantly longer than those of L. neivai (P < 0.01) and could be used to differentiate these species. The taxonomic and biological significance of these differences is discussed.
  • Taxonomic studies on Culex (Melanoconion) coppenamensis Bonne-Wepster & Bonne (Diptera: Culicidae), and description of two new species from Brazil Systematics

    Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Hutchings, Rosa Sá Gomes

    Abstract in English:

    Two new species,Culex (Melanoconion) alinkios and Culex (Melanoconion) symbletos are described and defined based on morphological features of the male genitalia. The former is from Vale do Ribeira, Atlantic Forest, southeastern of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and belongs to the Bastagarius subgroup. The latter is from the Parque Nacional do Jaú, state of Amazonas, Brazil, and belongs to the Inhibitator subgroup and is similar to Cx. mesodenticulatus Galindo and Mendez. Diagnostic characters for the identification of the adult males of the species are provided. Two morphological forms (Form 1 and 2), which are similar to Cx. coppenamensis, were also found in the Parque Nacional do Jaú. Form 1 is described and compared with the new species from Vale do Ribeira and Form 2.
  • Morphometric study of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms recovered from undernourished infected mice Systematics

    Oliveira, Sheilla A; Barbosa Jr., Aryon A; Gomes, Delir C; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Barros, Andréia F; Neves, Renata Heisler; Coutinho, Eridan M

    Abstract in English:

    Some unfavourable effects of malnutrition of the host on Schistosoma mansoni worm biology and structure have been reported based upon brigthfield microscopy. This paper aims to study by morphometric techniques, some morphological parameters in male and female adult worms recovered from undernourished albino mice in comparison with parasites recovered from well-fed infected mice. Undernourished animals were fed a multideficient and essentially low protein diet (RBD diet) and compared to well-fed control mice fed with the commercial diet NUVILAB. Seventy-five days post-infection with 80 cercarie (BL strain) animals were sacrificed. All adult worms were fixed in 10% formalin and stained with carmine chloride. One hundred male and 60 female specimens from each group (undernourished and control) were examined using an image system analysis Leica Quantimet 500C and the Sigma Scan Measurement System. The following morphometrical parameters were studied: body length and width, oral and ventral suckers, number and area of testicular lobes, length and width of ovary and uterine egg. For statistical analysis, the Student's t test for unpaired samples was applied. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were detected in body length and width, in parameters of suckers, uterine egg width, ovary length and area of testicular lobes, with lower values for specimens from undernourished mice. The nutritional status of the host has negative influence on S. mansoni adult worms, probably through unavailability of essential nutrients to the parasites.
  • Location of ribosomal genes in the chromosomes of Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles nuneztovari (Diptera, Culicidae) from the Brazilian Amazon General And Molecular Entomology

    Rafael, Míriam Silva; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    Abstract in English:

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization of Anopheles darlingi and A. nuneztovari demonstrated nucleolar organizer region activity at the end of the fourth larval instar, when the nucleolar organizer regions underwent gradual condensation. The heteromorphic sex chromosomes showed intraindividual size variation in the rDNA blocks located in the pericentromeric region and this coincided with the location of constitutive heterochromatin (C-banding).
  • Crossing experiments detect genetic incompatibility among populations of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) General And Molecular Entomology

    Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Dujardin, Jean Pierre; Beard, Charles Benjamin

    Abstract in English:

    Triatoma brasiliensis is composed of at least four geographic populations (brasiliensis, melanica, macromelasoma, and juazeiro) that have distinct chromatic, morphologic, biologic and ecologic patterns, and genetic composition. Reciprocal crosses between all pairwise combinations were carried out in order to evaluate the genetic and reproductive compatibility of these four populations. The F1 individuals developed normally and the resulting adults were crossed again to test the F2 and F3 viability. Genetic incompatibility was found between melanica and brasiliensis populations.
  • Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 from Tumaco, Colombia Molecular Biology

    Balcázar, Norman; Sánchez, Gloria I; Garcia-Vallejo, Felipe

    Abstract in English:

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes leukemia and the neurological disorder HTLV-1 associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Infection with this virus - although it is distributed worldwide - is limited to certain endemic areas of the world. Despite its specific distribution and slow mutation rate, molecular epidemiology on this virus has been useful to follow the movements of human populations and routes of virus spread to different continents. In the present study, we analyzed the genetic variability of a region of the env gene of isolates obtained from individuals of African origin that live on the Pacific coast of Colombia. Sequencing and comparison of the fragment with the same fragment from different HTLV-1 isolates showed a variability ranging from 0.8% to 1.2%. Phylogenetic studies permit us to include these isolates in the transcontinental subgroup A in which samples isolated from Brazil and Chile are also found. Further analyses will be necessary to determine if these isolates were recently introduced into the American continent or if they rather correspond to isolates introduced during the Paleolithic period.
  • Trypanosoma cruzi: genetic group with peculiar biochemical and biological behavior Molecular Biology

    Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Bittencourt, Nilza de Lucas Rodrigues; Chiari, Egler; Araújo, Silvana Marques de

    Abstract in English:

    Thirty-two Trypanosoma cruzi strains, isolated from chronic chagasic patients in the northwest of the state of Paraná (Brazil), were analyzed using molecular, biochemical and biological characteristics. Genotypic analysis using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and simple sequence repeat-anchored polymerase chain reaction amplified profiles showed a large, genetically well-correlated group that contained the majority of the strains and a divergent group that included the PR-150 strain. For glycoconjugate composition, the PR-150 strain was different from the other strains considering the absence or presence of specific bands in aqueous or detergent phases. This strain was also totally different from the others in one out of the six parameters related to in vitro and in vivo biological behavior. We highlight the fact that the PR-150 was totally resistant to benznidazole. For the other biological parameters this strain was not totally distinct from the others, but it showed a peculiar behavior.
  • IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Campinas, Brazil: evidence of intercontinental distribution of strains Molecular Biology

    Calusni, Ana Lucia Roscani; Roscani, Gláucia Nogueira; Villares, Maria Cecília Barisson; Soini, Hanna; Graviss, Edward A; Ramos, Marcelo de Carvalho

    Abstract in English:

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major concern in developing countries. In Brazil, few genotyping studies have been conducted to verify the number of IS6110 copies present in local prevalent strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the distribution and clustering of strains. IS6110 DNA fingerprinting was performed on a sample of M. tuberculosis isolates from patients with AFB smear-positive pulmonary TB, at a hospital in Brazil. The IS6110 profiles were analyzed and compared to a M. tuberculosis database of the Houston Tuberculosis Initiative, Houston, US. Seventy-six fingerprints were obtained from 98 patients. All M. tuberculosis strains had an IS6110 copy number between 5-21 allowing for differentiation of the isolates. Human immunodeficiency virus infection was confirmed in nearly half the patients of whom data was available. Fifty-eight strains had unique patterns, while 17 strains were grouped in 7 clusters (2 to 6 strains). When compared to the HTI database, 6 strains matched isolates from El Paso, Ciudad de Juarez, Houston, and New York. Recently acquired infections were documented in 19% of cases. The community transmission of infection is intense, since some clustered strains were recovered during the four-year study period. The intercontinental dissemination of M. tuberculosis strains is suspected by demonstration of identical fingerprints in a distant country.
  • Oviposition activity and seasonal pattern of a population of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) in subtropical Argentina General Biology

    Micieli, María Victoria; Campos, Raúl Ernesto

    Abstract in English:

    Monthly oviposition activity and the seasonal density pattern of Aedes aegypti were studied using larvitraps and ovitraps during a research carried out by the Public Health Ministry of Salta Province, in Tartagal, Aguaray and Salvador Mazza cities, in subtropical Argentina. The A. aegypti population was active in both dry and wet seasons with a peak in March, accordant with the heaviest rainfall. From May to November, the immature population level remained low, but increased in December. Ae. aegypti oviposition activity increased during the fall and summer, when the relative humidity was 60% or higher. Eggs were found in large numbers of ovitraps during all seasons but few eggs were observed in each one during winter. The occurrence and the number of eggs laid were variable when both seasons and cities were compared. The reduction of the population during the winter months was related to the low in the relative humidity of the atmosphere. Significant differences were detected between oviposition occurrences in Tartagal and Aguaray and Salvador Mazza cities, but no differences in the number of eggs were observed. Two factors characterize the seasonal distribution pattern of Ae. aegypti in subtropical Argentina, the absence of a break during winter and an oviposition activity concomitant of the high relative humidity of the atmosphere.
  • Are vectors able to learn about their hosts? A case study with Aedes aegypti mosquitoes General Biology

    Alonso, Wladimir J; Wyatt, Tristram D; Kelly, David W

    Abstract in English:

    The way in which vectors distribute themselves amongst their hosts has important epidemiological consequences. While the role played by active host choice is largely unquestioned, current knowledge relates mostly to the innate response of vectors towards stimuli signalling the presence or quality of their hosts. Many of those cues, however, can be unpredictable, and therefore prevent the incorporation of the appropriate response into the vector's behavioural repertoire unless some sort of associative learning is possible. We performed a wide range of laboratory experiments to test the learning abilities of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Mosquitoes were exposed to choice procedures in (1) an olfactomenter and (2) a 'visual arena'. Our goal was to determine whether the mosquitoes were able to associate unconditional stimuli (blood feeding, human breath, vibration and electrical shock) with particular odours (citral, carvone, citronella oil and eugenol) and visual patterns (horizontal or vertical black bars) to which they had been previously observed to be responsive. We found no evidence supporting the hypothesis that associative learning abilities are present in adult Ae. aegypti. We discuss the possibilities that the assays employed were either inappropriate or insufficient to detect associative learning, or that associative learning is not possible in this species.
  • Arthropod and filarioid parasites associated with wild rodents in the northeast marshes of Buenos Aires, Argentina General Biology

    Lareschi, Marcela; Notarnicola, Juliana; Navone, Graciela; Linardi, Pedro Marcos

    Abstract in English:

    During 1995, 16 species of arthropods and 2 species of filarioids, totaling 1 287 specimens were collected from 64 wild rodents captured in the Hudson Natural Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Infestation parameters and indexes were analyzed. Host specific richness was S = 6, diversity H = 1.48, and relative density RDI = 40%. High values of parasite species richness and diversity were found on Oligoryzomys delticola (S = 9; H = 1.40), Oxymycterus rufus (S = 9; H = 1.37), and Oligoryzomys flavescens (S = 9; H = 1.28), followed by Scapteromys aquaticus (S = 6; H = 0.17), and Akodon azarae (S = 4; H = 1.20). Deltamys kempi was infested only by Androlaelaps rotundus. O. delticola and O. flavescens showed the highest similarity index (O = 74.19%), followed by O. flavescens with S. aquaticus, as a result of historical processes and shared microhabitats. Considering arthropods-filarioids associations, significant affinity was observed in Litomosoides bonaerensis with Hoplopleura travassosi, Laelaps paulistanensis, and Gigantolaelaps wolffsohni.
  • Severe anemia affects both splenectomized and non-splenectomized Plasmodium falciparum-infected Aotus infulatus monkeys Experimental Pathology

    Carvalho, Leonardo J de Moura; Alves, Francisco Acácio; Oliveira, Salma Gomes de; Rio do Valle, Rodrigo del; Fernandes, Andréa A Morais; Muniz, José A Pereira Carneiro; Daniel-Ribeiro, Claudio T

    Abstract in English:

    Severe anemia is the earliest and a frequently fatal complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Here we describe Aotus infulatus as a primate model suitable to study this malaria complication. Both non-splenectomized and splenectomized monkeys receiving different inocula of P. falciparum FVO strain presented large (> 50%) decreases in hematocrit values during infection. Non-splenectomized animals were able to control parasite growth (parasitemia did not exceed 4%), but they had to be treated because of severe anemia. Three of 4 splenectomized monkeys did not control parasitemia and were treated, but developed severe anemia after treatment when presenting a negative blood film. Destruction of parasitized red blood cells alone cannot account for the degree of anemia. Non-splenectomized monkeys repeatedly infected with homologous parasites became rapidly and progressively resistant to reinfection and to the development of severe anemia. The data presented here point to A. infulatus as a suitable model for studying the pathogenesis of severe malarial infection.
  • Western blotting using Strongyloides ratti antigen for the detection of IgG antibodies as confirmatory test in human strongyloidiasis Diagnosis

    Silva, Luciana Pereira; Barcelos, Ivanildes Solange da Costa; Passos-Lima, Andréia Barcelos; Espindola, Foued Salmen; Campos, Dulcinéa Maria Barbosa; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    Abstract in English:

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of antigenic components recognized by serum IgG antibodies in Western blotting (WB) using a Strongyloides ratti larval extract for the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. In addition, the WB results were compared to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) results. Serum samples of 180 individuals were analyzed (80 with strongyloidiasis, 60 with other intestinal parasitoses, and 40 healthy individuals). S. ratti was obtained from fecal culture of experimentally infected Rattus rattus. For IFAT, S. ratti larvae were used as antigen and S. ratti larval antigenic extracts were employed in WB and ELISA. Eleven S. ratti antigenic components were predominantly recognized by IgG antibodies in sera of patients with strongyloidiasis. There was a positive concordance for the three tests in 87.5% of the cases of strongyloidiasis. The negative concordance in the three tests was 94% and 97.5%, in patients with other intestinal parasitoses and healthy individuals, respectively. In cases of positive ELISA and negative IFAT results, diagnosis could be confirmed by WB. ELISA, IFAT, and WB using S. ratti antigens showed a high rate of sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, WB using S. ratti larval extract was able to recognize 11 immunodominant antigenic components, showing to be a useful tool to define the diagnosis in cases of equivocal serology.
  • Detection of telomerase activity in Plasmodium falciparum using a nonradioactive method Diagnosis

    Rubiano, Claudia C; Wasserman, Moises

    Abstract in English:

    A simple, quick and sensitive method was used to detect telomerase activity in Plasmodium falciparum. The telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP assay) was modified using electrophoresis and staining with SYBR-green I to detect telomerase activity in a range of 10² to 10(7) parasites. This might be a useful way to ascertain telomerase activity in different types of nontumor cells.
  • Evaluation of the impact of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Temephos, used for the control of Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Diptera, Simuliidae) on the associated entomofauna, Paraty, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Control

    Araújo-Coutinho, Carlos José Pereira da Cunha de; Cunha, Andrea de Barros Pinto Viviani; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Mello, Rubens Pinto de

    Abstract in English:

    The study was set up to evaluate the impact of two commercial larvicide formulations, Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis base (Bti) at 15 ppm/1 min and temephos at 0.03 ppm of active ingredient, used to control Simulium pertinax populations, on associated non-target entomofauna occupying the same breeding sites. The experiments were carried out on the Pedra Branca and Muricana rivers, on the slopes of Serra do Mar massif, municipality of Paraty, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Bti was applied to the river Pedra Branca and temephosto theriver Muricana. On both rivers, treatment and control sections were labeled as such, each one with two observation posts: slow moving water and fast water regions respectively. Artificial substrata was used to evaluate the abundance of associated entomofauna. Attached immature stages of arthropods were removed from both of its surfaces fortnightly. Were collected, from the two rivers, 28 477 specimens of the entomofauna associated with S. pertinax. The families Hydropsychidae, Chironomidae, Bactidae, Simuliidae, Blephariceridae and Megapodagrionidae were represented. These was an impact of temephos on the entomofauna associated with S. pertinax only in Simuliidae and Chironomidae, and to Bti only in Simuliidae. However, the reduction in their numbers was not statistically significant.
  • Resistance of Aedes aegypti from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, to organophosphates insecticides Control

    Macoris, Maria de Lourdes G; Andrighetti, Maria Teresa M; Takaku, Luiz; Glasser, Carmen M; Garbeloto, Vanessa C; Bracco, José Eduardo

    Abstract in English:

    Since the reintroduction of Aedes aegypti in the state of São Paulo, in the middle of the 1980-decade, organophosphate insecticides are being used to control the dengue vector. In 1996, an annual program for monitoring the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to the insecticides was implemented. Some of the results of this monitoring program are presented. Ae. aegypti populations from ten localities have been submitted to bioassays with the diagnostic dose of temephos and fenitrothion. Only two (Marília and Presidente Prudente) remain susceptible to both insecticides and one (Santos) exhibits true resistance. Ae. aegypti from the remaining localities showed an incipient altered susceptibility. Resistance ratios varied from 1.2 to 2.9 for temephos and from 1.5 to 3.2 to fenitrothion, indicating moderate levels of resistance. Biochemical assays did not detect alterations in the enzyme acetilcholinesterase, but indicated that resistance is associated with esterases.
  • Eleutherinone, a novel fungitoxic naphthoquinone from Eleutherine bulbosa (Iridaceae) Control

    Alves, Tânia Maria Almeida; Kloos, Helmut; Zani, Carlos Leomar

    Abstract in English:

    The dichloromethane extract prepared from the underground parts of Eleutherine bulbosa (Miller) Urban (Iridaceae) showed strong activity in the direct bioautography assay with the phytopathogenic fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum. This assay was used to guide the fractionation of this extract and allowed the isolation of four compounds: the new naphthoquinone eleutherinone[8-methoxy-1-methyl-1,3-dihydro-naphtho(2,3-c)furan-4,9 -dione] and the known compounds, previously isolated from this species, eleutherin [9-methoxy-1(R),3(S)-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-benzo(g)isochromene-5,10-dione], isoeleutherin [9-methoxy-1(R),3(R)-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-benzo(g)isochromene-5,10-dione], and eleutherol [4-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3(R)-methyl-3H-naphtho(2,3-c)furan-1 -one]. All quinonoid compounds showed strong antifungal activity in the bioautography assay at 100 µg/spot, while eleutherol was inactive.
  • Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities Control

    Magalhães, Aderbal Farias; Tozzi, Ana Maria Goulart de Azevedo; Santos, Celira Caparica; Serrano, Deborah Regina; Zanotti-Magalhães, Eliana Maria; Magalhães, Eva Gonçalves; Magalhães, Luiz Augusto

    Abstract in English:

    The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae) against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D) of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and fruit extracts. Two known saponins (1 and 2) were identified as beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3)- beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1->3)]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28 -oate, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 ->3)]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oate, respectively. These two saponins were present in all the mixtures, together with other triterpenoid oleane type saponins, which were shown to be less polar, by reversed-phase HPLC. The saponin identifications were based on spectral evidence, including ¹H-¹H two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity experiments. The toxicity of S. langsdorffii saponins to non-target organisms was prescreened by the brine shrimp lethality test.
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