Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 98 Supplement 1, Published: 2003
  • Paleoparasitology Foreword

    Combes, C
  • Presentation and Appraisal Presentation

    Aufderheide, Arthur C
  • Parasitism, the diversity of life, and paleoparasitology General Paleoparasitology

    Araújo, Adauto; Jansen, Ana Maria; Bouchet, Françoise; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    Abstract in English:

    The parasite-host-environment system is dynamic, with several points of equilibrium. This makes it difficult to trace the thresholds between benefit and damage, and therefore, the definitions of commensalism, mutualism, and symbiosis become worthless. Therefore, the same concept of parasitism may encompass commensalism, mutualism, and symbiosis. Parasitism is essential for life. Life emerged as a consequence of parasitism at the molecular level, and intracellular parasitism created evolutive events that allowed species to diversify. An ecological and evolutive approach to the study of parasitism is presented here. Studies of the origin and evolution of parasitism have new perspectives with the development of molecular paleoparasitology, by which ancient parasite and host genomes can be recovered from disappeared populations. Molecular paleoparasitology points to host-parasite co-evolutive mechanisms of evolution traceable through genome retrospective studies.
  • The origin and dispersion of human parasitic diseases in the Old World (Africa, Europe and Madagascar) General Paleoparasitology

    Nozais, Jean-Pierre

    Abstract in English:

    The ancestors of present-day man (Homo sapiens sapiens) appeared in East Africa some three and a half million years ago (Australopithecs), and then migrated to Europe, Asia, and later to the Americas, thus beginning the differentiation process. The passage from nomadic to sedentary life took place in the Middle East in around 8000 BC. Wars, spontaneous migrations and forced migrations (slave trade) led to enormous mixtures of populations in Europe and Africa and favoured the spread of numerous parasitic diseases with specific strains according to geographic area. The three human plasmodia (Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae) were imported from Africa into the Mediterranean region with the first human migrations, but it was the Neolithic revolution (sedentarisation, irrigation, population increase) which brought about actual foci for malaria. The reservoir for Leishmania infantum and L. donovani - the dog - has been domesticated for thousands of years. Wild rodents as reservoirs of L. major have also long been in contact with man and probably were imported from tropical Africa across the Sahara. L. tropica, by contrast, followed the migrations of man, its only reservoir. L. infantum and L. donovani spread with man and his dogs from West Africa. Likewise, for thousands of years, the dog has played an important role in the spread and the endemic character of hydatidosis through sheep (in Europe and North Africa) and dromadary (in the Sahara and North Africa). Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni have existed since prehistoric times in populations living in or passing through the Sahara. These populations then transported them to countries of Northern Africa where the specific, intermediary hosts were already present. Madagascar was inhabited by populations of Indonesian origin who imported lymphatic filariosis across the Indian Ocean (possibly of African origin since the Indonesian sailors had spent time on the African coast before reaching Madagascar). Migrants coming from Africa and Arabia brought with them the two African forms of bilharziosis: S. haematobium and S. mansoni.
  • Paleoepidemiology: is there a case to answer? General Paleoparasitology

    Souza, Sheila MF Mendonça de; Carvalho, Diana Maul de; Lessa, Andrea

    Abstract in English:

    Paleopathology is the study of disease, physiological disruptions and impairment in the past. After two centuries of mainly descriptive studies, efforts are being made towards better methodological approaches to the study of diseases in human populations of ancient times whose remains are recovered by archaeology. Paleoepidemiology can be defined as an interdisciplinary area that aims to develop more suitable epidemiological methods, and to apply those in current use, to the study of disease determinants in human populations in the past. In spite of the limits of funerary or other archaeological series of human remains, paleoepidemiology tries to reconstruct past conditions of disease and health in those populations and its relation to lifestyle and environment. Although considering the limits of studying populations of deceased, most of them represented exclusively by bones and teeth, the frequency of lesions and other biological signs of interest to investigations on health, and their relative distribution in the skeletal remains by age and sex, can be calculated, and interpreted according to the ecological and cultural information available in each case. Building better models for bone pathology and bone epidemiology, besides a more complex theoretical frame for paleoepidemiological studies is a big job for the future that will need the incorporation of methods and technology from many areas, including the tools of molecular biology.
  • The fossil tabanids (Diptera Tabanidae): when they began to appreciate warm blood and when they began transmit diseases? General Paleoparasitology

    Martins-Neto, Rafael Gioia

    Abstract in English:

    A discussion of the known fossil tabanids (Diptera Tabanidae) is presented based on fossil evidence. This includes the origin of the hemathophagy in the Brachycera, more specifically for tabanids. Several tabanid species in the extant fauna are vectors for disease-producing organisms that affect humans and animals. Bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, protozoa, and filarial worms can be transmitted by them, causing such diseases as anthrax, tularemia, anaplasmosis, various forms of trypanosomiasis, Q fever, and filariasis. However, if tabanids are directly responsible for all of these diseases is not consensual and the known fossil evidence is presented here.
  • Fossil psychodoid flies and their relation to parasitic diseases General Paleoparasitology

    Azar, Dany; Nel, André

    Abstract in English:

    Psychodid sand flies are blood-sucking fly vectors of several parasitic diseases. The oldest definitive record of this group is from the Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon (circa -135 to -125 My), but the high diversity within this group supports the idea that the psychodoids originated much earlier in history. The palaeontology demonstrates that the Lower Cretaceous representatives of the different subfamilies of Psychodidae had similar morphology and were blood-feeders, which supports Hennig's hypothesis on the ground plan structure of this family. Historical relationship between sand flies and diseases is unclear up to the present time, but this relationship could be as old as the origin of psychodoids because of the blood-feeding life mode.
  • Evolution of ascariasis in humans and pigs: a multi-disciplinary approach General Paleoparasitology

    Loreille, Odile; Bouchet, Françoise

    Abstract in English:

    The nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides infects the digestive tracts of over 1.4 billion people worldwide, and its sister species, Ascaris suum, has infected a countless number of domesticated and feral pigs. It is generally thought that the putative ancestor to these worms infected either humans or pigs, but with the advent of domestication, they had ample opportunity to jump to a new host and subsequently specialize and evolve into a new species. While nuclear DNA markers decisively separate the two populations, mitochondrial sequences reveal that three major haplotypes are found in A. suum and in A. lumbricoides, indicating either occasional hybridization, causing introgression of gene trees, or retention of polymorphism dating back to the original ancestral species. This article provides an illustration of the combined contribution of parasitology, archaeoparasitology, genetics and paleogenetics to the history of ascariasis. We specifically investigate the molecular history of ascariasis in humans by sequencing DNA from the eggs of Ascaris found among ancient archeological remains. The findings of this paleogenetic survey will explain whether the three mitochondrial haplotypes result from recent hybridization and introgression, due to intensive human-pig interaction, or whether their co-occurrence predates pig husbandry, perhaps dating back to the common ancestor. We hope to show how human-pig interaction has shaped the recent evolutionary history of this disease, perhaps revealing the identity of the ancestral host.
  • Parasite remains in archaeological sites Methods And Techniques

    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    Abstract in English:

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefly surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.
  • Techniques of DNA-studies on prehispanic ectoparasites (Pulex sp., Pulicidae, Siphonaptera) from animal mummies of the Chiribaya Culture, Southern Peru Methods And Techniques

    Dittmar, K; Mamat, U; Whiting, M; Goldmann, T; Reinhard, K; Guillen, S

    Abstract in English:

    During a paleoparasitological survey of several animal mummies (Cavia aperea f. porcellus and Canis familiaris) from Chiribaya Baja, an archaeological site in Southern Peru, an unexpected find was made. In the well preserved fur, large numbers of mummified fleas (Pulex simulans/irritans)that parasitized the animals during life were encountered. Due to the relative recent event of the host mummification and the outstanding preservation of the fleas, an attempt for the retrieval of DNA was made. A DNA extraction and sequencing protocol for archaeological ectoparasitic remains has been established, taking additional studies for tissue and protein preservation into account. Tissue preservation was assessed with transmission electron microscopy and the protein preservation was tested through the racemisation ratios of aspartic acid. Regions of the 28S rDNA gene were successfully amplified and sequenced. Further research perspectives are outlined.
  • Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of DNA extracted from Trichuris trichiura (Linnaeus, 1771) eggs and its prospective application to paleoparasitological studies Methods And Techniques

    Martinez, Elaine Machado; Correia, Jorge Antonio Santos; Villela, Erika Verissimo; Duarte, Antonio Nascimento; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Bello, Alexandre Ribeiro

    Abstract in English:

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was applied to DNAs extracted from Trichuris trichiura eggs recovered from human fecal samples. Four out of 6 primers tested displayed 18 distinct and well defined polymorphic patterns, ranging from 650 to 3200 base pairs. These results, upon retrieval and DNA sequencing of some of these bands from agarose gels, might help in establishing T. trichiura specific genetic markers, not available yet, and an important step to design primers to be used in molecular diagnosis approaches.
  • Analysis of ancient DNA from coprolites: a perspective with random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction approach Methods And Techniques

    Iñiguez, Alena M; Araújo, Adauto; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Vicente, Ana Carolina P

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this work was to determine approaches that would improve the quality of ancient DNA (aDNA) present in coprolites to enhance the possibility of success in retrieving specific sequence targets. We worked with coprolites from South American archaeological sites in Brazil and Chile dating up to 7,000 years ago. Using established protocols for aDNA extraction we obtained samples showing high degradation as usually happens with this kind of material. The reconstructive polymerization pretreatment was essential to overcome the DNA degradation and the serial dilutions helped with to prevent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors. Moreover, the random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR has been shown to be a reliable technique for further experiments to recover specific aDNA sequences.
  • Enterobius vermicularis: ancient DNA from north and south American human coprolites Methods And Techniques

    Iñiguez, Alena M; Reinhard, Karl J; Araújo, Adauto; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Vicente, Ana Carolina P

    Abstract in English:

    A molecular paleoparasitological diagnostic approach was developed for Enterobius vermicularis. Ancient DNA was extracted from 27 coprolites from archaeological sites in Chile and USA. Enzymatic amplification of human mtDNA sequences confirmed the human origin. We designed primers specific to the E. vermicularis 5S ribosomal RNA spacer region and they allowed reproducible polymerase chain reaction identification of ancient material. We suggested that the paleoparasitological microscopic identification could accompany molecular diagnosis, which also opens the possibility of sequence analysis to understand parasite-host evolution.
  • Terrestrial mammal feces: a morphometric summary and description Methods And Techniques

    Chame, Marcia

    Abstract in English:

    The study of feces of terrestrial mammals brings out biological and ecological data such as the species presence, diet, behaviour, territory, parasitic fauna, and home-range use, which can be applied for conservation projects and support paleoecological research that use coprolites as the main source of study. Although the new biotechnological techniques allow more accurate data, the diagnosis based on morphometric analyses permits the primary identification of the taxonomic group origin to support the best choice of subsequent analyses. We present the compilation list of fecal shape and measurements available in the literature published in North America, Eastern and Southern Africa, Europe, and new data from Brazil. Shape and diameters are the best characteristics for taxonomic identification. Feces were assembled in 9 groups that reflect the Order, sometimes the Family, and even their common origin.
  • The state of the art of paleoparasitological research in the old world Methods And Techniques

    Bouchet, Françoise; Harter, Stéphanie; Le Bailly, Matthieu

    Abstract in English:

    Paleoparasitology in the Old World has mainly concerned the study of latrine sediments and coprolites collected from mummified bodies or archaeological strata, mostly preserved by natural conditions. Human parasites recovered include cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes. The well preserved conditions of helminth eggs allowed paleoepidemiological approaches taking into account the number of eggs found by archaeological stratum. Tentatively, sanitation conditions were assessed for each archaeological period.
  • Human intestinal parasites in the past: new findings and a review Methods And Techniques

    Gonçalves, Marcelo Luiz Carvalho; Araújo, Adauto; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    Abstract in English:

    Almost all known human specific parasites have been found in ancient feces. A review of the paleoparasitological helminth and intestinal protozoa findings available in the literature is presented. We also report the new paleoparasitologic findings from the examination performed in samples collected in New and Old World archaeological sites. New finds of ancylostomid, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus spp., Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana and Acantocephalan eggs are reported. According to the findings, it is probable that A. lumbricoides was originally a human parasite. Human ancylostomids, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, found in the New World in pre-Columbian times, have not been introduced into the Americas by land via Beringia. These parasites could not supported the cold climate of the region. Nomadic prehistoric humans that have crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to the Americas in the last glaciation, probably during generations, would have lost these parasites, which life cycles need warm temperatures in the soil to be transmitted from host to host. Alternative routes are discussed for human parasite introduction into the Americas.
  • First paleoparasitological study of an embalming rejects jar found in Saqqara, Egypt Paleoparasitology In The Old And New World

    Harter, Stéphanie; Le Bailly, Matthieu; Janot, Francis; Bouchet, Françoise

    Abstract in English:

    For the first time, a jar of embalming rejects was studied in search for helminth parasite eggs. This kind of jar was used to put discarded material by Egyptian embalmers during mummification process. Ascaris lumbricoides and Tænia saginata eggs were found in the linen and strip fragment contents of the jar, dated of 2,715-2,656 years ago.
  • Detection of parasite eggs from archaeological excavations in the Republic of Korea Paleoparasitology In The Old And New World

    Han, Eun-Taek; Guk, Sang-Mee; Kim, Jae-Lip; Jeong, Hoon-Jin; Kim, Soo-Nam; Chai, Jong-Yil

    Abstract in English:

    Excavations at two sites dating from 2000 BC-1900 AD in southeastern areas of the Republic of Korea, revealed the remains of several structures. Examination of the contents suspected privies revealed the presence of eggs from 5 kinds of parasite: Ascaris, Trichuris, Clonorchis, and two species of unknown trematodes. Clonorchis sinensis eggs were found in a soil dating from around AD 668-935. This is the first record of C. sinensis eggs in archaeological materials in the Republic of Korea.
  • Palaeoparasitology in Japan: discovery of toilet features Paleoparasitology In The Old And New World

    Matsui, Akira; Kanehara, Masaaki; Kanehara, Masako

    Abstract in English:

    The development of palaeoparasitology in Japan has occurred in recent decades. Despite the fact that archaeology in Japan has been slow to develop techniques for excavating ancient toilets, important information about the development of sanitation has been derived from the analysis of a few sites. This shows that the earliest people had very simple methods of sanitation. As populations increased, sanitation became more complex. Ditches surrounding early towns were used for excrement disposal. Eventually distinct toilets were developed followed by cesspit type toilets and flushing toilets. The parasites recovered from these toilets include many species that infect humans today. These parasite spectra reflect local use of aquatic, marine, and land animals. Fecal borne disease was an increasing problem as represented by whipworm and ascarid roundworm eggs. Interestingly, ascarid roundworms were absent in the earliest cultures and only became common with rice agriculture. Finds of pollen and seeds in toilet sediments reveal the use of medicinal plants to control the emerging problem of parasites.
  • Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) eggs in the Pleistocene site of Menez-Dregan, France (300,000-500,000 years before present) Paleoparasitology In The Old And New World

    Bouchet, Françoise; Araújo, Adauto; Harter, Stephanie; Chaves, Sérgio Miranda; Duarte, Antonio Nascimento; Monnier, Jean Laurent; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    Abstract in English:

    On the archaeological site of Menez-Dregan in Brittany, France, dated 300,000-500,000 years-old, paleoparasitological analysis of cave deposits led to the detection of well-preserved helminth eggs, which morphology and morphometry pointed to the diagnosis of Toxocara canis eggs, a parasite of carnivore mammals. Paleolithic remains suggested a parasitism of the hyena Crocuta spelaea or other canids that inhabited the region.
  • The presence of Fasciola hepatica (Liver-fluke) in humans and cattle from a 4,500 Year old archaeological site in the Saale-Unstrut Valley, Germany Paleoparasitology In The Old And New World

    Dittmar, K; Teegen, WR

    Abstract in English:

    During an excavation of a site of the corded ware culture in the Saale-Unstrut-Valley (ca. 3000 BC) in Germany, a soil sample from the pelvis of a human skeleton was studied under palaeoparasitological aspects. Eggs of the trematode Fasciola hepatica and of the nematode genus Capillaria were found. This is the first case of a direct association of a F. hepatica-infestation to both a prehistoric human skeleton and domesticated animal remains. Sheep and cattle bones were present at the same site and F. hepatica eggs were found in bovine samples. This strongly points toward an existing infection cycle, involving humans as a final host.
  • Relationships of new world Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) based on fossil evidence Paleoparasitology In The Old And New World

    Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    Abstract in English:

    The fossil record and systematics of phlebotomid sand flies, vectors of leishmaniasis and arbovirus in several regions of the world, strongly support that living genera existed long before the Oligocene (38 million years, myr). A common Phlebotominae ancestor was present in the Triassic period before the separations of continents (248 myr).
  • Prehistoric tuberculosis in America: adding comments to a literature review Paleoparasitology In The Old And New World

    Gómez i Prat, Jordi; Souza, Sheila MF Mendonça de

    Abstract in English:

    Tuberculosis is a prehistoric American human disease. This paper reviews the literature and discusses hypotheses for origins and epidemiological patterns of prehistoric tuberculosis. From the last decades, 24 papers about prehistoric tuberculosis were published and 133 cases were reviewed. In South America most are isolated case studies, contrary to North America where more skeletal series were analyzed. Disease was usually located at the deserts of Chile and Peru, Central Plains in USA, and Lake Ontario in Canada. Skeletal remains represent most of the cases, but 16 mummies have also been described. Thirty individuals had lung disease, 19 of them diagnosed by the ribs. More then 100 individuals had osseous tuberculosis and 26 also had it in other organs. As today, transmission of the infection and establishment of the disease were favored by cultural and life-style changes such as sedentarization, crowding, undernutrition, use of dark and insulated houses, and by the frequency of interpersonal contacts. The papers confirm that despite previous perceptions, tuberculosis seems to have occured in America for millennia. It only had epidemiological expression when special conditions favored its expansion. Occurring as epidemic bursts or low endemic disease, it had differential impact on groups or social segments in America for at least two millennia.
  • Inca expansion and parasitism in the Lluta Valley: preliminary data Paleoparasitology In The Old And New World

    Santoro, Calogero; Vinton, Sheila Dorsey; Reinhard, Karl J

    Abstract in English:

    Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas caused an increase in parasitism.
  • A case of megacolon in Rio Grande Valley as a possible case of Chagas disease Paleoparasitology In The Old And New World

    Reinhard, Karl; Fink, T Michael; Skiles, Jack

    Abstract in English:

    We have been searching for evidence of Chagas disease in mummified human remains. Specifically, we have looked for evidence of alteration of intestinal or fecal morphology consistent with megacolon, a condition associated with Chagas disease. One prehistoric individual recovered from the Chihuahuan Desert near the Rio Grande exhibits such pathology. We present documentation of this case. We are certain that this individual presents a profoundly altered large intestinal tract and we suggest that further research should focus on confirmation of a diagnosis of Chagas disease. We propose that the prehistoric activity and dietary patterns in Chihuahua Desert hunter/gatherers promoted the pathoecology of Chagas disease.
  • Louse infestation of the Chiribaya Culture, Southern Peru: variation in prevalence by age and sex Paleoparasitology In The Old And New World

    Reinhard, Karl J; Buikstra, Jane

    Abstract in English:

    In order to improve the interpretive potential of archaeoparasitology, it is important to demonstrate that the epidemiology of ancient parasites is comparable to that of modern parasites. Once this is demonstrated, then we can be secure that the evidence of ancient parasitism truly reflects the pathoecology of parasitic disease. Presented here is an analysis of the paleoepidemiology of Pediculus humanus infestation from 146 mummies from the Chiribaya culture 1000-1250 AD of Southern Peru. The study demonstrates the modern parasitological axiom that 10% of the population harbors 70% of the parasites holds true for ancient louse infestation. This is the first demonstration of the paleoepidemiology of prehistoric lice infestation.
  • Ecological analysis of Acari recovered from coprolites from archaeological site of Northeast Brazil Paleoparasitology In The Old And New World

    Guerra, Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira de Candanedo; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles; Amorim, Marinete; Duarte, Antonio Nascimento; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués

    Abstract in English:

    Coprolite samples of human and animal origin from the excavations performed at the archaeological site of Furna do Estrago, at Brejo da Madre de Deus in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil and sent to the Paleoparasitology Laboratory at Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, were analyzed for mites. After rehydratation and sedimentation of the coprolites, the alimentary contents and the sediments were examined and the mites collected and prepared in definitive whole mounts, using Hoyer's medium. Mites of the following suborders and orders were recovered: suborder Acaridia; order Gamasida; order Ixodida with the familiy Ixodidae (Ixodes sp. and Amblyomma sp. larvae, scutum, idiosoma, gnathosoma); order Oribatida (Aphelacarus sp., Apolohmannia sp., Eophypochthonius sp., Cosmochthonius sp., Pterobates sp., Poronoticae with pteromorphae not auriculate); order Astigmata with the families Atopomelidae (Chirodiscoides caviae), Anoetidae hypopus, Acaridae (Suidasia pontifica), Glycyphagidae (Blomia tropicalis), Pyroglyphidae (Hirstia passericola); order Actinedida with the family Tarsonemidae (Iponemus radiatae). The present work discusses the possibility of the preservation of the mite groups found up to the present day. We also discuss their relationship with the environment and their importance to present populations.
  • Diagnosing ancient Diphyllobothriasis from Chinchorro mummies Paleoparasitology In The Old And New World

    Reinhard, Karl; Urban, Otto

    Abstract in English:

    Diphyllobothrium pacificum has been reported as a human parasite from coprolites and skeletons in Peru and Chile. Our analysis of Chinchorro mummies from Chile provides the oldest evidence of D. pacificum directly associated with human mummies. These mummies date between 4,000 and 5,000 years ago. The basis for our diagnosis is presented. We find that the size of the eggs in the mummies is smaller than other discoveries of D. pacificum. We suggest that this is due to the peculiar circumstances of preservation of parasite eggs within mummies and the release of immature eggs into the intestinal tract as the tapeworms decompose after the death of the host. This information is important to consider when making diagnoses from mummies.
  • Pathoecology of Chiribaya parasitism Paleoparasitology In The Old And New World

    Martinson, Elizabeth; Reinhard, Karl J; Buikstra, Jane E; Cruz, Katharina Dittmar de la

    Abstract in English:

    The excavations of Chiribaya culture sites in the Osmore drainage of southern Peru focused on the recovery of information about prehistoric disease, including parasitism. The archaeologists excavated human, dog, guinea pig, and llama mummies. These mummies were analyzed for internal and external parasites. The results of the analysis and reconstruction of prehistoric life from the excavations allows us to interpret the pathoecology of the Chiribaya culture.
  • Paleopharmacology and pollen: theory, method, and application Paleoparasitology In The Old And New World

    Chaves, Sérgio Augusto de Miranda; Reinhard, Karl J

    Abstract in English:

    Parasitism was a universal human condition. Because of this, people developed herbal medicines to treat parasites as part of their pharmacopoeias. We propose that it is possible to recover evidence of medicinal plants from archaeological sites and link their use to specific health conditions. This is a multidisciplinary approach that must involve at least paleoethnobotanists, archaeoparasitologists, paleopathologists, and pharmacologists.
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